¤ Original Historical Documents

Al's Menu Home Addtopics Submenu
Old & New Covenant
A Brief History of the Sabbath between the 2nd to 4th Century AD.

Dangerous doctrines
Th. Tillam
* The First Century
The Lord's Day
Simon Magus
Ignatius of Antioch
The Didache
Dionysius of Corinth
Bishop Miletus/Melito of Sardis
Pliny the Younger
Justin the Martyr
Clement of Alexandria
Sabbath in Early Church
* The Second Century
The Words of Origen
Lord's day references examined
Sabbath to Sunday Influences
Peter of Alexandria
Creeping Influences of the Cult of Isis
* The 3rd Century
Robert Cox
The First Sunday Law
Synod Laodicea
Cyril of Jerusalem
Sunday regulated
Historical Evidences for Sabbath
Pope Gregory I
Gregory of Nyssa
The Gauls
The Apostolic Constitution
Down Trodding the Sabbath: Fasting and Kneeling
Neander, Hippolytus
Sabbath & the Greek Gospel Lectionary
Constantine & the change
First Civil Sunday Law
If not Constantine, who did?
Pope Sylvester & Hrabanus Maurus
Pontifex Maximus
The Donation of Constantine - Also 538
The Church in the 6th century
* The 6th Century and On
The 2nd council of Macon
The council of Narbonne
The council at Chalons
The Alemanian law
William Walzer
The Alexandrian School
Arabian Sun Worship
A. Paiva of Portugal
Comparing Mithraism & Christianity
Babylon and Rome
The Council of Trent on the Sabbath
How was the Sabbath changed
The Celtic Church
Dr. Butler
The Celts
An Appeal to the Celts
The Church in the 16th Century
* The 17th Century
The Christian Sabbath
Today's Reasons
Philip Melanchthon
Teeth & Claw in Roman Law
Inquiry Answered
Answering Comments by Visitors
A Short Bible Study
When was Revelation written
Notes & References

Freedom's Test
Sunday Warning
Lutherwords & Thyatira


The Lord's day is the one day of the week which was set aside for worship since Creation Week. It was given to all men and women born thereafter. God's chosen day of worship was therefore known before the existence of any Jews or any other group of religious people. There is no other day, which God made holy so mankind would not forget their Creator. The seventh day was at the very beginning called the Sabbath day. Ever since this time, the whole world has known the six day work, one day rest week. Only tribes, removed from civilization, may have forgotten even the 7 day week. When mankind became sinners, they sinned against this one holy day in the week. They kept the first (or eighth) day of the week, and in 600 AD, only some 1400 years ago, the monks and friars - (the old Roman church must have many pages of clean, ancient parchments and writing surfaces to produce forgeries every once in a while and put them in some cave) - wrote a religiously holy book and invented Friday as a holy day.

Offline Video: Pastor Doug's
`A Tale of 2 Women'.

The First Century

In the days of Moses God organized the visible Jewish nation church as something that would not easily get dispersed among the gentiles. If those in God's "visible church" had Christ "within," then they would have "The Real Thing."N. Olsen presented the outline of this topic while in his class many years ago. Since then we have added more material. The people of the world could then see it in them, and come to it. God wanted His people to catch this missionary spirit of love - to enlighten the whole world. It is very simple, but God's people throughout history have not understood it. They have not had a tender love, and a yearning to help save souls - and so in the days of Jesus, the religion that God set up to try to save the people of the world, had degenerated into forms and ceremonies with a demon possessed power-ball hierarchy. [The first outline of this contribution was a class taught by Dr. N. Olsen of Norway and has since been greatly added onto.]
Knowing this, Jesus (1) did not have unity meetings with Annas and Caiaphus. (2) He tried to reach them, but most of the time He ignored the leaders of the church that He Himself set up. He had set up their position. He loved them, but they stalked Him like mountain lions, looking for opportunities to kill Him. (3) He did not attack them, but treated them with the same kindness that He treated everyone with - including Judas - in His own church organization - by which He would "start over" - hoping the "Christians" in it would have "The Real Thing" in their hearts, as well as in outward name. Then He could use them to help save the people of the world.
Thus the Christian church of the 1st century had been warned by the Apostle Paul to be especially careful for he wrote to the elders of the church at Ephesus, "For I know this, that after my departing `shall grievous wolves enter in among you not sparing the flock. Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things to draw away disciples after them."

Why do the Jews and others keep still the Sabbath Day holy?

"I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet." Revelation 1:10.

A. The Bible explains the phrase "the Lord's day" as follows:

"And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made." Genesis 2:3.

"And he (Moses) said unto them, This is that which the Lord has said: To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake to day." Exodus 16:23.

"But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God..." Exodus 20:10a; also Isaiah 58:13-14.

The Lord's day is the seventh day (Saturday) Sabbath. "Therefore the Son of Man is Lord also of the sabbath." Mark 2:28.

An additional less likely explanation could be that the second coming of Jesus Christ in the clouds is sometimes described as the "coming of the Lord", the "day of the Lord" or "Lord's day".

The Book Acts of the Apostles accounts under the watchful care of the apostles and their fellow workers for the purity of the gospel and doctrines. In doing so the Book of Acts connects the reports of the evangelists with Acts, unifying the period. After the passing of the apostles - these particular, unique apostels - the influence of teachers of error began without delay, marking their age as entirely different than that of the original apostles. (Acts 20:29-30; 2.Thess. 2:3-4,7-8; 2.Tim. 4:2-4). Later on we find the Greek term `apostles' also used in the sense of ambassador, envoy, or delegate (See Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. XII, ch. x, 6, p. 265).;

Of this time Archibald Bauer said,

"To avoid being imposed upon, we ought to treat tradition as we do a notorious and known liar, to whom we give no credit, unless what he says is confirmed to us by some person of undoubted veracity. ... False and lying traditions are of an early date, and the greatest men have, out of a pious credulity, suffered themselves to be imposed upon by them." [A. Bauer, History of the Popes, Vol. 1, p. 1, Philadelphia, ed. 1847. See also the commentary of Adam Clarke on Prov. 8.]

B. Sunday keepers historical explanations are usually as follows:

1. The destruction of Jerusalem liberated the Jewish Christians from the law and from Jerusalem as a center of their faith. But see Here for more on that.

a. New Testament literature written before 70 AD and which later were canonized and became part of the Bible [except the book of Revelation written by the apostle John] make use of the word "Sabbath".
b. There are indications in the book of Acts that Sunday was used for worship and celebration of the Lord's Supper. Accordingly Acts 15; is said to reflect liberation from the Sabbath law. (For more click here).

2. The book of Revelation written about 96 AD does not use the word "Sabbath" but "the Lord's Day" [01]. This is said to indicate a Judaistic liberation from the law. Early Christian literature proves, they say, that the Lord's Day is Sunday.

3. Simon Magus - First Pope in History (35-???AD)

Study has revealed that the very capable but wicked Simon Magus became the first head of a universal church, so to speak, the first Pope in Rome. [Ref.]

4. Ignatius of Antioch (30? BC - 115 AD)

Ignatius was born either shortly before or after the ascension of Jesus Christ. His life spanned the writing of the New Testament. However, living in Antioch (central Turkey), he was not in close communication with the apostles themselves. At a later point he may have been part of the evangelization conducted by the Apostle Paul in the former's younger years. This appears to be the case considering his Christological statements. While Paul used such expressions as, "Jesus Christ our God (Lord)" (Ro. 1:3; 6:10; 1 Cor. 1:2) and "the Son of God, Jesus Christ" (2 Cor. 1:19), Ignatius is quoted as having written, "For our God, Jesus Christ, was conceived in the womb of Mary ... God appeared in the likeness of man" [J.B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, ed. J.R. Harmer (1891; Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1962), pp. 63-68, 75-79. See also Phil. 2:6,7.]
This shows that Ignatius was among those who considered Jesus Christ to be very God, in agreement with the Apostles testimony.[50]

"If, therefore, those who were brought up in the ancient order of things have come to the possession of a new hope, no longer observing the Sabbath, but living in the observance of the Lord's [Day], on which also our life has sprung up."
This letter could also be read as:
"If, therefore, those who were brought up in the ancient order of things have come to the possession of a new hope, no longer sabbatizing, but living according to the Lord's [life], on which also our life has sprung up."
Where words enclosed in [] brackets are modern insertions due to a lacuna in the original text. Ignatius to the Magnesians, chapter 9. Ante-Nicene Christian Library, Vol. 1, p.182. But see here!

5. Didache (cir. 125 BC - 50/90 AD)
"But every Lord's [day], do ye gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord... [Matt. 5:23-24]." [58], or this translation,

"On the Lord's [day] of the Lord come together, break bread and hold Eucharist." Loeb Classical Library - Apostolic Fathers, Vol. 1 pp. 330, 331.

Note: The word "day" is a later interpolation by the translator, in the original the word may have been "supper."

6. Bishop Dionysius of Corinth (cir. 170 AD) wrote to Bishop Sater of Rome:
"Today we have passed the Lord's holy day, in which we have read your epistle." Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. I, p. 204. Comment: There is nothing in this letter which forces us to regard `Lord's holy day' as Sunday. In fact using the adjective `holy', he most certainly does not follow the trend of the age, in which Sunday advocates `know' their day was always only referred to as `lord's day', and therefore he must mean the seventh day holy Sabbath, the day which was extensively kept in his country of Greece in obedience to the Ten Commandments, Acts 18:4; Hebr. 4:4.

7. Bishop Melito of Sardis (cir. 170 -185 AD) wrote a treatise "On the Lord's Day" but the word `day' is not in the Greek original which is, "o peri tes kuriakes logos ...", where the word "hmara(s)" (day) is missing and like in Ignatius treaties on the `Life of Christ' was more likely "kuriaken zoen", `lord's life.' [Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. 1, p. 204.][64]

8. The apogryphical gospel according to Peter (cir. 190):
"Here we have the clear application of "the Lord's Day" to the first day of the week." Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I, IX, pp. 27, 29.

9. Pliny's letter to Trajan (cir. 107 - 112)
In this letter he states that the Christians worship on a certain "fixed day". Loeb Classical Library, Pliny, Vol. II, pp. 402-405.

10. The epistle of Barnabas (cir. 135 AD)
"Your present Sabbaths are not acceptable to me, but that is which I have made (namely this) when, giving rest to all things, I shall make a beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning of another world. Wherefore, also, we keep the eighth day with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead. And when He had manifested Himself, He assembled unto heaven."
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I, pp. 146, 147.

11. Justin Martyr (100? - 165)
He states that the "day of the sun" is observed by Christians, because of the resurrection.
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I, pp. 185, 186.

The correct quote of Justin Martyr, born in Palestine, reads as follows:

"And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together in one place, and the memoirs of the apostles, or the writings of the prophets, are read, as long as time permits," etc. [Justin Martyr's First Apology, ch. 67.]

