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Map of the Middle East
The true identity of Sais

Numbered Archaeological Locations
1. Demircihöyuk, Kalintas, Kutahaya, Dorylaeum;
2. Orman Fidanligi, Eskisehir, Keskaya, Asmainler;
3. Asikli Höyük, Gelveri;
4. Nigde, Kösk Höyük, Bolkardag (Maden Sites); [Istanbuler Mitteilungen, Band 47, 1997, p.10] The city of Kaysalin (Caesarea) was near Gurgum.
5. Located in central Turkey, the region of old Pisidia, near Antioch. West of Iconium are the locations of Eflatun Pinar, Fasillar, and a little east of these are Konya and Karahäöyük.
The city of Iconium, #5, is also called Lycaonia in Galatia.
6. This points to Hierapolis near Laodicea.
7. The Roman city of Aphrodisias, the synagogue remains can be seen in BAR, Sept. 1986, p. 54.
8. Aegea, in the region of Verghina, was the first capital of the Macedonian King Philip II (359-336 BC), had a mount where his gold objects were found. [`The Adventure of Archaeology', p. 313ff.] Right close to Aegea was Pella.
9. The islands of Samothrace.
10. Arbil is located just a few miles SEE of Mossul. Visited EA's Mesos site.
11 Marmaris, the peninsula is Caria; Located from 12 Pinara to 13 Kemer are Roman period remains at Gemiler Island, Tlos, Letoum, Xanthus, Patara, Kalkan, Aperiae, Kerova Isld., Myra, Finike, Olympus & Phaselis;
14 Termessus; South of Termessus near Perga is Attaleia/Antalya. [Archaeology, July 1995, p. 57.];
15 Platea - is located above Athens on the Gulf to Thebes.
Continuing numbering starting with number 21:
Adjacent Areas not numbered: East of the Bosporus at Bregli is Heraclea/Heracles Pontica. To the SE of Sinope at Samsun is Amisus, near Masat is Amasia and a little south is Zela, east of which is the Kingdom of Polemon. Near Hattushash is Tavium.
21 (# not shown) Izmit is also Nicomedia, Troy is also Troas.
22 - ancient Perachora on small peninsula of Achaia, area of Corinth (BAR Nov/2000, p. 80), south of it was Cenchreae; Near Corinth was also: NW Sicyon; N Lechaeum; E Cromna, Cenchreae, Isthmia, Schoenus.

1H Tell Fakhariyah (BA, Dep 1990, p. 149); Near Gozan is Wassukanni (BA, Sep. 1989, p. 78.), also near is Tell Sweyhat discussed in the issue located here.
Unnumbered locations include: (1) Karatepe and Samal (Sam'al) west of Zincirli. Kültepe (Kueltepe) is also called Kanes. (2) The `Bay of Trianda' is located by Ialysos at Rhodes Island off the SW corner of Turkey.

Andros Island, south of Athens, was were archaeologists found in 1914 a five story high farm fortification tower with cantilavered stairs to climb up on it.
Thera, also known as Santorini, with its ancient city of Akrotiri, is a picturesque shell of a blown up volcanic island just north of Crete. For a full page image from a high point across the sea to the opposite shore of the horse shoe shaped island see BAR, Vol. XVII, Jan/Feb 1991, p. 40 and Bernard Knapp, `Bronze Age Mediterranean Island Cultures and the Ancient Near East' in BA, Part 1, Vol. 55, June 1992, p. 55-72; Part 2, Vol. 55, Sept 1992, p. 112-128; featuring a B&W aerial image of the Palace at Knossos, a plan of the excavated area of the city, the beautifully graceful wall painting of two antelopes, a color photo of large storage jars, the beautiful `Marseille Ewre', lead weight denominations and the town of Lindos, Ialysos and (the Bay of) Trianda on Rhodes.

