Contemporary Personalities and Affairs of the Early Israelite and 18th Dynasty Egyptian Kings
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Political Intrigues and Origins of Problems for Ancient Israel

Some of the pertinent verses we shall read with `new eyes', taking care to understand what is being said. We believe most readers have not yet discovered some of the depth of meaning which might be hidden in these few verses:

"But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites.."
And he had 700 wives, princesses, and 300 concubines: and his wives turned away his heart (from the Lord)...
1.Kings 11:1, 3.

Pharaonic statue found in Jerusalem
This 3 inch high seated statuette of Serpentine Stone is of beautiful craftsmanship and stylisticly dated to the New Kingdom. Found in 1975 by Dr. Jaqueline Belensi in the garden of the St. Etienne (Stephen's basilica/monastery), Old Jerusalem. A chair supports a male figure wearing a long garment, perhaps the god Amon or Ptah, who probably once held a staff in front of him. [10]
Since we are told here that among the first wives of Solomon there was an Egyptian princess, we may expect to find a statue of Amon-Re, the official supreme god of Egypt, among the god's of all of Solomon's `strange wives.' And in fact among the murals of the Punt expedition at Deir el Bahari was one defaced by a chisel. This mural contained an inscription, and from the few words that remained it was understood that a statue, obviously of the god Amon-Ra, was erected in the Divine Land. Kurt Sethe, who directed attention to this text and to the fact that a statue for worship had been erected in Punt, expressed hope that a possible future discovery of an Egyptian statue would help to determine the location of Punt. [20]
Having married an Egyptian princess made Solomon a father-in-law to the king of Egypt. That being the case it also meant that Solomon now had added duties and privileges in the pharaonic court. Finding reasons for identifying Solomon with Senmut, the confidant and architect of Queen-Pharaoh Hatshepsut, gives additional insights in the affairs between Egypt and Israel.
Another conclusion we may consider and which we already mentioned elsewhere is the coming of `the kings of the earth' to visit Solomon. With Hammurabi and Zimri Lim having come down to the time of King David and Solomon we conclude that Hammurabi may very well have been a dinner guest in the house of Solomon, or else Hammurabi was just another name for Solomon, the way he was called elsewhere. We may guess that these one or two(?) potentates consulted with each other on the matter of law and order, their faiths and how best to govern a nation. It was a time which brought on a renaissance in law making and keeping of records.
A Name Synchronism between Ahmose and King David
Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Moloch, the abomination of the children of Ammon.
And the Lord stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite: he was of the king's seed in Edom.
...Hadad had fled, he and certain Edomites ... to go into Egypt; Hadad being yet a little child.
And they arose out of Midian, and came to Paran: and they took men with them out of Paran, and they came to Egypt, unto Pharaoh king of Egypt; which gave him a house, and appointed him victuals, and gave him land.
And Hadad found great favor in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him to wife the sister of his own wife, the sister of `Tah-pen-es' the queen. 1.Kings 11:19
In view of the fact that we have here a name, is it possible to find out who the Pharaoh might have been? Since the history here described is from the time of King David, the pharaoh whose queen was Tahpenes must have been Ahmose in revised view.[45] Was there among the queens of Ahmose one by the name of `Tah-pen-es'? Looking through the registers of Ahmose we find the name preserved and read `Tanethap, Tenthape', or possibly, Tahpenes, the name a city in the Nile Delta would later receive. Hieroglyphs of Tenthapi [50]
[H. Gauthier, `Le Livre des rois d'Egypte', (Cairo, 1902), Vol. II, p. 187, [52]. But see Stricker, `Acta Orientalia', Vol. XV (1937), p. 11-12.[54]

[45] Please be reminded of the Ahmose-King Saul connection making 1012 BC the start of the reign of Pharaohs Ahmose/Khamose.

Many times when revisionists come up with name synchronisms, conventionally bound historians frown on them. However, when they do the same we are to believe it. Therefore we let the reader decide after they are well acquainted with the many synchronisms we offer which chronology provides the better explanation of these ancient times.
And the sister of Tah-pen-es bore him Genubath his son, whom Tah-pen-es weaned in Pharaoh's house: and Genubath was in Pharaoh's household among the sons of Pharaoh.
And when Hadad heard in Egypt that David had died and now slept with his fathers, and that Joab the captain of the host was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh, Let me depart, that I may go to mine own country.
Then Pharaoh said unto him, "But what have you lacked me, that, behold, you seek to go to your own country?" And he answered, Nothing: but let me go in any way." 1.Kings 11.
Edom, like Israel, was ruled by a chief appointed by the Theban king. It was 40 years before that Hadad had returned to Edom after the death of King David. Genubath, the son of Hadad, was now king in Edom. He either lived there or in Egypt. As long as he paid his tribute regularly to pharaoh everything would be fine. After Thutmose III had returned from one of his expeditions into Palestine he found in Egypt tribute brought to him by couriers from the land of `Genubatye'.