While this source speaks of the day called Sunday, its authority is of fraudulent origin since it was deliberately changed to that reading just like Dr. Justin Edwards' quotes sources as if they exist but do not and thus commits fraud. [Justin Edwards, Sabbath Manual, p. 114. Pretending to quote from Theophilus who never uses, `Lord's day, and never speaks of the `first day.' (See also on Dwight.)]

Justin the Martyr also mentioned Simon (the Magic) four times, that he was a Samaritan, and that he was born at a place called Gitta, which may be the Gittahepher of Joshua 19:13, 5 km north of Nazareth (2.Kings 14:25). (For more see `Simon Magus' in German).

12. Clement of Alexandria (ca. 174)
Clement, a teacher of Tatian and Origen [the compiler of the 6 column Hexapla Bible [70], is the first man who unequivocally used the expression
"Lord's day" for the first day of the week. The source for his authority is Plato, "And the Lord's day Plato prophetically speaks of in the tenth book of the Republic, in these words,

`And when seven days have passed to each of them in the meadow, on the eighth day they are to set out and arrive in four days.' Clement, `Miscellanies' books, chap. 14, A.N.F. Vol. II.

Clement also told his readers of his Paedagogus to have either a fish (used as a symbol before the crucifixion) or a dove, engraved on their seals.[BAR, Mar/Apr 2007, p. 45.; Actually the symbol of a fish is pagan, relating to Dagon (Dag-fish, on-Sun).]

"Clement expressly tells us that he would not hand down Christian teachings, pure and unmixed, but rather clothed with precepts of pagan philosophy [72]. All the writings of the outstanding heretical teachers were possessed by Clement, and he freely quoted from their corrupted MSS. As if they were the pure words of Scripture." [Dean Burgon, The Revision Revised, p. 336 as cited by B.E. Wilkinson,`The Authorized Version', See here.]

The Sabbath in the Early Christian Church

Text Church Date Number of Sabbath Assemblies
Acts 13: 14, 42-44 Antiochus 45 A.D. 2
Acts 16:12,13 Philippi 53 A.D. 1
Acts 17:1,2 Thessalonica 53 A.D. 3
Acts 18:1-4, 11 Corinth 54 A.D. 78
Acts 20:5-12 Troas, near Assos/Troy 60 A.D. 1 meeting on a Sunday
Thus we find 84 Sabbath meetings in the first 9 years of the early Christian Church between 45 to 54 A.D., and 1 Sunday gathering for Paul's arrival on that day, six years later.

The Second Century

We begin the Second Century here already because many authors which wrote about it, were born before the year 200 A.D. came around. Looking through the various entries, we notice there is a lot of overflow and views to be considered which were expressed before 200 AD. Please let that not dismay you.

13. Origen (185-255)
He, as the greatest of all the falsifiers and influencer of Jerome, classes the Sabbath with the Preparation day, Passover and Pentecost, as Jewish festivals.
Statements include: "It is one of the marks of a perfect Christian to keep the Lord's day."
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IV, pp. 285, 366, 601;
Vol. IX, pp. 388, 389, 469, 470.
Comment: At his time apostasy had taken firm roots but biblically we know the Lord's day is Sabbath. Origen's corrupted MSS. of the Scriptures were well arranged and balanced with subtlety. Origen had so surrendered himself to the furore of turning all Bible events into allegories that he, himself, says, "The Scriptures are of little use to those who understand them as they are written."[McClintock and Strong, Art. "Origen."] In order to estimate Origen rightly, we must remember that as a pupil of Clement, he learned the teachings of the Gnostic heresy and like his master, lightly esteemed the historical basis of the Bible. As Schaff says, "His predilection for Plato (the pagan PBC {pseudo biblical composite} philosopher) led him into many grand and fascinating errors."[Dr. Schaff, Church History, Vol. II, p. 791.] He made himself acquainted with the various heresies and studied under the heathen Ammonius Saccas, founder of Neo-Platonism. He turned the whole law and Gospel into an allegory. One of the greatest results of his life, was that his teachings became the foundation of that system of education called Scholasticism, which guided the colleges of Latin Europe for nearly one thousand years during the Dark Ages. Origenism flooded the Catholic Church through Jerome, the father of Latin Christianity. "I love... the name of Origen," says the most distinguished theologian of the Roman Catholic Church since 1850, "I will not listen to the notion that so great a soul was lost."[Dr. Newman, Apologia pro vita sus. Chapter VII, p. 282.] A final word from the learned Scrivener will indicate how early and how deep were the corruptions of the sacred manuscripts: "It is no less true to fact than paradoxical in sound, that the worst corruptions to which the New Testament has ever been subjected, originated within a hundred years after it was composed; that Irenaeus (A. D. 150), and the African Fathers, and the whole Western, with a portion of the Syrian Church, used far inferior manuscripts to those employed by Stunica, or Erasmus, or Stephens thirteen centuries later, when moulding the Textus Receptus." [Scrivener, Introduction to N. T. Criticism, 3rd Edition, p. 511.] A Itala Bible from St. Gallen, Switzerland

When the apostles of the Roman Catholic Church entered these countries [the Greek Empire, the countries of Syrian Christianity, among the Waldensians in northern Italy, the Gallic church in southern France, and the Celtic church in Scotland and Ireland] in later centuries they found the people were using the Textus Receptus; and it was not without difficulty and a struggle that they were able to displace it and to substitute their Latin Vulgate. For the Vaudois/ Waldensians their ancient, trustworthy Bible was the `Itala' or `Italick' which was based on the received text the purity of which went back to the Apostolic age.

14. Tertullian at Carthage (ca. 160-240 AD)
"We count fasting or kneeling in worship on the Lord's day to be unlawful." [Tertullian, The Chaplet, chap. 3. Books of this author were found in Switzerland in the 15th century. {Ambrosini, `Secret Archives of the Vatica,' p. 148.}]

"Others, with greater regard to good manners, it must be confessed, suppose that the sun is the God of the Christians, because it is a well-known fact that we pray toward the east, or because we make Sunday a day of festivity. What then? Do you do less than this? Do not many among you, with an affection of sometimes worshipping the heavenly bodies likewise, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise? It is you, at all events, who have even admitted the sun into the calendar of the week; and you have selected its day [Sunday] in preference to the preceding day, as the most suitable in the week for either an entire abstinence from the bath, or for its postponement until the evening, or for taking rest, and for banqueting. By resorting to these customs, you deliberately deviate from your own religious rites to those of strangers." [Tertulian, Ad Nations, Book 1, chap. 13; Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. III.]

15. Bardesanes (ca. 180)
He says in his book of the `Laws of the Countries',
"On the day, the first of the week, we assemble ourselves together."
Of course the reason for this assembling together, depending how trustworthy this source is, is not given. It could have been a city council meeting for example, or some other public or business function. If it was a religious gathering, then it was not based on any scriptural command.

16. Irrenaeus at Lyons (about 130-(185)-ca. 202 AD), disciple of Polycarb.
He wrote just before Gnosticism's influence spread widely. He is said to have written these words: "On the Lord's day every one of us Christians keeps the Sabbath, meditating on the law, and rejoicing in the works of God." But every one of these words is a fraud.[120]

Against Gnostic claims he held that the Apostles did not preach before they had "perfect knowledge" of the Gospel, Rom. 15:14. That preaching they recorded in the Gospels - Matthew and John were written by the Apostles themselves; while Mark reproduced the message of Peter some 30 years later, and Luke that of Paul. Nothing Gnostic, Irreanaeus declares, is found in any of them. He argued, had there been private teaching, the Apostles would have intrusted it to those, above all others, whom they selected as leaders in the churches they established. These `leaders' are not to be viewed as successors. There are no successors to the Apostles whose experience was entirely unique in that they had been with the Lord or, in the case of Paul, were directly called by the Lord to teach the Gospel. [Italics, statement ours.] From Gal. 2:2 we learn that the Apostles consulted with each other on the gospel they preached so they would see it eye to eye. [Ayer, J.C., A Source Book for Ancient Church History, from the Apostolic Age to the close of the Conciliar Period, N.Y., 1913.]

On the subject of the [ceremonial] sabbaths he argued that they were to be taken as signs and types and not to be kept when the substance of which they were the shadow was at hand, which is to say, Christ's sacrifice fulfilled these types and shadows and ceremonial sabbaths. He is thought to have written, "The mystery of the Lord's resurrection may not be celebrated on any other day than the Lord's Day and on this alone should we observe the breaking of the Paschal Feast."
Comment: This statement sounds like a forged statement of later times.

On the subject of why in Genesis Sabbath keeping is not explicitly commanded by God see Here!

C. The Lord's day references examined;

1. In his last epistle the apostle Paul spoke about a falling away from the word of God. 2.Tim. 4:1-5.

2. The apostle John is in full harmony in all his teaching with the rest of the New Testament authors.

3. Many of Ignatius epistle's are forgeries.

a. The Greek does not have in it the word "day", but "life".
"No longer sabbatizing, but living according to the Lord's life."
Migne, Patrologia, Vol. 5, col. 669.

b. The Lord's day is interpolated from a larger writing of the same epistle dated around 300 AD.

c. The fact remains that a correct rendering of the text gives no support to Sunday observances.

4. An exact translation of the Greek reads:

"According to (or upon) the Lord's (?) of the Lord coming together break bread and keep Eucharist."
[The word might have been `entole'= command.]

5. The actual day of the week is not identified. Only a fragment of the letter is extant, being found in Eusebius.[136]
Allowing that "Lord's day" refers to Sunday, it only shows a slight growth of the idea and practice referred to by Justin in his `Apology' some 20 years earlier.

6. None of the books written by Melito are extant. Eusebius pretends to give a list of works written by him. The word "day" does not occur in the Greek text, but it is in the Latin of Jerome ( 340 - 420 AD). It reads: "concerning the Lord's". It cannot be determined now what actually was the subject of the monograph.

7. It is not very encouraging for Sunday keepers that the first or one of the first statements that Sunday is the Lord's day, is found in an apogryphical gospel. This indicates the kind of source for Sunday keeping.

8. Pliny's letter only states that the Christians had a "fixed" day for worship. When it is remembered that the Bythinian churches were probably organized by Peter at a time when the observance of the Sabbath was a common practice of the apostles, it is practically certain that the "stated day" was the seventh day.

9. The Barnabas mentioned is not the companion of Paul. His anti- Judaism has to be understood and read. He does not speak about Sunday as the Lord's day.

10. Justin does not call Sunday the Lord's day but in his anti-Judaism he opposed Sabbath observances. He emphasizes that we should keep a perpetual Sabbath.

11. The Gnostic and philosophic thinking of Alexandria together with the allegorical interpretation count for a Biblical apostasy in the theological school of Alexandria.