Hittite Korucutepe
The detailed archaeological reports on the excavations and finds featuring many images of their often artfully designed pottery at Korucutepe are presented in three large volumes in Maurits N. van Loon (ed.), `Korucutepe', North Holland Publ., 1980. See also Jan Bouzek (ed.), `Anatolian Collection of Charles University', Prague, 1974. This book discusses: Megarian, Kyme pottery/fragments; workshops: i.e. Erotes, Paniscus, Little Eagles, Smyrna, leaf & petal bowls, palm & acanthus leaves, flowers, moulds, geometric, braziers, stamped amphora handles and terracottas. The History and topography of Kyme, according to their reports, was `the most important and powerful of the Aeolian cities on the seaboard of Asia Minor'. It talks about Kyme of the 4th century BC; i.e Pharnabazos and his loss of Kyme in 398 BC, Agesilaos taking over command of Spartan troops in 396 BC, the murder of Tissapherens by Tithraustes in 395 BC. Mentions the defeat of Agesilaos' choice of commander, the brother of his wife Peisandros, who died in -394 in a naval battle against Konon and Pharnabazos. Plate 18 shows what is described as a Late Geometric crater (GP1) among Hellenistic and Roman wares from Kyme.
Just to the west of Korucutepe was Kültepe located, also known as Kanes.

Cities of Babylonia
`During the early part of 1875, a number of antiquities were discovered by Arabs on the banks of the river `Shat-el-Hie' in southern Babylonia/Iraq. These were taken to Baghdad. ... The ca. 40 mile long `Shat-el-Hie', or River of Hie, is/was a stream which joins the Tigris and Euphrates, and forms a natural boundary between the marshes of the lower delta. ... It leaves the Tigris at the village of Kut Amarah, about 241 miles above the junction point of the Tigris and Euphrates ca. 90 miles above Kurna. It winds its way through the marshes until it reaches the ruins of Nashayet, which mark the ruins of some ancient town. The 630 square mile territory inside this triangle was the province of Bit Dukkari. The mound of Nashayet was called by the Arabs `Zerghoul', probably the ancient `Zirgulla'. Zirgulla was one of the more ancient cities of Babylonia. A few miles to the west, on the east bank of the Euphrates, lay Uruki or Erech, also known as the ruins of Warka. On the west bank of the Euphrates, and almost opposite the mouth of the Shat-el-Hie lay Uru or Ur, now represented by the mounds of Mughier, Babylon and Nippur [Nat. Geogr., `The Adventure of Archaeology', (NGAA), 1985, p. 17]. The Calneh of Genesis were situated a few miles north of this group.' [Adapted in part from W.C. Boscawen, `On Some Early Babylonian or Akkadian Inscriptions' in TSBA, Vol. VI, 1878, p. 275-(276)-283]
The location of Eridu is also known as Abu Shahrain. The river canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, between south of Jemdet Nasr and Ur is known as the Shatt al Hai. About 12 km along its eastern bank lies Lagash also known as Tello. Opposite from it on the western side of the Shatt el-Hai lies Umma (Djokha), Kissura (Abu-Hatab) and Shuruppak (Fara).
French excavation teams worked at Tello finding items such as the so-called Jemdet Nasr period assigned (1) Statue Présargonique, which shows a male figure on his knees with hands behind his back and what looks like snakes wrapped around his arms and underneath his tightly held arm pits with their heads near his beard; (2) the statue of the `Adorant de Stamboul', (3) the `Entéména' figure with its missing head, ceramic pieces and amulets. It may be that several of these general or even more specific areas or regions received the name of well known people like Nimrod (Ur-Nammu) and later Amraphel (Amar Sin) of the time of Abraham, whose family migrated from Ur to Haran (Paddan-Aram?) and from there to Canaan.
From the area of Présargoniques come the reliefs of Dudu, the `Stele des Vautours', the inscriptions of `Enhegal' and also Gudea. Some of the grotesque finds includes clay figure heads, animal and human, with their tongue out.
The following towns were located close to Babylon and/ or Borsippa: Sippara (Sura, Pumbedita, Neharde'a according to Talmud II, 118, 281), Kish, Deylam/ Dilbat, Mukhattat, Duwayr, and Rishad. [See BA, J. Armstrong, `West of Edin: Tell al-Deylam and the Babylonian city of Dilbat', Dec, 1992, p. 219-225-233. Images include Kassite period burial pottery, early Dynastic III/ Akkadian burial wares, copper pin & braclets.]
In the Dur Sharrukin/ Erbil area was also Niniveh, Tepe Gawra, M'lefaat, Arbela; Near Arapha was Jarmo & Nuzi.