"When his majesty arrived in Egypt the messengers of the Genubatye came bearing their tribute." [JBREA, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 474]

It consisted of myrrh, `negroes for attendants', bulls, calves, besides vessels laden with ivory, ebony, and skins of panthers.
And God stirred him (Solomon) up another adversary, Rezon, the son of `E-li-a-dah', which fled from his lord `Had-ad-ezer' king of Zoah:
and gathered men unto him, and became a captain of a band, when David slew them of Zobah: and they went to Damascus, and dwelt therein, and reigned in Damascus.
And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, beside the mischief that Hadad did: and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.
And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, and Ephraite of Zereda, Solomon's servant, whose mother's name was Zeruah, a widow woman, even he lifted up his hand against the king.
... Solomon thought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon."
1.Kings 11.

According to the Bible, Ben-Hadad, the king of Damascus , was a descendant of Rezon, who "fled from his lord" and "gathered men unto him, and became a captain of a band; ... and they went to Damascus ... and reigned in Damascus." 1.Kings 11:23-24 See also Zimri-Lim.

In the El Amarna Letters we read during this time: "What is Abdi-Ashirta, the servant, the dog, that he should take the land of the king to himself? What is his family?" EA 71.

From the days of Rezon on, in consequence of Damascus' policies, which encouraged a spirit of rivalry between Israel and Judah, these two countries continued to be hostile to each other. Baasha, another name for Ahab read in reverse, king of Israel (909-886), built Ramah against Judah and threatened her. Asa, king of Judah (911-870), sent presents to Ben-Hadad, and Ben-Hadad turned against Baasha and "smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphthali" 1.Kings 15:20. Judah took Mount Ephraim, 2.Chronicles 17:2. This happened two generations after Solomon and a few decades before the El Amarna period (about 870-830).
And from a few verses in 2.Chronicles we learn:
"For the king's ships went to Tharshish with the servants of Huram: every 3 years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.
And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom.
An all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon/Hammurabi, to hear the wisdom, that God had put in his heart.
And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.
And Solomon, who worked closely together with King Hiram, had 4000 stalls for horses and chariots, and 12,000 horsemen; whom he bestowed in the chariot cities, and with the king at Jerusalem.
And he reigned over all the kings from the river even unto the land of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt.
And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycomore trees that are in the low plains in abundance.
And they brought unto Solomon horses out of Egypt, and out of all lands.
... And Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel 40 years.
And Solomon slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David his father: and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead."
2.Chronicles 9:21-31.

Should we take these scriptures literally? "All the kings of the earth visited Solomon?"If this is exaggerated, untrue, can we trust anything in this story to be true?
While Solomon exalted the law of heaven, God was with him. "He ... had peace on all sides round about him. And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, ... all the days of Solomon." 1.Kings 4:21, 24,25.
From this we gather that `all the kings' meant at least those of surrounding nations including Egypt and probably Hammurabi, anything further away would be possible but conjecture. The Hebrew writers who penned these words were still so impressed by the times of Solomon that they could only describe his reign with the most illustrious words they could think of.
But after a life of promise Solomon's life was darkened by apostasy. Hundreds of years before Moses gave instructions to the effect that whoever would sit on the throne should "write him a copy" of the statutes (laws) of God "in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites." "It shall be with him," the Lord said, "and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear (respect) the Lord his God, to keep all the words of his law and these statutes, to do them: that his heart not be lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left..." Deuteronomy 17:18-20. In other words the Bible is not written that we critizise it, but that it critizises us.
Was Solomon just content to sit in his palace in Jerusalem? Even though it is said that he was buried in the City of David, would that exclude the possibility that he led a double life in Egypt? Perhaps until the time shortly before his death? We can't be sure, but we shall pursue this possibility in the future and update our files accordingly.
Notes & References

[10] Gabriel Barkay, `What's an Egyptian Temple Doing in Jerusalem?', BAR, May/June 2000, pp. 48-57.

[20] Text, "Eine bisher unbeachtet gebliebene Episode der Punt Expedition der Königin Hatschepsowet", Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, XLII, (1905), 91-99.

[30] Please be reminded of the Ahmose-King Saul connection making 1012 BC the start of the reign of Pharaohs Ahmose/Khamose. - Many times when revisionists come up with name synchronisms, conventionally bound historians frown on them. However, when they do the same we are to believe it. Therefore we let the reader decide after they are well acquainted with the many synchronisms we offer which chronology provides the better explanation of these ancient times.