12. Origen shows a bitterness toward the Jews and their ritual similar to that of Barnabas and Justin before him. He objected to Sabbath observances and to the regulations which were in any way like those of the Jews, because he was opposed to interpreting the Scriptures literally. His method of interpretation was allegorical.
He believed in the Lord's day, but only in a spiritual way.

"I have to answer that the perfect Christian, who ever in his thoughts, words, and deeds serving his natural Lord, God the Word, all his days are the Lords and he is always keeping the Lord's day."
Origen, Against Celsus, Book 8, chap. 22; Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IV.

13. Tertullian was a warm advocate of the no-Sabbath theory. His views reveal a further development of that no-lawism which appeared 50 years before the writings of Justin and is also seen in the anti-nomianism of Montanism.

Tertullian's statements lead us to say that consistency was not Tertullian's strong point. He often asserts in one treatise that which he denies in another. When writing to Marcion, the Gnostic, he emphasized the importance of the Sabbath, and when writing to the Jews he spiritualized it away.[150]
When the different statements of Tertullian are brought together we see that Christians are keeping both days. Tertullian emphasizes that there is kneeling in public worship on Sabbath, but most do not kneel or fast on the Lord's day.

The following testimonies will in part explain the unreliability of the early Fathers.

"The church of Rome, having been conscious of their errors and corruptions, both in faith and manners, have sundry times pretended reformations; yet their great pride and infinite profit, arising from purgatory, pardons, and such like, hath hindered all such reformations. Therefore, to maintain greatness, errors, new articles of faith, 1. They have corrupted many of the ancient Fathers, and, reprinting them, make them speak as they would have them ... 2. They have written many books in the names of these ancient writers, and forged many decrees, canons, and councils, to bear false witness to them." [Ephraim Pagitt, Christianography, Part 2, p. 59, London, 1636.]

Sabbath to Sunday Influences

D. What influences have made the change from the Lord's day meaning the Sabbath in Rev. 1:10 to mean Sunday at the time of Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian? [166]

1. Anti Judaism
a) Ignatius
b) Barnabas
c) Justin Martyr
d) School of Alexandria
e) Tertullian
f) Bar Cochba revolt during Emperor Hadrian's reign, 135 AD.[177]

2. The Easter Controversy
a) Polycarb and Anicetus
b) Victor and Polycrates (bishop of Ephesus 130- ca. 200) (Irenaeus intervened).[182]

Victor I, bishop of Rome, variously dated from 175 to 199 (some 189), in the year 196 took it upon himself to impose on all the other churches the Roman customs; that is to compel them to observe the Passover upon Sunday. "This bold attempt," says Bower, History of the Popes, "we may call the first essay of papal usurpation." Vol. 1, p. 18. - The churches of Asia Minor informed Victor that they could not comply with his lordly mandate. Then, says Bower, "Upon the receipt of this letter, Victor, giving the reins to an impotent and ungovernable passion, published bitter invectives against all the churches of Asia, declared them cut off from his communion, sent letters of excommunication to their respective bishops; and, at the same time, in order to have them cut off from the communion of the whole church, wrote to the other bishops, exhorting them to follow his example, and forbear communicating with their refractory brethren of Asia." Bower, Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 18. -- "Thus the papacy became another worldly Italian court, characterized by intrigue and bribery to be found elsewhere." H. J. Hillerbrand, The Reformation, p. 19.

3. Gnosticism
a) Marcian

4. Gentile influence

5. The Alexandrian School

6. Mithraism

7. Supported by superstitions

8. Statements are found in all general church history books emphasizing the difference between Apostolic Christianity and that form of Christianity we meet at the close of the second century.


E. Historical evidences and lack of evidences show that Sunday as a day of rest was not prominent at all.

1. We have much more Christian literature from the second century, than already cited, but none of them deal with the Sunday question.

2. Hippolytus, a spiritual son of Irenaeus, mentions neither Sabbath nor Sunday.

3. Novatian (ca. 250), founder of the Cathari - most likely these were the later Waldensians, wrote:

"The law was given to the children of Israel for this purpose, that they might profit by it, and return to those virtuous manners which, although they had received them from their fathers, they had corrupted in Egypt, by reason of their intercourse with a barbarous people. Finally, also, those ten commandments on the tables teach nothing new, but remind them of what had been obliterated - that righteousness in them, which had been put to sleep, might revive again, as it were, by the affiatus of the law, after the manner of a fire [nearly extinguished]." [Novatian on the Jewish Meats, ch. 3.]

It is held that the pre-Waldensian Christians of northern Italy could not have had doctrines purer than Rome unless their Bible was purer than Romes; that is, was not of Romes falsified manuscripts.[Comba, The Waldenses of Italy, p. 188.]

It is inspiring to bring to life again the outstanding history of an authority on this point. I mean Jean Leger. This noble scholar of Waldensian blood was the apostle of his people in the terrible massacres of 1655, and labored intelligently to preserve their ancient records. His book, the "General History of the Evangelical Churches of the Piedmontese Valleys," published in French in 1669, and called "scarce" in 1825, is the prized object of scholarly searchers. It is my good fortune to have that very book before me. Leger, when he calls Olivetans French Bible of 1537 "entire and pure," says:

"I say pure because all the ancient exemplars, which formerly were found among the papists, were full of falsifications, which caused Beza (Dr. Edgar says that Beza "astonished and confounded the world" with the Greek manuscripts he unearthed.) to say in his book on `Illustrious Men,' in the chapter on the Vaudois, that one must confess it was by means of the Vaudois of the Valleys that France today has the Bible in her own language. This godly man, Olivetan, in the preface of his Bible, recognizes with thanks to God, that since the time of the apostles, or their immediate successors, the torch of the gospel has been lit among the Vaudois (or the dwellers in the Valleys of the Alps, two terms which mean the same), and has never since been extinguished." [Jean Leger, General Hist. of the Vaudois Churches, 1669?, p. 165.]

The Waldenses of northern Italy were foremost among the primitive Christians of Europe in their resistance to the Papacy. They not only sustained the weight of Romes oppression but they were successful in retaining the torch of truth until the Reformation took it from their hands and held it aloft to the world. Veritably they fulfilled the prophecy in Revelation concerning the church which fled into the wilderness where she hath a place prepared of God. (Revelation 12:6, 14.) They rejected the mysterious doctrines, the hierarchal priesthood and the worldly titles of Rome, while they clung to the simplicity of the Bible.

The agents of the Papacy have done their utmost to calumniate their character, to destroy the records of their noble past, and to leave no trace of the cruel persecution they underwent. They went even farther, they made use of words written against ancient heresies to strike out the name of the heretics and fill the blank space by inserting the name of the Waldenses. Just as if, in a book written to record the lawless deeds of some bandit, like Jesse James, his name should be stricken out and the name of Abraham Lincoln substituted. The Jesuit Gretser, in a book written against the heretics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, put the name Waldenses at the point where he struck out the name of these heretics.[W. S. Gilly, Waldensian Researches, p. 8, note.] Nevertheless, we greet with joy the history of their great scholars who were ever a match for Rome.

4. Cyprian (258), Bishop of Carthage and the successor of Tertullian, writes of a new law and new covenant, but does not mention the Sabbath or Sunday, but in a vague, unmeaning mysticism he speaks about the eighth day.

5. Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, and a pupil of Origen, mentions the resurrection of Christ on the first day of the week, but gives no clue whatsoever as to the type of worship.

6. Victorianus (300)
He writes, "On the Lord's day we go forth to our bread with the giving of thanks. Lest we should appear to observe any Sabbath with the Jews, which Christ himself the Lord of the Sabbath in his body abolished."
On the Creation of the World, Section 4.
Comment: Anti Judaism is obvious in his writings. A lack of exegetical comprehension of what the Bible teaches on the Sabbath issue is also seen. Most of these men spoke not authoritative on this subject but just made an observation of some customs or voiced their unstudied opinion.

7. Peter, Bishop of Alexandria (324), said, "But the Lord's day we celebrate as the day of joy because on it He rose again."
Comment: No scripture is quoted to indicate that these men studied the Word of God to come up with such teachings. They are merely furtive decisions on the part of his contemporaries to distinguish themselves from Jews and even the Jewish Apostles and are based on false theology.

The Creeping Influences of the Cult of Isis in Roman Society

What follows is a description of a church service reminiscent of the mass from around 200 A.D. when many Christians died.

"The daily ritual of Isis, which seems to have been as regular and complicated as that of the Catholic Church, produced an immense effect on the Roman mind. Every day there were two solemn offices, at which white-robed, tonsured priests, with acolytes and assistants of every degree, officiated. The morning litany and sacrifice was an impressive service. The crowd of worshippers thronged the space before the chapel at the early dawn. The priest ascending by a hidden stairs, drew apart the veil of the sanctuary, and offered the holy image to their adoration. He then made the round of the altars, reciting the litany and sprinkling the holy water from the secret spring." [200]

The situation at the end of the third century.

1. The foregoing are all of the important witnesses in favour of the Sunday for the first three centuries. Collating their testimony, the following conclusions are unavoidable:
a) No traces of the observance of the Sunday are found until about the middle of the second century. Those appear first in Justin Martyr's First Apology. The leading reason assigned by him for its observance is founded on a mystical interpretation of certain passages supposed to refer to the millennium. The supposed resurrection of Christ on that day is mentioned incidentally as a secondary reason. About the close of the second century, the idea of commemorating the resurrection by the observance of the Sunday increases, and the term "Lord's Day" begins to be applied to it.
b) During the third century, no-lawism and the no-Sabbath theory gain the ascendency in the theories of the leaders. The representative writers of that century teach that there is no sacred time under the gospel dispensation. That no days are holy, and no observance of specific time is religiously binding. That the true idea of the Sabbath consists in rest from sin. The fancies of Cyprian concerning circumcision as a type of the eighth day appear toward the close of the third century.
c) The observance of the Sunday which then prevailed was not sabbatic. In the second century there is no trace of the sabbatic idea connected with it. It is a day, some part of which is used for the purpose of public religious instruction. In the third century the celebration of the Lord's Supper on Sunday seems to have become quite general [240]. This was also celebrated regularly on the Sabbath. The interpretation of business and kneeling on that day which appears during the last half of the third century, was made because business cares interrupted the festal enjoyment of the day, and not because any true idea as of a Sabbath was entertained. This is shown from the language of those passages in which such interdiction appears, and in the fact that these same writers plead strenuously for the Sabbath as a life-rest from sin, and not as a weekly rest from labour. Dr. Hessey, in speaking of the Sunday at this period says:

"It was never confounded with the Sabbath, but was carefully distinguished from it as an institution under the law of liberty, observed in a different way and with different feelings, and exempt from the severity of the provisions which were supposed to characterize the Sabbath."
(Lecture on Sunday, p. 49, London, 1866.)