Locations in Asia Minor - Gordion
The Hermus River flows to the aegean Sea by Thyatyra; The Menderes R. was also called Maeander R.; in Phrygia (between Lydia and Galatia), in the the old named Lycus River area, near Laodicea was Colossia, Hierapolis and Beycesultan. The Apostle Paul's letter to Colossians is the most Christ centered epistle in all the Bible.; By ½ is the Sangarius R.;
Velikovsky wrote: "The Phrygian kingdom was crossed by the river Sangarius (modern Sakarya); its eastern frontier was along the Halys River (modern Kizil Irmak). Gordion's ruins are about 50 miles southwest of Ankara and 85 more miles from Boghazkoi (Hattusas). It was the seat of King Gordias, the founder of the dynasty, and of King Midas of legendary fame - everything he touched turned to gold." [I. Velikovsky, `Ramses II and His Time', p. 153]
In Gordion vases signed by Klitias and Ergotimos were found in a layer contemporary with the Hittite Empire. In the entire Asia Minor Phrygian remnants are consistently found in deeper strata than the Hittite remnants of the Empire period. Also on Greek sculptures there are Hittite hieroglyphs. Greek authors, Homer included, do not know about Hittites in Asia Minor.

The city of Antalya (and its well known Kursunlu waterfall) is located near the ancient town of Perga on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

Near Smyrna is also a place called `Clazomenae', KMT, Spring 2006, p. 26.
Near Smyrna are also the cliffs where a new script was found to which the philologist A.H. Sayce traveled in 1879 in order to make impressions of the script. What others called Hittite script, he called Hamathite script (a town in the area), and at CIAS we would call it not Hamathite or Hittite, but rather Chaldean script. [Time-Life Books, `The Empire Builders', 1974, p. 39.]

Therme is also known as Thessalonica of New Testament times.

Archaeologists found on Friday, January 13, 1989 a damaged cylinder seal at the Mesopotamian site inside Iraq of the once lost ancient city of Mashkan-shapir which had the name of this city written in cuneiform in its text. Mashkan-shapir is located just west of Kish and north of Nippur. [For the image of the cylinder and a map see BAR, Vol. XV, Jul/Aug 1989, p. 50-52.]