[50] H. Gauthier, `Le Livre des rois d'Egypte', (Cairo, 1902), Vol. II, p. 187. But see Stricker, `Acta Orientalia', Vol. XV (1937), p. 11-12.

[52] French Text: "Rien ne prouve avec certitude que cette princesse, pas plus que la précédente, ait été femme du roi Ahmôsis; le fait seul que leurs filles respetives portent le groupe dans leur nom a fait admettre cette parenté. M. Daressy pense que cette reine est identique à la précédente, Anhapi." [H. Gauthier, `Le Livre des Rois', II, p. 187]
`Nothing can prove with certainty who that princess was, no more, then that the preceeding was a female of king Ahmose; the single fact that their respective daughters include the group in their name, is an admitted fact of this parentage. M.Daressy thought that this queen was identical with the preceeding Anhapi.' [Source: Ibid.]

[54] Text, "A cet endroit je dois inserer encore deux substanifs d'un interet special: nsw, roi del la Haute Egypte(?). Dans le premier livre des rois, chap. XI, 19, nous est racontée l'histoire du prince iduméen Hadad qui, chassé de sa patrie par les armées de David, fuit en Egypte et trouve un bon accueil chez Pharaon: `Et Hadad fut fort dans les bonnes grâces de Pharaon; de sorte qu'il lui fit épouser la sæur de sa femme, la sæur de la reine Thachpénès (). Et la sæur de Thachpénès lui enfanta son fils Guenubath, que Thachpénès sevra dans la maison de Pharaon, etc.'- Ces événements ont eu lieu dans les dernières années du roi David, quand l'Egypte était sous la domination des rois de la XXIme dynastie (de Tanis). On s'est donné beaucoup de peine pour identifier cette princesse avec une des reines connues, mais quoipue nous connaissions assez bien la dynastie tanite, elle n'a pas été retrouvée.
Or, je crois que ce n'est pas d'un nom propre qu'il s'agit ici, mais plutôt d'une transcription du titre t3 hm-t-nsw. Comme les Juifs ont parlé de `Pharaon, roi d'Egypte', ils ont dit: `Thachpénès, la reine.' A cette époque-la (le 10me siècle avant J.-C.), ce titre était prononcé probablement comme *tehemnes ou même *tehebnes, ce que les Juifs ont adopté comme *tehepnes; d'ou *tahpenes. Cette dérivation est confirmée par la lecture de la Septante, qui a garde le m. Notez que la prononciation nes pour nsw est littéralement la méme que celle que Sethe a proposée dans son étude, Ä. Z. 49, pag. 28 et 29. Je dois admettre que mon hypothése n'explique pas la transcription du nom Si-nsw [cf. Ä. Z. 64, pag. 135, Acta Orientalia].

A Partial List of Contemporary Personalities and Geographical Locations in Revised Chronology not to mention agreement about situations and events.
  1. Aufni = Joseph [Turin Papyrus]
  2. Apophis or Apop = Agog [Egyptian Records]
  3. Tenthape = Tahpenes [Registers of Ahmose]
  4. Senenmut (snnmt) = Solomon (slmn) [Records of Hatshepsut]
  5. Benjamites = Benjamin [Mari Letters]
  6. Rezon = Zimri Lim
  7. Dawidum = Davidum [Mari Letters]
  8. Rekhob = Ilu Kabkabu [Hickman]
  9. Ra-ab-ay-yi = Rubenites [Mari Letters]
  10. P-r-hw = related to Paruah [Records of Hatshepsut]
  11. Ati or Eti = in use later as Attai [Records of Hatshepsut]
  12. Genubatye = Genubanites (Genubath) [Annals of Thutmose III]
  13. Serirot = Sarira [Poem of Keret]
  14. Addadani = Addudani [EA Letters]
  15. Zichri, Son of = Son of Zuchru [EA Letters]
  16. Iazibada = Jehozabad [EA Letters]
  17. Addaia = Adaia [EA Letters]
  18. Kaan-pehti-nekt-a-neb-khepesh-sati = Nectanebo [Ramses III]
    19. Tubikhu = Tebah [Mari Letters]
    20. Chun = Kunu (Roman Conna) [Mari Letters]
    21. Berothai = Beraitan [Mari Letters]
    23. Shubartu = Zobah or Sibraim [Mari Letters]
    24. Sumuru = Samaria [EA Letters]
    25. Pekanon = City of Pekah [Records]
    26. Necharomes = Chief of Staff of Ramses II; `Necho-Ramses'.
    27. Denyen = Athenians [Records of Ramses III]
    28. Yuya = Ashurnasirpal = Ben Hadad and more.
    29. Baasha = Ahab (here)
    30. Smenkhare = Ahaziah (here)
    31. Tutankhamun = Joram/Jehoram (here)

History of Mari
Mari Letters

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