Robert Cox, speaking of the close of the third century, gives the following:

"But although Christian theology had not at this time assumed the systematic form which it afterward attained, there is no ground for saying that the Fathers, or "The Church", represented by them, had formed no theory, Sabbatarian or dominical of the Lord's day. Often did the question occur to them, `Why do we honor the first day of the week and assemble for worship upon it?' And to this question not one of them who lived before the reign of Constantine (311-337 AD) had either answered, with Mr. Gilfillan, `because the Fourth Commandment binds the Christian Church as it did the Jews, and the Sabbath-day was changed by Christ or his apostles, who had a divine commission, appointed the Lord's -day to be observed as a Christian festival.'[250] On the contrary, they give sundry other reasons of their own, fanciful in most cases, and ridiculous in some. The best of them is that on the first day the Saviour had risen from the dead; and the others chiefly are, that on the first day God changed darkness and matter, and made the world; that on a Sunday Jesus Christ appeared to and instructed his disciples; that the command to circumcise children on the eighth day was a type of the true circumcision, by which we were circumcised from error and wickedness through our Lord, who rose from the dead on the first day of the week; and that manna was given to the Israelites on a Sunday. From which the inevitable inference is, that they neither had found in Scripture any commandment delivered by Jesus or his apostles." (Sabbath Literature, Vol. 1 p. 353) [253]
"A Critical History of the Sabbath and the Sunday in the Christian Church" by A.H.Lewis, D.D., L.D. Pub. by American Sabbath Tract Society.

2. The first Sunday law issued Tuesday, March 7th, 321 A.D., speaks about Sunday only as the "venerable day of the sun", a title purely heathen, like the second day was dedicated to the moon, Monday.
Codex Justinianus, lib.3, tit.12:3 quoted in "History of the Christian Church" by Philip Schaff, Vol.III, p.380, 7 vol.ed.

They emphasize the creation of light and the resurrection of the `Sun of Justice' nowhere commanded or even spoken of in the Bible.

What follows is the translated wording of the First Sunday law:

"Let all judges and townspeople, and the occupations of all trades rest on the Venerable Day of the Sun: nevertheless, let those who are situated in the rural districts, freely and with full liberty attend to the cultivation of the fields; because it frequently happens that no other day may be so fitting for sowing grains and planting vines; lest the critical moment being let slip, men should lose the commodities granted by heaven. Given on the Nones of March, Crispus and Constantine being consuls, each of them, for the second time."

Thus Constantine played into the hands of the anbitious bishops what they coveted, the "use of the State for the furtherance of their aims." This new pagan system handed the bishops in time the external power to compel men to accept their decrees and submit to the dictates of the church.

The very next day, Constantine enacted another law giving pagan soothsayers official acceptance in the Empire. In all Constantine issued five additional Sunday laws over a few years to strengthen the first one.

The meaning of these weekly Sunday rituals is explained as follows:

"Constantine sent to the legions, to be recited upon that day, a form of prayer which could have been employed by a worshiper of Mithra, of Serapis, or of Apollo [277], quite as well as by a Christian believer. This was the official sanction of the old custom of addressing a prayer to the rising sun." [280]

Constantine (337-361 AD), in council with the local bishop of Rome, aimed at bringing about conditions which would bring peace and prosperity where there was distrust and persecution among the leading religions of the Empire. Thus the foundations for a compromise were laid transforming the Christian Church away from its scriptural roots in the fourth century A.D.

"The Logos has transformed by the New Alliance the celebration of Sabbath to the rising of the light. He has given us a type of the true rest in the saving day of the Lord, the first day of light. ... In this day of light - first day and the true day of the sun - when we gather after the interval of six days, we celebrate the holy and spiritual Sabbaths. ... All things whatsoever that were prescribed for the Sabbath, We have transferred them to the Lord's day, as being more authoritative and more highly regarded and first in rank, and more honorable than the Jewish Sabbath. In fact it is on the day of the creation of the world that God said, `Let there be light and there was light.' It is also on this day that the Sun of Justice has risen for our souls." [288]

This way Constantine of Rome set it in motion to turn his city into `The City of the Sun,' and every following century additional laws and decrees were passed requiring the worship of Christ on the day before dedicated to Mithra - on pain of death.

All Christians, followers of Jesus Christ, are called to rectify these blatant trespasses of the Law of God, and keep the Seventh Day Sabbath holy again, the day all heaven worships the Creator, so the Lord God can train His people for heaven while still on earth, bless and save them as He has promised.

3. According to the Convert's Catechism, at the synod of Laodicea, held about 365 A.D., the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday: "Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday (Sabbath in the original), but shall work on that day; but the Lord's day they shall especially honour, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If, however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from Christ."
Still this resolution did not mean that they were not to have any religious services on Sabbath, for at this same synod they passed several laws concerning Sabbath services. Canon 16 reads: "The Gospels are to be read aloud on the Sabbath with the other Scriptures."
Canon 49 reads: "During Lent the bread must be offered except on the Sabbath day and on the Lord's day only." Hefele, "Councils" Vol.2b, per.93.

4. Athanasius (ca. 295 - 373 ), bishop of Alexandria, left very little which bears upon the Sabbath question. In letter 54th, to Serapion Concerning the Death of Arius, the following passage occurs:

"As we have caused him to be invited by the Emperor in opposition to your wishes, so tomorrow though it be contrary to your desire, Arius shall have communion with us in this church. It was the Sabbath when they said this."
(Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Second series, Vol.4, p.565)
This use of the word Sabbath indicates that the Sabbath still held its place as a day of worship. In the same volume, p.523, in Letter Six for Easter, 334 A.D., Athanasius says that the fast of 40 days began on the 25th of February and continued until the 31st of March, but that it was suspended on the Sabbaths and Sundays during that period.

5. Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem, died 386, associates Sabbath keeping with various pagan errors into which those whom he was teaching were liable to be led. This indicates how rapid was the growth of no-Sabbathism and how intense the opposition to Sabbath-keeping was at that time, because of the prejudice against the Jews. See: Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 7, p.28.

Sunday regulated:

Council decisions:

a) At the Council of Elvira in 305 [300], it was decided that if anyone in the city neglects to come to church for three Sundays, let him be excommunicated for a short time so that he may be corrected. See Charles Joseph Hefele, "History of the Church Councils", Council of Elvira, Canon 21. Edinburgh, T. and T. Clarkem 1894.
b) Jerome's, editor/ translator of the Latin Vulgate (ca. 390) based on a plurality of falsified sources, description of a Sunday at his monastery. "On the Lord's day only they proceeded to the church beside which they lived, each company following its own mother superior. Returning home in the same order, they then devoted themselves to their alotted tasks, and made garments either for themselves or for others." Jerome: "Letters to Eustochius" letter 108. Quoted in "Origin of Sunday Observance in the Christian Church" by W.E.Straw, p.84.
c) Although during these times people were observing Sunday by worshipping on that day, still the idea that no work should be done had not arisen. Even the regulation of church attendance had to be forced by law.
d) The civil legislation in favour of Sunday down to the close of the fifth century differed but little, if at all, from the civil legislation relative to a large number of other festivals.
e) The ecclesiastical action both advisory and legislative sought to discourage "Judaism" and to introduce that false liberty which has ever been the legitimate attendant of no-Sabbathism. They speak of liberty but at the same time they enforce Sunday keeping by law. At best, the Sunday had little or no pre-eminence over days made sacred to saints, emperors, martyrs, and cities. (J.H. Merle D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, bk. 9, ch. 8)

In the fourth century, Jovian, Helvidius, a great scholar of northern Italy, and Vigilantes accused Jerome, whom the Pope had empowered to form a Bible in Latin for Catholicism, of using corrupt Greek manuscripts. [Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VI. p. 338 (Christian Lit. Ed.)] How could Helvidius have accused Jerome of employing corrupt Greek MSS, if Helvidius had not had the pure Greek manuscripts?

F. Historical Evidences of Sabbath Recognition and Observance.

The Church in the 5th century

1. All churches except Alexandria and Rome keep the Sabbath.
a) Socrates, a church father, (cir.385-445) says:
"For although almost all of the churches throughout the world celebrate the sacred mysteries on the Sabbath of every week, yet the Christians of Alexandria and Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, refuse to do so."
`Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers', 2nd series, Vol.II, p.132.
`Ecclesiastical History', Vol. V, p. 22. This church father Socrates knew that all the churches throughout the world kept the 7th day Sabbath, except the Persians, Greeks and the Romans. Why? Because they were steeped in Babylonian Pagan worship.

b) Sozomen (cir.400-443)
Hermias Sozomen shows Rome evidently leading in the effort to abolish any recognition whatever of the Sabbath, "The people of Constantinopel, and of several other cities, assemble together on the Sabbath, as well as on the next day; which custom is never observed at Rome, or at Alexandria." [Sozomen, `Ecclesiastical History,' Book 7, chap. 19.; `Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers', 2nd series, Vol.II, p.390.]

2. The Sabbath was still honoured in Rome at the time of Pope Gregory I (A.D. 590-604). [350]
"Gregory, servant of the servant's of God, to his most beloved sons of the Roman citizens. It has come to my ears that certain men of perverse spirit have sown among you some things that are wrong and opposed to the holy faith, so as to forbid any work being done on the Sabbath-day. What else can I call these but preachers of Antichrist [215], who, when he comes, will cause the Sabbath-day as well as the Lord's day to be kept free from all work. For, because he pretends to die and rise again, he wishes the Lord's day to be kept free from all work. For, because he pretends to die and rise again, he wishes the Lord's day to be kept in reverence; and, because he compels the people to Judaise that he may bring back the outward rite of the law, and subject the perfidy of the Jews to himself, he wishes the Sabbath to be observed....

We therefore accept spiritually this which is written about the Sabbath...

On the Lord's day, however, there should be a cessation of earthly labour, and attention given in every way to prayers so that if anything is done negligently during the six days, it must be expiated by supplications on the day of the Lord's resurrection."
Epistles, Book 13, Epistle 1, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol.13, p.92.