Additional List of Regions and Cities

Amphipolis is locate between Therme and Philippi in Macedonia.
The ostensibly Hittite town of Alisar (as opposed to Alisar in Lebanon or Syria) is located between the two parallel flowing Kizilirmak (Halys R.) and the more easternYesilirmak Rivers near the end of the word Hattushash on our map. The `Pontic Mountains' stretch between Nicaea in the west to Alaca huyuk in the east. The site of Gordion (Yassihöyük) seems to be not certain for some maps show it to the west of Ankara.
Around Lake Van is the region of the Urartian locations. Among them are: The Van Citadel on top of the rocky Bastam mountain, Adikeraz, Ayanis and Toprakkale. [Paul Zimansky, An Urartian Ozymandias in BA, Jun 1995, p. 94-100.]
Armenia: Armenian territory has shifted considerably over the ages. One of its old capitals was Ani in eastern Turkey. Ancient church structures mark or marked the site. Armenia was the first official Christian nation keeping the seventh day-Sabbath as a memorial of Creation since the 2nd century AD. A more recent capital of Armenia is Echmiadzin, the location of a cathedral and the seat of the Armenian patriarch. In Soviet Armenia worship services are held on Sabbaths and Sundays. The Armenian church in Jerusalem has a plaque over the door reading, `Convent Armeniens Jacobee'.
Black Sea Region: The eastern Black Sea city of Volni was part of the kingdom of Colchi, today's Georgia.
Bulgaria: Ancient or old historic sites of Bulgaria include Plovdiv itself and Panagyurishte (site of a fabulous treasure [1500] located 20 miles north of the road from Sofia to Plovdiv), ancient settlements at Stara Zagora and the Thracian Burial Tomb of Kazanluk/ Kazanlak.
The Location of Catalhoyuk is near Lystra in central Turkey. The nearby town of Iconium is probably named so according to the name of `Konya' also located there. For a view of the locations see Michael Balter & Shahina Farid, Catalhoyuk in Odyssey, May/June 2005, p. 17-(19)-25 and 26-32. The article shows a bird's eye view of the 32 acre mound of Catalhoyuk, site color photos and artists renditions of the walls.
Occasionally mentioned River. - My best source map shows that the Khabur River flowes from about Tell Leilan south into the Euphrates River. Today that river is called the Habur River.
Paros: On the island of Paros archaeologists found an ancient cemetery of ca. 730 BC soldiers burials, painted vases, etc. [For images see Foteini Zafeiropopoulou & Anagnostis Agelarakis, Warriors of Paros in Archaeology, Jan/Feb 2005, p. 30-35.
Aorsi is a name for the low lands bordering the Caspian Sea to its north to north-western regions.
Lefkandi is located on Euboea/Euboia Island off the coast of Greece. It is also known as Xeropolis and is an ancient site near Chalcis/Chalkida, Vasilial/ Vassiliko and Eritria on that Island.
Mt. Lykaion is located between Mycenae and Pylos [See Nicos Papahatzis, Mycenae-Epidaurus Tiryns-Nauplion, 1978]. The location of Tripolis is located just south of Mycenae. The river flowing through Sparta is called Eurotas R. following the Taygetos Mountains.
Riblah - It was probably located 80 km south of Hamath alongside the Orontes River. Scriptures are: Numb. 34:11; 2.Kings 23:33; 25:6,20,21; Jer. 39:5,6; 52:9,10,26,27.
Salonika - Located right by Therme in Macedonia.
Samsun - is the old Black Sea town of `Amisos'. Nearby is the village of Zilleh (ancient Zela) not far from which is, according to Strabo, the artificial tumulus of Semiramus. [See PSBA, Dec. 1882, p. 41.]
Ekrek is the older name of a place in Turkey also known as Agarak (See here: "").
Tyana is located in Turkey near where we read Gurgum.
Calah/Kalak (modern Nimrud) is located just south of Niniveh. From there seems to have come a statue of Shamsi-Adad V., son of Shalmaneser III, var. Hazael. [Sieh Hartmut Schmökel, `Ur, Assur und Babylon', Stuttgart, 1958, Tafel 91.]
The Cycladic Islands are located just SE of Athens. Recently on the Island of Kythnos an `unplundered' temple's adyton (innermost shrine) was discovered and explored by Alexander Mazarakis and members of the University of Thessalia. See Archaeology, Mar 2003, p. 12.
The possible meaning of the name or location(s) of Tarshish or Tharshish. a) The town of Taressus near Gibralta in southern Spain, if it may be the same as Tartessos (1.Kings 10:22; 2.Chr. 9:21); b) the name refers to a particular type of a well constructed ship; c) a son of Javan and grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:4l 1.Chr. 1:7); d) one of the seven princes of Persia (Esther 1:14; e) a descendant of Benjamin (1.Chr. 7:10).
The city of Gozan or `Guzana (Tell Halaf)' in Syria, east of Carchemish, is mentioned in 2.Kings 17:6. [BA, Sept. 1988, p. 172f]
Ashurnasirpal is said to have first brought the eastern Azuma Valley, the (because of its passes) highly defensible Sulaimania Valley, under his control in 2 campaigns. In the west he turned against the Aramean state with its capital of Bit Adni, also known as `Til-Barsip' (modern TellAhmar), south of Carchemish.
The City of Vizye, ancient Bizye (Turkey), is the site where a 10 x 8 inch 1st century AD Roman soldier's visage with cheeked helmet was found in a grave tumulus. The artwork is described as follows: Scylla. the destroyer of Odysseu's ship, adorns the visor, while Nike, the goddess of victory, graces each of the cheek guards. The two-piece helmet is held together by a hinge at the forehead. The City of Bizye was home to the mythological Thracian king Tereus, one of the sons of Ares, the god of war. It was also one of the last Thracian capitals before Thrace was annexed by Rome in 44 or 46 BC. [For the image from the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul see BAR, Vol. 33, No. 5, p. 88.]
Nicea/Nicias is a suburb of Piraeus, the harbor town of Athens, Greece.