3. Even those who worshipped on Sunday still honoured the Sabbath.

a) Gregory of Nyssa wrote about 372 after disturbances had occurred in a certain church on the Sabbath:
"With what eyes can you behold Sunday, if you desecrate the Sabbath. Don't you know that these days are brethren? He who little esteems the one, disregards also the other."
Migne, Patrologia, Iom. XLVI, bols. 309, 310.

b) Asterius, bishop of Amasa, in the beginning of the fifth century calls Sabbath and Sunday "the mothers and nurses of the church - a beautiful span."
Asterii Arnas Homel, ed. Rubenius Antro, 1615, p.61.

c) Canon 49 at the Synod of Laodicea, 365:
"During Lent the bread must not be offered except on the Sabbath day and on the Lord's day only." [Charles Joseph Hefele, "History of the Councils of the Church" Vol.II, p.316.]
(Note: Human assignments of holy days are being made more important than those of God.)

d) John Cassius, the great missionary to Gaul, wrote:
"There are no public services among them in the day except on Saturday and Sunday, when they meet together at the third hour for the purpose of holy communion."
Nicene and Post-Nicene fathers, 2nd series, Vol.II, p.213.

e) Ambrose's biographer, Paulinus [400], says in his `Life of St. Ambrose', chap. 38:
"He was constant at prayer day and night; he slept little, and fasted every day, except on Sabbath and Sunday."
Quoted in "The Early Christian Sabbath" by Frank H. Yost.

f) The Apostolic Constitution, ca. 375 A.D., Book VII, XXIII says:
"Keep the Sabbath, and the Lord's day festival; because the former is the memorial of creation, and the latter of the resurrection."

Book VIII, XXXIII. "I Peter and Paul do make the following constitutions. Let the slaves work five days; but on the Sabbath day and the Lord's day let them have leisure to go to church for instruction in piety. We have said that the Sabbath is an account of the creation, and the Lord's day of the resurrection."
Ante-Nice fathers, VII, 495. (Probably represents tradition of the eastern church in the third and fourth centuries.[425])

Book II, LIX. "But not careless of yourselves, neither deprive your Saviour of His own members, neither divide His body nor disperse His members, neither prefer the occasions of this life to the word of God; but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms and praying in the Lord's house; in the morning saying the sixty-second Psalm, and in the evening the hundred-and-fortieth, but principally on the Sabbath day. And on the day of our Lord's resurrection, which is the Lord's day, meet more diligently sending praise to God that made the universe by Jesus, and sent Him to us, and condescended to let Him suffer and raised Him from the dead." Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7, p. 422-423. [436]
Note: The schism between the churches of the East and West came about in 1054 AD. One of the principal issues leading to it was the controversy of Rome still observing the Sabbath day by fasting. The eastern churches regarded the Sabbath too highly to do that, although Sunday keeping was then almost universal. Rome made the Sabbath day a day of fasting because they wanted to make it a day of burdens to get people to hate Sabbath and welcome Sunday keeping. [See additional comments.]

4. The problem of fasting and kneeling in prayer on the Sabbath.
a) The only outward difference between the observance of Sabbath and Sunday was that prayer was performed in a standing posture on Sunday, "As Christ, by His resurrection, had raised up fallen man again to heaven." But even this mere traditional honour was also accorded to the Sabbath, as appears from the following censure of Tertullian's:

"In the matter of kneeling also, prayer is subject of diversity of observances, through the act of some few who abstain from kneeling on the Sabbath; and since this dissension is particularly on its trial before the churches, the Lord will give his grace that the dissidents may either yield or else indulge their opinion without offense to others."
Ante-Nicene fathers, Vol. III, p. 689.

These "few" in North Africa who stood in prayer on the Sabbath, were Christian observers of the Sabbath. As Johann August Wilhelm Neander (1789-1850) clearly states, it was through the influence of the Christian Sabbath-keepers, "that the custom became general in the Eastern Church of distinguishing this day, was well as Sunday, by the exclusion of fasts, and by the standing position in prayer." Church History, I, p.404.

b) Not only was Rome the very place where the Sabbath day first ceased to be honoured; it was the Roman Church, which, following in the wake of Gnosticism, first dishonoured the Sabbath of the Lord by fasting upon it. Statements of Socrates and Sozomen.

c) To introduce fasting on the Sabbath would prove hostile to the Sabbath observers.[450] The real motive actuating the introduction of Sabbath fasting by the Catholic Church is given vent in the following expression of Bishop Victorinus at the close of the third century:

"Let the fasting on Friday be extended; lest we should appear to observe any Sabbath with the Jews, which Christ, himself the Lord of the Sabbath, says by his prophets that `his soul hateth;' which Sabbath he in his body abolished." Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 18, p. 390. [But John did not know of this.] [456]

d) Neander, "While in the Western, and especially in the Romish Church, where the opposition against Judaism predominated, the custom, on the other hand, grew out of this opposition, of observing the Sabbath also as a fasting day. As early as the beginning of the third century the learned Hippolytus was led to write on this controversy between the Eastern and the Western Church."
Church History, I, 404, 405.

e) Hippolytus at Rome (died 235 AD) was a decided antagonist of the aspiring claims of the Roman bishops. According to Jerome, he wrote a treatise against fasting on the Sabbath as it was practised by the Roman Church. See Jerome, opist. 71, 6.

f) Bishop Ambrose of Milan (340-397) fasted every day except Sabbath and Sunday. He fasted on the Sabbath when at Rome, but not when he was at home in Milan. See Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, 1st series, Vol. I, pp. 300, 301. The council of Nicaea (321-331) was on doctrines. Constantine, by the `Edict of Milan', which took place soon after the `Battle of the Milvian Bridge', in October 312 AD, gained full legal rights for Christianity, equaling that of any other religion in the Roman Empire.

g) Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430 AD) to Jerome:
"If we say that it is wrong to fast on the seventh day we shall condemn not only the Church of Rome, but also many other churches, both neighbouring and more remote, in which the same custom continues to be observed. If, on the other hand, we pronounce it wrong not to fast on the seventh day, how great is our presumption in censuring so many churches in the East, and by far the greater part of the Christian world."
Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, 1st series, Vol. I, pp. 353-354.
Augustine, bishop of Hippo, wrote: `Justice being taken away, then, what are kingdoms but great robberies? For what are robberies themselves, but little kingdoms?' in The City of God', Book III, par. 38. [Highly recommended, Ralph Larson, `Should Augustine's Doctrine of Original Sin be added to SdA Theology?' online search will lead you to it. And read Who Needs Original Sin at this site.]
Augustine of North Africa developed the saying, `Compel them to come in' which led to unspeakable cruelties of forced conversions, torture and persecutions at the hands of secular authorities, on the request of the church, among so called Christian nations until the end of the 1260 years (1798), the birth of the American Republic.

h) Socrates Scholasticus (cir. 385-445)
"The Arians, as we have said, held their meetings without the city. As often therefore as the festival days occurred - I mean Saturday (Sabbath) and Lord's day - in each week, on which assemblies are usually held in the churches, they congregated within the city gates about the public squares, and say responsive verses adapted to the main heresy."
Nicene & Post Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol. II, p. 144.

5. The Sabbath and the Greek Gospel Lectionary.

a) Only a very few scholars have worked on the lectionary texts.
b) The Saturday lessons prove Sabbath keeping.
c) Bruce M. Metzger writes:
"It is too early in the study of Greek lectionaries to write a detailed history of the development of the system of periscopes. But, if a truism may be indulged, it is obvious that the phenomena observed above must find their explanation in terms of the needs of the early church. What were these needs? A full discussion of the evidence in the Fathers for and against observing Saturday as a holy day is not called for here. It will be sufficient to observe that in the West, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Tertullian disapprove of the observance of the Sabbath in the manner of the Jews. Likewise Eusebius deprecates the Ebionites, who, he avers, were half Jewish in their observance of Saturday and half Christian in their observance of Sunday.
But very generally in the Eastern Church the Sabbath, with the exception of the Great Sabbath between Good Friday and Easter Day [482], was observed as a festival. Whenever the Apostolic Constitutions were drawn up in their present form (and they undoubtedly represent the tradition of the Eastern Church in the third and fourth centuries), they reveal that it was the custom of the Church to regard Saturday and Sunday as possessing almost similar sanctity. That solemn assembles for worship were held on both of these days is clear from several canons decreed by the Synod of Laodicea as well as from Socrates' Ecclesistical History. Indeed, in the former an explicit injunction is laid upon the Church to read (publically) the Gospels on the Sabbath, with the other Scriptures. Likewise the Eucharist could be celebrated during Lent only on the Sabbath and the Lord's day. How ancient the usual Constantinopolitan system of periscopes is, it is difficult to determine. G.R.Gregory hazarded the guess that the Sunday lessons were selected about A.D. 100-150 and the Saturday lessons about A.D. 165-175."
Bruce M. Metzger, "The Saturday and Sunday Lessons from Luke in the Greek Gospel Lectionary"

6. Synod of Laodicea, 365 A.D., advocates religious services on the Sabbath, Canon 16 reads: "The Gospels are to be read aloud on the Sabbath with the other Scriptures." Hefele, "Councils" Vol. II, p. 310.

7. Augustine preached on the Sabbath, and in one of his sermons made this remark: "On this day, which is the Sabbath, mostly those are accustomed to meet who are desirous of the Word of God."
In one of his epistles Augustine wrote: "In some places the communion takes place daily, in some only on the Sabbath, and in some only on Sunday." Sermon 128, tom 7, 629; Epistle to Janarius, chapt. 2.; See also Augustine, `Epistle' 36. 14 to Casulanus; `Epistle' 54. 2 to Januarius; and `Epistle' 82 to Jerome.

8. The great church father Athanasius (active 326-373 AD), bishop of Alexandria, writes:
"We are assembled on the day of the Sabbath, not because we are infected with Judaism, for we have never appropriated to ourselves false Sabbaths; but we approach the Sabbath to adore Christ, the Lord of the Sabbath."
[Psendeathan, de semente, tom. 1, p. 885.]
Did Athanasius use a subterfuge, writing Sabbath when he means Sunday?
The Sabbath was before there were any Jews.

This Athanasius was also the first who translated "washed their robes" in Rev. 22:14, whereas Tertullian (ca. 200 AD), Cyprian (248-258 AD) and Tertonius (390 AD) still translated, "do His commandments" according to older Bible Versions with respect to Rev. 22:14. Thus, Athanasius supported or introduced a corrupted rendering of this passage which reveals the MSS. Sinaiticus, Vaticanus and some Alexandrian manuscripts as corrupted. He left indications that by his time the 27 books of the New Testament were recognized as belonging to the canon. That means that sometime before his days, they were already so recognized and that he only used that information in a list in an `Easter' letter.

9. The "Apostolic Constitutions" book 7, chapt. 36 says:
"O Lord Allmighty, Thou hast created the world by Christ, and hast appointed the Sabbath in memory thereof, because that day thou hast made us rest from our works, for the meditation upon thy law."
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7, p. 474.

10. Eusebius Pamphili, bishop of Caesarea (ca. 260-335/341), is the first ecclesiastical writer known definitely to teach that the observance of the Sabbath was transferred by Christ to Sunday. Eusebius wrote ca. 330 AD.,

"All things whatsoever that it was duty to do on the Sabbath, these we have transferred to the Lord's day, as more appropriately belonging to it, because it has a precedence and is first in rank, and more honourable than the Jewish Sabbath."
Commentary on Psalm 92 in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol. 23, col. 1171 & 1172.
See also Bernard de Montfaucon's `Collectio Nova Patrum Et Scriptorum Graecorum', (2 vols., folio, Paris, 1706).

In another statement he writes about the Ebonites: "They also observed the Sabbath and other discipline of the Jews just like them, but on the other hand, they also celebrate the Lord's day very much like us." Ecclesiastical History, pages 112, 114.

Comment: Eusebius interpreted the Word of God and taught falsely. He lived in the days of the persecuting Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus (285-305). The evidences show that the seventh day Sabbath was generally observed by Christians during the first four centuries. Its decline was more rapid in the Alexandrian-Romanized branch of the church, where it was made a sorrowful fast day. The Eastern Church, less corrupted by Romish influence, retained the Sabbath for a longer period of time and more nearly after the New Testament conception. Yet, the evidences presented show that even in the West the Sabbath continued to hold its place as late as the seventh century, although condemned by the Catholic Church and legislated against. We think here of Pope Gregory I.


Eusebius describing the outcome of the Bar Cochba revolt writes as follows:
"When the siege had lasted a long time, and the rebels had been driven to the last extremity by hunger and thirst, and the instigator of the rebellion had suffered his just punishment, the whole nation was prohibited from this time on, by a decree and by command of Hadrian, from ever going up to the country about Jerusalem. For the emperor gave orders that they should not even see from a distance the land of their fathers."
(Eusebius, "Ecclesiastical History", book 4, chap. 6; He also used the following Greek translations of the OT, those of Symmachus, Aquila, and Theodotion.; See BA, Mar 1988, p. 22.)

From this time on the Christians desired to differentiate as much as possible between themselves and the Jews. An anti-Jewish sentiment began to come in because the Christians did not wish to give any basis for being classified as Jews, and therefore tried to get as far as possible from Jewish ritual. We hear such remarks as:
"Whoever loveth the Jews, ... should not enter in amongst them (Christians) and ministers."
(Syrian document, "The Teaching of the Apostles", Article 15.)

This feeling increased as time went on, and finally we hear Constantine say:
"Let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd."
(Eusebius, "Life of Constantine', book 3, chap. 18.; There was also a `Eusebius of Nicomedia' who baptized Constantine who may be the same person as `Eusebius of Caesarea.'?)

He also passed a law to the effect that "no Christian should remain in servitude to a Jewish master."
(Eusebius, "Life of Constantine", bk. 4, ch. 27)

The third synod of Orleans passed a law that:

"Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday ("Sabbath", original). If, however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out (anathema) from Christ."
(Council of Laodicea, Canon 29. Josiah Strong, Our Country, ch. 5, pars. 2-4.)

Of course, it ought to be understood without saying, today, in this 21st century, we do not support such views on the Jewish community anymore. We can all be children of the divine Father in Heaven.

Constantine and the change from Sabbath to Sunday

"... Himself a worshiper of the sun in the form of Apollo, Emperor Constantine (280-337 AD) was willing to recognize Jesus Christ—"the Sun of Righteousness"—as another manifestation of the sun deity. In certain similarities between the church and paganism that had resulted from reciprocal borrowing, he at first thought he saw an opportunity for forging a unified imperial sun cult, uniting Christians and sun worshipers. His nominal conversion to Christianity did not take place until 323 or 325. ... [Milman, Henry Martin, `The History of Christianity', Vol. II, Bk. 3, chapt. 1, p. 284, 285.]
When Constantine legalized the church in 312/313 it was forced to review its opinion of the state, and it hailed a benevolent government as its friend. Constantine followed his decree of liberation with other decrees favoring the church in its various operations, with grants of funds, of privileges, and of powers, both judicial and executive.
Since many Christians, according to an exaggerating Sunday believing source, had been using Sunday as a day of worship for more than a century and a half, and since many sun worshipers had come to regard the first day of the week as the special astrological "day of the sun," he issued the world's first Sunday law [321 AD], calling for rest from labor on that day.
Constantine did not make Christianity the state religion, but in some respects a bureau of the state. The church accepted these seeming benefits with gratification, not realizing the inherent danger in them until the question arose as to whether the state should dominate the church." [Source: Nichol, Francis D., The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association) 1978., Volume 7, page 19.]

"In the early part of the fourth century the emperor Constantine issued a decree making Sunday a public festival throughout the Roman Empire. The day of the sun was reverenced by his pagan subjects and was honored by Christians; it was the emperor's policy to unite the conflicting interests of heathenism and Christianity. He was urged to do this by the bishops of the church, who, inspired by ambition and thirst for power, perceived that if the same day was observed by both Christians and heathen, it would promote the nominal acceptance of Christianity by pagans and thus advance the power and glory of the church. But while many God-fearing Christians were gradually led to regard Sunday as possessing a degree of sacredness, they still held the true Sabbath as the holy of the Lord and observed it in obedience to the fourth commandment." [Source: Great Controversy, by Ellen White, 1911 edition, page 53.]

Imaginations ran high. "The devotion of Constantine was more peculiarly directed to the genius of the sun, the Apollo of Greek and Roman mythology; and he was pleased to be represented with the symbols of the god of light and poetry. The unerring shafts of that deity, the brightness of his eyes, his laurel wreath, immortal beauty, and elegant accomplishments, seem to point him out as the patron of a young hero. The altars of Apollo were crowned with the votive offerings of Constantine; and the credulous multitude were taught to believe - Not from the Bible - that the emperor was permitted to behold with mortal eyes the visible majesty of their tutelary deity; and that, either waking or in a vision, he was blessed with the auspicious omens of a long and victorious reign. The sun was universally celebrated as the invincible guide and protector of Constantine." [Gibbon, Edward, `The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire', Vol. II, chapt. 20, p. 637; (b) Modern Libr.]

The First Sunday Law (March, 321) was Civil, Not Christian.

"So long as Christianity was not recognized and protected by the state, the observance of Sunday was purely religious, a strictly voluntary service, but exposed to continual interruption from the bustle of the world and a hostile community…"
"Constantine is the founder, in part at least, of the civil observance of Sunday, by which alone the religious observance of it in the church could be made universal and could be properly secured… [p. 380] But the Sunday law of Constantine must not be overrated… There is no reference whatever in his law either to the fourth commandment or to the resurrection of Christ. Besides he expressly exempted the country districts, where paganism still prevailed, from the prohibition of labor… Christians and pagans had been accustomed to festival rests; Constantine made these rests to synchronize, and gave the preference to Sunday." [Source: Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. 3 (5th ed.; New York: Scribner, 1902), pp. 379, 380, quoted in the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Volume 9, Bible Student's Source Book, page 999.]

If Constantine did not cause the final change, who did?

"But notwithstanding all the efforts to establish Sunday sacredness, papists themselves publicly confessed the divine authority of the Sabbath, and the human origin of the institution by which it had been supplanted. In the sixteenth century a papal council plainly declared: "Let all Christians remember that the seventh day was consecrated by God, and hath been received and observed, not only by the Jews, but by all others who pretend to worship God; though we Christians have changed their Sabbath into the Lord's day." [Thomas Morer (1651-1715), Kyriake hemera = `Discourse in Six Dialogues on the Name, Notion, and Observation of the Lord's Day: with an account of several canons, decrees and laws, foreign and English, for the keeping it holy: the way of worship in the Church of England vindicated': and an office or collection of devotions proper for the day, London: printed for Tho. Newborough, 1701, pages 281, 282]
Those who were tampering with the divine law were not ignorant of the character of their work. They were deliberately setting themselves above God. [Source: Great Controversy, by Ellen White, published in 1888, page 577.]

Pope Sylvester I (Jan. 314- Dec. 335 A.D.) Decrees the Transfer of Sabbath Rest to Sunday:

Hrabanus Maurus (776-856), abbot of Fulda and later archbishop of Mainz, Germany, lived after the demise of the Merovingians and the Carolingian house of royals when Pope Leo III (795-816) officiated in Rome in the days of Karl der Große, Charlemagne. Hrabanus, pupil of Alcuin, attained a deserved reputation as a teacher, commentator on the Scriptures, furtherer of clerical education, exceptionally learned in patristics and author of encyclopedia like volumes. Besides, he was a zealous defender of the papacy and its teachings. In one of his works, he says,

"Pope Sylvester instructed the clergy to keep the feriae. And, indeed, from an old custom he called the first day [of the week] the "Lord's [day]," on which the light was made in the beginning and also the resurrection of Christ is celebrated."[540]

Hrabanus Maurus does not mean to say that Sylvester was the first man who referred to the days of the week as feriae or who first started the observance of Sunday among Christians. He means that, according to the testimony of Roman Catholic writers, Sylvester confirmed those practices and made them official insofar as his church was concerned. Hence Hrabanus says elsewhere in his writings:

"Pope Sylvester first among the Romans ordered that the names of the days [of the week], which they previously called after the name of their gods, that is, [the day] of the Sun, Dies Solia; [the day] of the Moon, Dies Lunae; [the day] of Mars, Dies Martis (Saxons: Tiw's day); [the day] of Mercury, Dies Mercurii (Saxons: Woden's day); [the day] of Jupiter, Dies Joves (Saxons: Thors day); Friday, [the day] of Venus, Dies Veneris (Saxons: Friggs day); [the day] of Saturn, Dies Saturni (Saxons: Seterne's day). - They should call feriae thereafter, that is the first feria, the second feria, the third feria, the fourth feria, the fifth feria, the sixth feria, because that in the beginning of Genesis it is written that God said concerning each day: on the first, "Let there be light:; on the second, "Let there be a firmament"; on the third, "Let the earth bring forth verdure"; etc. But he [Sylvester I.] ordered [them] to call the Sabbath by the ancient term of the law, [to call] the first feria the "Lord's day," because on it the Lord rose [from the dead], Moreover, the same pope decreed that the rest of the Sabbath should be transferred rather to the Lord's day [Sunday], in order that on that day we should rest from worldly works for the praise of God."[580]

Note particularly, he says that "the same pope [Sylvester I, Jan 314-Dec 335] decreed that the rest of the Sabbath should be transferred rather to the Lord's day [Sunday]."[583] According to this statement, he was the first bishop to introduce the idea that the divinely appointed rest of the Sabbath day should be transferred to the first day of the week. This is significant, especially in view of the fact that it was during Sylvester's pontificate that the emperor of Rome [Constantine] issued the first civil laws compelling men to rest from secular labor on Sunday, and that Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, was the first theologian on record to present arguments, allegedly from the Scriptures, that Christ did transfer the rest of the Sabbath day to Sunday. [Source: Sabbath and Sunday in Early Christianity, by Robert L. Odom, © 1977 by the Review and Herald Publishing Association (An Adventist publishing house), pages 247-248.]