The city of Urkesh (Tell Mozan), west of Tell Leilan, has been identified as the `first Hurrian capital'. See NEA, Vol. 60, 1997, p. 77-96.

The Tower of Babel

Leaving the area where the ark came to rest, the people headed west toward the land of Shinear. There they began to construct the famous Tower of Babel. Coming from the east, a likely spot for it may have been in a beautiful valley north of the bend of the Euphrates River and the city of Urfa (near Sultantepe), and near `Nimrud Da'.

Volcanoes in Turkey

In excavations of early settlements in the region of eastern and central Turkey, and western Iran and the USSR (the area which once was called "Ararat, or Urartu"), many tools and other objects have been found which were made out of obsidian which is found in and by volcanoes. Because of the unique trace elements found in obsidian it is possible to match specimens found in settlements with sources whose obsidian exhibits the same trace elements. And these analyses show that the earliest settlements in this region obtained their obsidian from Nemrut Da , the volcano on the north side of Lake Van, about 70 miles south of Mt. Ararat.[]

Locations in Iraq

The ancient city of `Erech' was located on the east side of the Euphrates near Larsa. It is considered to be one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom in the land of Shinar, and thought to be the same as Orchoë, 82 miles south and 43 east of Babylon, and thought also to be called Warka, Irke and Irak. It was the necropolis of the Assyrian kings, the whole neighborhood being covered with mounds, and strewed with bricks and coffins. Cardunias is thought to be Babylon III.

The Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountain chains run NW to SE between Baghdad and Teheran. These mountains form a natural barrier between Iran and Iraq and have been from ages ago traveled by caravans. On the Iranian/Persian side the city of Hamadan served as a destination point. It is the city in which the supposed tomb of Esther and Mordechai is located. The `Zagros Mountain Gate' was a natural mountain pass near which is found the `Rock of Behistan' with the relief inscriptions of Darius, King of Persia. He is shown accompanied by two of his officials, Gobarwa, holding a spear, and Aspatshina, holding a bow and quiver. Before him are representatives of his conquest. Underneath his foot lies the dead Gomata, standing before him are: 1st Asina, 2nd Riditbera, 3rd Farwartish, 4th Martija, 5th Tchitrantachma, 6th Wahisdata, 7th Aracha, 8th Irada & 9th Skunka (from the German).


This region is the rounded projection of southern Turkey around the town of Xanthus. We provide here for the record the names of ancient locations from a German map, most of them probably unimportant, situated in this region starting from the upper West of Xanthus to the East and first are the coastal towns (in italics): Telmessos, Carmylessos, Pydnai, Patara, Megisto, Antiphellos, Sura, Aperlae, Andriake, Myra, Tagai, Olympos, Phaselis, Asar Bay; going more inland now again from West to East: Kadyanda, Oinoanda, Tlos, Xanthos, Phellos, Kandyba, Kyanai, Arneai, Limyra, Rhodiapolis, Kordylla & Idebessos. Ca. 40 km East of Asar Bay is Cape Gelidonya. [Theodor Kluge, `Die Lykier' in Der Alte Orient, Leipzig 1910, p. 3.] Myra is located on the Mediterranean coast and the site where numerous tombs are located of the Lycian culture which indicate ancestor worship.[BAR, Mar 2008, p. 88]