Pontifex Maximus

A check of history will reveal the successor to the Roman emperors. With the move of the Roman capitol to Constantinople, there was a political power vacuum that was quickly and willingly filled by the Bishop of Rome:

"Whatever Roman elements the barbarians and Arians left … [came] under the protection of the Bishop of Rome, who was the chief person there after the Emperor's disappearance…"
"The Roman Church in this way privily pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation; the empire has not perished, but has only undergone a transformation … That is no mere `clever remark,' but the recognition of the true state of the matter historically, and the most appropriate and fruitful way of describing the character of this Church. It still governs the nations … It is a political creation, and as imposing as a World-Empire, because [it is] the continuation of the Roman Empire. The Pope, who calls himself `King' and `Pontifex Maximus,' is Caesar's successor." [Adolf Harnack, What Is Christianity? trans. by Thomas Bailey Saunders (2d ed., rev.; New York: Putnam, 1901), pp. 269, 270. [Ernest Benn Ltd., London, has recently published a new edition of this book.]

"The archetype from which the pope descends is that of the imperial Caesar, ... while for the most part Italy wasn't even a unified state - unlike France, Spain, England, Russia - that unique supreme Christian authority, purely Italian, nevertheless continued to represent the universality descended from the emperors. It is not paradoxical to say that in Italy the monarchy has continued to exist despite the expulsion of the royal House of Savoy, because the monarchical authority of the pontiff has a charisma and a national power of attraction that no president of the republic has ever been able to claim." [Roberto Pazzi, Why the next pope needs to be Italian, The International Herald Tribune Online, Monday, January 12, 2004, translated by Ann McGarrell from Italian.]

The Donation of Constantine

One of the most famous forged documents ever was the Donation of Constantine, which it was claimed, proved that Emperor Constantine (311-337AD)[615] had given authority and property to the Pontiff of Rome. For many centuries the Donation of Constantine was used by the Catholic church to validate it's claim to authority. OK, you say, but that was a forgery - it was not an authentic transfer of power to the Papacy. True. There was such a document however, the authenticity of which is not challenged even to this day. In 533 A.D. Roman Emperor Justinian in the document declared the Bishop of Rome to have the first rank of all pontiffs, head of all Christian churches, and that he (Justinian) would exert every effort to increase the honor and authority of the Apostolic See of Rome! This was the formal transfer of power from the Emperor of Pagan Rome to the Papacy. It should be noted however, the implementation of this decree did not actually occur until 538 A.D. when a siege of Rome by the Ostrogoths was broken.

"We have been sedulous to subject and unite all the priests of the Orient throughout its whole extent to the see of Your Holiness. ... For we do not suffer that anything which is mooted, however clear and unquestionable, pertaining to the state of the churches, should fail to be made known to Your Holiness, as being the head of all the churches. For, as we have said before, we are zealous for the increase of the honor and authority of your see in all respects." [Codex Justinianus, lib. 1, title 1, Baronii Annales Ecclesiasici, Tom. VII, an. 533, sec. 12 (Translation as given in The Petrine Claims, by R.F. Littledale, p. 293.]
Pope Pius IX gave this remarkable testimony:

"It is, therefore, by a particular decree of Divine Providence that, at the fall of the Roman Empire and its partition into separate kingdoms, the Roman Pontiff, whom Christ made the head and center of his entire Church, acquired civil power." [Pius IX, Apostolic Letter , March 26, 1860.] [Papal Teachings: The Church, selected and arranged by the Benedictine Monks of Solesmes, translated by Mother E. O'Gorman, R.S.C.J., Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart, St. Paul Editions, Boston, © 1980, 1962 by Daughters of St. Paul, Library of Congress catalog card number 62-12454, par. #225.]
The rise in power led the papacy to inscribe the base of the columns on either side of the central entrance door of St. John Lateran, the Cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, the pope. It reads:


The Latin translates to "Sacred Lateran Church, Universally for the City and the World, Supreme Mother of Churches", a close match to Revelation 17:5 which they unconsciously used.

The Church in the 6th century

By this time Christ's visible church had again great sign of corruption by the devil, and almost no one knew what "The Real Thing" was. It was just the way it had always been. Wherever and whenever they were in the world, the small number of "faithful souls" were His real church.[650] Before they had been scattered within the Jewish church. Now that Christ's new "Christian church" had turned into the "Great Whore" of Revelation 17, these "faithful souls" were also scattered within that. The corruption of the Christian church is described in these words, "And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, `Come and see. And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth." Rev. 6:7,8.

The Sabbath in the 6th Century and Onward

In the sixth century and onward the Catholic Church claims the requirements of the fourth (sabbath) commandment have all been transferred to the "Lords' Day".

The second council of Macon (A.D. 585)(Longt. 4.85 & Lat. 46.2).

"Keep the Lord's day, the day of our new birth and deliverance from all sin. Upon it let no one be inflamed by lawsuits; let no one collect fines; let no one create such a necessity as would seem to force him to place the yoke upon the necks of his cattle. Let all be occupied, mind and body, in the hymns and praise of God. If there be a church near by, hasten to it, and there on the Lord's day place yourself in the proper frame of mind through prayers and tears. If your eyes and hands are extended to God during this whole day, then it is to you a perpetual day of rest; this, prefigured by the shadow of the seventh day, is recognized in the law and the prophets...
If with some of you this wholesome exhortation weights but little, or is treated contemptuously, be it know unto him that he will be chiefly punished of God according to his just deserts, besides having immediately drawn upon him the implacable anger of the clergy.. If he has a case in court he shall irreparably lose it; if he be a farmer or a slave, he shall be scourged with severer blows of the lash; if he be a clergyman or a monk, he shall be shut out from the society of his brethren for six months.
Canon 4 of the council of Narbonne (A.D. 589)(Longt. 3, Lat. 43.1) enjoins this abstinence from work upon everybody:

"No man, free-born or slave, Goth, Roman, Syrian, Greek, or Jew, shall do any kind of work on the Lord's day, nor shall they yoke up cattle excepting in case of necessity. But if any one should presume to do it, the free-born shall pay the magistrate six solidi (a solidus is about twelve shillings, or three dollars in 1910), and the slave shall receive one hundred stripes."
The eighteenth canon of the council at Chalons de Saone (A.D.644)(Longt. 4.85 &Lat. 46.8) reads:

"It is generally admitted by all Catholics who fear God that it behooves them to observe the Lord's day (which is the first day of the week), as has been decreed in all former canons: we institute nothing new, but renew the old-- that no one conceive of the idea of performing rural work on the Lord's day, such as plowing, mowing, gathering in the harvest, breaking up new land, or doing anything else pertaining to rural labour. If anyone should be found doing this he shall be straightened out by severe disciple of all sorts."
To this century belongs also the so-called Alemanian law, which has the following Sunday ordinance:

"Let no one perform servile work on Sunday, because this law prohibits it, and the Holy Scripture is altogether contrary to it. If any slave be found guilty, he is to be beaten with rods. The freeman may be arrested until the third offense; if he still continues, he shall lose the third part of his inheritance; if he yet persists, he should be brought and convicted before the diet, and after the duke has ordained it, he shall be made a slave: because he would not have leisure for God, he shall remain in perpetual slavery."
Those are just a sample -- there are lists upon lists of "canons" with SUNDAY LAWS issued by the Catholic Church.

And though they may call it "the Lord's Day" they call on the ten commandments for their validation for Sunday observance.

There are even canons that say Sunday must be kept from sun down to sun down according to scripture!?


What do we mean by Gnosticism? The expression comes from the Greek word `gnosis', meaning `knowledge'. The great heathen religions were looking for some means of salvation.

The place where this striving developed into a great system was at Alexandria, Egypt. Here there was an intermingling of the different religions of the empire, out of which finally grew a great system known as Gnosticism. The greatest influence in this movement was the affiliation of the different schools and religions at Alexandria - one of the greatest university cities in the world at the beginning of the Christian era.

By way of review we may recall that the following characteristics among Gnostics were prevalent:

1. They allegorized the scriptures
2. They worshipped images
3. They clung to philosophical rather than biblical ideas
4. They worshipped the sun as their Christ
5. They observed Sunday
6. They were anti-Jewish in the second and third centuries

In regard to Sunday worship Neander writes:

"They celebrated the Sunday of every week, not on account of its reference to the resurrection of Christ, for that would have been inconsistent with their Docetism, but as the day consecrated to the sun, which was in fact their Christ."
(August Neander, "General History of the Christian Religion and Church", Vol. II, p. 194, London: Henry G. Bohn, 1852.)

Williston Walzer, professor of church history at Yale University said:

"This Old Catholic Church developed its distinguishing characteristics between 166 and 190 A.D."
"Thus out of the struggle with Gnosticism and Romanism came the Old Catholic Church."
"Here a union of what was best in ancient philosophy, chiefly Platonism and Stoicism, was affected to a degree nowhere else realized in orthodox circles, and the result was a Christian Gnosticism."
(Williston Walzer, "A History of the Christian Church", pp. 59, 62, 77. New York: Scribners, 1929.)

The Alexandrian School

Gnosticism evidently had a great influence upon the church members at Alexandria, for whenever we hear from any of them during the first two centuries, it is from men who strongly manifest the sentiments of the Gnostics. Professor Rainy says that in the second century "Gnosticism was, after all, only an extreme case of a general tendency, it was a very general thought that the divine excellency of Christianity must than be ours when we find it rising upon the soul as a deep, pure, comprehensive, wonderful knowledge, ... The author of the epistle ascribed to Barnabas, Justin Martyr, Clement, Origen, are all conspicuous instances."
(Robert Rainy, "The Ancient Catholic Church", p. 117, New York: Scribners, 1902.)

These four men, so conspicuous for the manifestation of Gnostic characteristics, are also the men most conspicuous for allegorizing the Scriptures, spiritualizing the Sabbath, and giving us our early information concerning Sunday observance.


A peculiar form of the cult of the sun was introduced from Persia by Roman soldiery who had, in the century before Christ, been campaigning in the east. This form of worship is called `Mithraism', and its deity was `Solus Invictus' or the unconquerable, invincible sun. The Mysteries of MithraFranz Cumont, 1868-1947 According to archaeological evidence, the Mithraists used Sunday, the first day of the week, as their day for doing special honor to the sun. This new pagan religion counterfeited the religion of the true God more cleverly than any other up to that time. The Roman soldiers idolized this day especially, for its worship included athletic feats of skill and "warlike manliness". Franz Cumont, the great French authority on Mithraism, in his book "The Mysteries of Mithra", p. 151, says that the Mithraists "held Sunday sacred and celebrated the birth of the Sun on the twenty-fifth of December."

In his work "Praeparatio Evangelica (Preparation of the Gospel), book 5, chapt. 14, Eusebius states that Sunday was a day for worshipping the sun. He quotes a heathen admonition in this way:

"Remember to invoke in private prayer at the same time Mercury and the sun on the day sacred to the sun, and the moon then her well-known day will have come, and then Saturn, and the one born of Dione (Venus)."
Cologne ed. 1699, Vol. I, p. 202.