Cilicia was located between Lystra in the west and Tarsus in the east. A well known location is the Amanus range, a spur from the Taurus Mountains of Turkey which extends toward the southwest and is located to the east of the Ceyhan River which itself flows parallel and east of the Seyhan River [2000]. When the Amanus meets the Mediterranean Sea the deep Bay of Iskenderun is formed along it's western frontline. Cicilian coin of King Tarkonemos A narrow coastline between the foothills of the Amanus range and the sea, leads to the south, through the villages of Iskenderun (Ugarit) and then Myriandrus. These were little fishing villages although they had good deepwater harbors. The area was just out of the way for the usual trade route. Behind Iskenderun to the east the Amanus range rises to as much as 5000 feet above sea level, and rather quickly at that, and drops abruptly into the sea in the west. There is, however, a pass through the range which separates the Amanus from the Casius range (Mount al-Aqra') farther south. This pass, the celebrated Syrian Gates, leads to the Orontes gorge, and the Orontes river. Access to Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia was through these gates. Royal names from Cilicia included: Tarkondemos (as found embossed on coins bearing the numerals || 2 and ||-100) and his son by the same name. [PSBA, Nov. 2, 1880, p. 6.]

`Midian' or `Media' seems to describe (1) the vast desert like territory from today's Persia, Iraq in an arch to Transjordan (east of the Jordan River) down the Wadi el-Sirhan and east of the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia, Mt. Sinai, Jebel el Lawz.
(2) A citadel called Midea in the NE Peloponnese, connected with old Greek history as discovered by Gisela Wahlberg. See picture of the citadel (pile of rocks) in `Archaeology', May/Jun 1995, p. 22. She found there in a niche in the wall of the megaron a necklace with colorful glazed beads and 3 large sword pommels decorated with carved ivory or stone.

Moab concentrated especially on the plateau east of the Dead Sea between the wadis Arnon and Zared (probably Wadi el Hesa), though during certain periods extending to the north of the Arnon River (Deut. 1:5; Num. 22-25).

Locations of Theaters

1. A theater seems to have been located in Jerusalem on the basis of an anciently inscribed, round bone `ticket' found by Nahman Avigad in Jerusalem whose Greek inscription reading: "XIII, ptera, `id", was also found on a stone written very close to that on the bone. The stone was found as part of an `Ummayad period wall dismantled by Ronny Reich and Y. Billig. Some of the stones discovered had unusual channels and niches and some were inscribed stones bearing signs indicating the row and seat and whom it may have belonged to. See R.Reich & Y.Billig, `Triple Play - The Many Lives of Jerusalem's Building Blocks' in BAR, Vol. 28, Sep/Oct 2002, p. 40-(46)-47.
2. The theaters of a) Myra in Lycia, b) of Patara, c) of Aspendus (Turkey), d) of Side can be seen in D.G. Hogarth, `Accident's of the Antiquary's Life', London 1910, p. 49, 54, 121, 118.

Locations on Crete: Near Knossos we find Heraklion, Amnisos, Nirou Khani, Mt. Juktas, Isopata, Eilythyia, Mallia; Near Phaistos we find Hagia Galene, Hagia Triada, the Plain of Messara; On the western northern shore we find Khania and Zakros; On the eastern shore we find Palaikastro and Zakros. Site names, location unknown at this time, Pseira.[H.E.L.Mellersh, `Minoan Crete', N.Y., 1967.; BA, Dec 88. p. 198.]
Ancient Median locations in Persia/Iran include: from Mannae (biblical Minni, Jer. 51:27) in the north to Elippi in the southern Zagros Mountains. The eastern border has been associated with a Mount Bikni ("the lapis lazuli mountain"), a site on the road to Badakshan. This has usually been identified with the towering `Mount Demavand' east of Teheran or with `Mount Elvend' near Hamdan. [Edwin M. Yamauchi, `Persia and the Bible', 1990, p. 41.]

Syrian Locations
The location of Arpad/ Arphad ("strong") from the records of Sargon is understood to be located 13 miles (20 km) north of Aleppo (Isaiah 26:19; Jer. 42:23).
The location of Samerina in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser III is Simurrum and not Samaria.
Arslan Tash/Hadatu is located near Aleppo and Carablus at 36.825447 N latitude and 38.018112 E longitude.
Sidon & Tyre were known in antiquity as Keftiu, in that we agree with that identification by Wilhelm Doerpfeld.
Hamoukar. An ancient city, said to be located at the upper edges of the Tigris and Euphrates Valley, has been discovered and thought to be Hamoukar. Unfortunately wild date gestimates throw a palor of scholarly extravagance on the affair. [Fox News, 11-4-09.]
Pethor (means `southsayer' and also `petros' stone), was the hometown of the false prophet `Balaam', Numb. 22:4,5; Deut. 23:4, a forunner of Simon Magus. It was located near the Euphrates River and the mountains of Aram in Mesopotamia. It was a few kilometers south of Carchemish, perhaps near `Til-Barsip'.

Jordanian Locations
The Islamic period location of Umer-Rases (Ancient Kastron Mefaa) about 30 km SE of Madaba (near Hesban) situated on high plateau and visible for 20 km covers 3 hectares (7.5 acres). In a church numerous mosaics were found dating to the time of Bishop Sergius (ca. 587 AD), a mosaic of the Palestinian city `Neapolis' was found, also artwork from 756 and 785. The mosaocist Staurachios of Hesban was attested. The Church of St. Stephen (next to Umer R.) yielded the location names of Charachmoba, Areopolis, Belemounta, Esbounta, Madaba, Philadelphia (Amman), Limbon, Diblaton and the Nile cities of Pilousin and Anticiaou. Other mosaics show the name of Jerusalem, Neapolis, Sebastis, Caesarea and the Nile cities of Panau, Kynopolis, Alexandria, Tamiathis and Pseudostomon.

The Land of Marmarica
The best known locality of the district of Marmarica is Marsa Matruh between Egypt and Lybia on the Mediterranean coast. See Oric Bates, Semitic Traces in Marmarica in PSBA, Nov. 1915, p. 201-207; Includes several plates of semitic sherds.

The Archaeology of Iran
61. This points to the Kerah, Kerkah (Kercha) River, anciently known as the Ulai River flowing past the city of Susa, Daniel 8:2,16.; Luckenbill, ARA, ch. ix, par. 862, p. 333; mentions "With corpses I blocked the Ulai."
The city of Hasanlu has emerged as of some significance because some of the artifacts found there are known from the time or area of Ashurnasirpal (II) or Shalmaneser (III). The ivory artifacts discovered bring `Hasanlu' right close up to the 9th century BC `Ivory Age'. Among these are the following small items:

1. a fragmented, well carved relief plaque.
2. a woman next to a tower apparently under siege.

In the vicinity of Hamadan/Iran/Persia were also the `Trilingual Tablets' discovered on the rocks of a mountain. Some say Hamadan was Ecbatana. The tombs of the Persian kings are at Naqsh-i-Rustan, the location of which we have not yet determined, but it may have been closer to Susa or Persepolis.

We learn that in `Assyrian' relief art horses are commonly represented as galloping, in `North Syria' they are commonly represented with all four feet planted on the ground.

Illustrations shown include:

01. A B&W aerial photo of Hasanlu from 1962 showing a) `Burned Building II' not completely excavated, b) BBI, c) BB III and d) the perimeter of the Period IV fortifications.
02. a floor plan of BBII.
03. thefragments of an Assyrian type relief.
04. a handle incised with lotu flowers.
05. fragment of an Assyrian style plaque showing the legs of an ostrich and on of its wings,
06. a 3 inch square silver with gold overlay ornament from Zincirli, North Syria,
07. fragments of two sphinx pyxides,
08. a fragmentary ivory pedestal with a lions head,
09. two fragments of a head of a man,
10. a drawing of a silver beaker showing in stylized fashion a team of horses spanned to a chariot with a warrior and a charioteer, men walking and leading a horse, man with a bow and a confrontation between a horned long tail creature and a lion like creature.
11. two ivory fragments of a chariot battle scene,
12. horseman with a spear riding over an enemy,
13. ivory fragments of bowmen, 14. a woman next to a tower,
15. two confronting lions (paws not touching),
16. the impression of a Mitannian seal from Tepe Giyan, Iran,
17. two fragments of an ivory lion griffin,
18. a 1 5/8 inches heigh fragment of a womans face from just below the eyes to the bottom of the neck,
19. two different goblets with a nipple base, a terracotta glazed cup, a cosmetic stand, a limestone mace head with gold inlays, a different type of a mace head, a vessel of Jasper conglomerate, pendants, fibulae.

[See Oscar White Muscarella, `Hasanlu 1964' in The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Nov 1966, p. 120-135.]

Mt. Nisir, Iran, is located a few miles east of Hasanlu. The town of Nuzi was located about between Arrapha and Kirkuk, Assyria.

Patino: The small island in the Greek archipelago named Patino had the name `Patmos' in the days of the New Testament writers. Here is where the apostle John was under arrest by Roman authorities in 96 A.D.
Zamua - A small country - perhaps around Samsun/Sinope at the Black Sea??

Notes & References

[1500] The golden treasures of Panagyurishte include 9 gold masterpieces of 8 vases and a cup or phiala weighing together 13 pounds. Seven of the vases were rhytons and one was both, a rhyton and an amphora. A phiala is a shallow cup or bowl used almost exclusively for pagan libations. Examples were found in Egypt, Assyria (Khorsabad palace) and in Phoenicia. Also numerous examples were found not used for religious rites. It was the right thing to do for rich pilgrims to leave a silver or gold phiala at the sanctuary they visited. The temples of Apollo at Delos possessed no less than 1600 at the beginning of the 2. century AD. Sadly paganism produced things which tended to glorify man, they had forgotten that man invented deities could not explain life, the world or salvation and, therefore, were given over to their own imaginations, not infrequently, probably regularly, resulting in perversions and human sacrifices as they did at Carthage and other Phoenician sites. Phoenicia, the birth place of Jezebel/ Nefertiti, had colonies around the Mediterranean Sea. At Carthage was were Ba'al Hammon was idolized in fear, with no hope in sight. [See Eydoux, Henry Paul, The Buried Past, 1966.]
[2000] Between 1945-1947 in the neighborhood of Oaratepe on the Ceyhan River (classical Pyramos), in the easternmost part of Cilicia, near its border with classical Syria, a long bilingual inscription (ca. 725 BC) in Phoenician and Hittite-Hieroglyphic was found. This represents the solemn declaration by Azitawadd, King of the Danunians, on the founding of a new city at Karatepe named after the founder (Asitawandas). A century later King Kilamuwa of Sam'al also made an inscription. These kingdoms had more than one name, Azitawadd called his people Danunians (Dnnym), the same name used by Kilamuwa. The country he called, Plain of Adana (`mq 'dn), after the old city of Adana which still exists under that name. As his royal residence he mentions P`r - a city known to the Assyrian king Shlamaneser III as Pahri, a royal city of the kingdom of Qaua (Ass. Que), which lay precisely in eastern Cilicia, beyond Mt. Amanus, and is therefore identical with the state of the `Plain of Adana'. Bossert identified P'r-Pahri with the modern town of Misis, Mopsuhestia of Hellenistic times, lower down on the Ceyhan River (just east of the Seyhan River), and connected by the Greeks with a hero of their mythology, the seer Mopsos. Azitawadd mentions 3 times in his inscription "the house of M ps", apparently in the sense of the royal dynasty to which he belonged. [Astour, M., Hellenosemitica, Leiden, 1965, p. 1-2.]
[3000] George M.A. Hanfmann, Excavations at Sardis in BASOR, Apr 1959, p. 5-35. Tombs like the Mausoleum grave (grave 61.14) and the `peacock-tomb', which was decorated with colorful images of birds, flowers and garlands, resembles that of the Christian barrel-vaulted tombs east of the muasoleum of Claudia Antonia Sabina. Items of the burial were disperesed over the earth floor. Human skeletal remains showed the adult was under sixty years of age. Coins found ranged from Honorius (393-423 AD) to Phocas (602-610 AD), see BASOR, Apr 1962, No. 166, p. 33.

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