Tertullian in his essay `Ad Nationes (To the Gentiles)', book I, chap. 13, shows that Christians, because they kept Sunday, were considered to be sun worshipers, that is because at his time the nations were still in idolatry:

"Others, with greater regard to good manners, it must be confessed, suppose that the sun is the god of the Christians, because it is a well-known fact that we pray towards the east, or because We make Sunday a day of festivity. What then? Do you do less than this? Do not many among you, with an affection of sometimes worshipping the heavenly bodies, likewise, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise? It is you, at all events, who have even admitted the sun into the calendar of the week; and you have selected its day, in preference to the preceding day, as the most suitable in the week for either an entire abstinence from the bath, or for its postponement until the evening, or for taking rest and banqueting."
("The Ante-Nicene Fathers", Vol. 3, p. 123.) And so, visitors to the Vatican find sun bursts and emblems having to do with the sun everywhere for it became the real god of Roman worship ever since.

Mosheim, noted church historian of the eighteenth century, says in his `Institutes of Ecclesiastical History':

"Nearly all the people of the East, before the Christian Era, were accustomed to worship with their faces directed towards the sun rising. For they all believed that God, whom they supposed to resemble light, or rather be light, and whom they included within certain bounds, had his residence in that part of the heavens where the sun rises. Those of them, indeed, who became Christians rejected this error, but the custom that originated from it, which was very ancient and universally prevalent, they retained."
(Book 1, cent. 2, pt. 2, ch. 4, par.7, in the Stubbs's edition of 1863, vol. 1, p. 134.)

Arabian Sun Worship

Long before Islam, which did not arise until the 7th century of our era, the Arabians seem to have worshipped the sun and moon directly, without images or deities. We read in a speech of Job:

"If I beheld the sun when it shined or the moon walking in brightness. And my heart has been secretly enticed, or my mouth has kissed my hand. This also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge; for I should have denied the God that is above." Job 31:26-27.

Job knew that such false worship was not right, that is why he says, "If I ..." but the people around him had no such reservations.

Another scholar writes:

"Our observance of Sunday as the Lord's day is apparently derived from Mithraism (sun worship). Apparently the observance of Sunday began with the Paulin's churches in Asia Minor, where the Mithraists, numerous and influential, had celebrated Sunday long before the Christian era."
(Gordon J. Laign in `Survivals of Roman Religion", p. 148, 149.)

A marble, 7.5 cm diameter and 1 cm thick medallion was found behind the altar in the Mithraeum at Caesarea which enabled archaeologists to identify the vault as a 3rd century AD sanctuary for the worship of Mithra, the ancient deity of light and truth popular among Roman soldiers. The carved and worn Medallion shows 2 registers. The larger top register shows Mithra slaying a `sacred' bull, below Sol, the sun god, kneels before Mithra; the banquet of Sol and Mithra; and Mithra riding a bull toward a reclining figure.[BAR, May 1982, p. 36. A second image, p. 37, shows the stone altar remains with a round depression which once may have held the medallion.]

A. Paiva, a Portugese writer on the subject of Mithraism, says:

"The first day of each week, Sunday, was consecrated to Mithra since times remote, as several authors affirm. Because the Sun was god, the Lord par excellence, Sunday came to be called the Lord's day, as later was done by Christianity."
(Agostino de Almeida Paiva, "O Mitraismo", p. 3)

Also he compares Mithraism and Sunday keeping Christianity this way:

"The one and the other hallowed Sunday, as the Lord's day, and the one and the other celebrated the birth of its god on the 25th December; and it is beyond doubt that Mithraism preceded Christianity in this and in other points."
(Agostino de Almeida Paiva, "O Mitraismo", p. 60.)

Arthur Edward P.B. Weigall (1880-1934), a historian who is well known, wrote:

"As a solar festival [720], Sunday was the sacred day of Mithra; and it is interesting to notice that since Mithra was addressed as Dominus (`Lord'), Sunday must have been `the Lord's day' long before Christian times."
(A. Weigall, "The Paganism in our Christianity', p. 145.)

And not a few other authors take the same perspective as that held by Gilbert Murray, who writes:

"It (Mithraism) had so much acceptance that it was able to impose on the Christian world its own Sun-Day in place of the Sabbath, it's Sun's birthday, the 25th of December, as the birthday of Jesus."
(G. Murray, "Religion and Philosophy", in "Christianity in the Light of Eastern Knowledge", pp. 73, 74.)

A well-known Roman Catholic work, "The Catholic Encyclopedia", not only states that in Mithraism ...

"the seven days of the week were dedicated to the planets," but also


"Sunday was kept holy in honor of Mithra."
(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, pp. 403, 404, art. "Mithraism".)

And the Encyclopedia Britannica mentions that "the manifestations of Sunday and of the 25th of December" was a special feature of Mithraism, and says:

"Each day of the week was marked by the adoration of a special planet, the Sun being the most sacred of all."
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed. Vol. 15, pp. 620, 621.)

Comparing Mithraism and Christianity, "The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge" affirms:

"Both regarded Sunday as sacred."

It also remarks:

"So, too the Sun, Moon, and planets were objects of regard, Babylonian influence wove into Mithraism its theories of the control by each of the planets of one day in the week."
("The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge", Vol. 7, pp. 419, 421, art. "Mithra", "Mithraism".)

And Chambera's Encyclopedia notes:

"Parallels to Christianity in Mithraic legend, in Mithraic ceremony, and in Mithraic belief will have been apparent, and other resemblances, as the sanctification of Sunday and of the 25th of December, the birthday of Mithra, might be cited."
(Chambera's Encyclopedia, 1926 ed. Vol. 7, p. 241, art. "Mithra".)

Babylon and Rome

Commenting on Babylonia and what Babylon may have to do with Rome we find the following relationship. There is only one church that history shows to have made the claim of authority over the kings of the earth. That church is the Roman Catholic Church, and Babylon is the code word for the city of Rome.

"The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son." 1.Peter 5:13.
This verse is widely recognized as meaning Rome, not Babylon. Roman Catholics have even acknowledged this association:

"`Babylon,' from which Peter addresses his first Epistle, is understood by learned annotators, Protestant and Catholic, to refer to Rome - the word Babylon being symbolic of the corruption then prevailing in the city of the Caesars."
James Cardinal Gibbons, `Faith of Our Fathers', 111th printing, Published by P.O. Box 424, Rockford, Illinois 61105, Copyright 1980, page 87.

The Council of Trent/Trient on the Sabbath

History shows that Sunday worship replacing the Sabbath is a tradition of man, specifically introduced in the early Roman church. This was a key subject at the Council of Trent, held in northeast Italy (1545 to 1563), see painting by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli1476?-1576) in the Louvre (Paris) on a scene of a session [P. Collins, The Reformation, p. 112-114]. The papal tactician was the skilled Jesuit Lainez who became the general of the order by 1558.[740] The papal representative, the Archbishop of Rheggio, silenced the "scripture only" arguments of Martin Luther and the Protestant "reformers" when he correctly stated:

"The Protestants claim to stand upon the written word only; they profess to hold the Scriptures alone as the standard of faith. They justify their revolt by the plea that the Church has apostatized from the written word and follows tradition. Now the Protestant's claim that they stand upon the written word alone is not true. Their profession of holding the Scriptures alone as the standard of faith is false. Proof ... The written word explicitly enjoins the observance of the seventh day as the Sabbath. They do not observe the seventh day, but reject it. If they truly hold the Scriptures alone as the standard, they would be observing the seventh day as it is enjoined in the Scripture throughout. Yet they not only reject the observance of the Sabbath as enjoined in the written word, but they have adopted, and do practice, the observance of Sunday, for which they have only the tradition of the (Catholic) Church. Consequently, the claim of Scripture alone as the standard fails and the doctrine of 'Scripture and tradition as essential' is fully established, the Protestants themselves being Judges." [760]
There is no getting around, the Archbishop of Reggio (Gaspar [Ricciulli] de Fosso) made his speech at the last opening session of Trent, (17th Session) reconvened under the new pope (Pius IV), on the 18th of January, 1562 after having been suspended in 1552. [ J. H. Holtzman, published in Ludwigsburg, Germany, in 1859, page 263, and Archbishop of Reggio's address in the 17th session of the Council of Trent, Jan. 18, 1562, in Mansi SC, Vol. 33, cols. 529, 530. Latin.]

There was no getting around this, for the Protestants' own statement of faith — the Augsburg Confession, 1530 — had clearly admitted that "the observation of the Lord's day" had been appointed by "the Church" only. [See the proceedings of the Council; Augsburg Confession (ca. 430 km/ 267 miles from Wittenberg); and Encyclopaedia Britannica, article "Trent, Council of."]

It is obvious today that Protestants observe Sunday because for many centuries they had been part of the Roman Catholic Church and had observed the commandment of that church to keep Sunday holy.

Few know that the haggling over tradition in the Catholic faith dominated the `Council of Trent' but was quickly settled in one day when the archbishop of Reggio, Gaspar del Fosso made a speech in which he stated that tradition within the church stands above the Scriptures, because Rome successfully changed worship from Sabbath to Sunday and all the world follows in that.

When was the law of God changed? - The first change was accomplished by 321 A.D.

Why was the law of God changed? - Because they wanted to please the heathen populations who worshiped the sun, to make it easier to join the church.

To what was it changed? It was changed so that God's memorial of Creation, became a common work day as it was replaced by the memorial to the sun, the light that was created on the first day of the week.

"Finally, at the last opening session on the 18th of January, 1562, their last scruple was set aside; the Archbishop of Reggio made a speech in which he openly declared that tradition stood above Scripture. The authority of the church had changed the Sabbath into Sunday, not by the command of Christ but by its own authority. With this act the last illusion was destroyed, and it was declared that tradition does not signify antiquity, but continual inspiration." [Holtzman, J.H., Canon and Tradition, p. 263.]

We should not be surprised that many Protestant clergy have spoken in perplexity about the acceptance of a pagan holiday as the Sabbath day; yet most, like the concerned Dr Hiscox, seem to suppress their conscience in the interest of conformity and unity. We read:

"Of course, I quite well know that Sunday did come into use in early Christian history as a religious day, as we learn from the ChristianMark of Paganism Fathers [Roman Catholic clergy?] and other sources. But what a pity that it comes branded with the mark of paganism, and christened with the name of the sun god, when adopted and sanctioned by the papal apostasy, and bequeathed as a sacred legacy to Protestantism." [780]

It is encouraging to note that not all Baptists denied their conscience by taking the easy road to conformity, some saying, `The 4th commandment doesn't say we have to go to church on Sabbath,' thus disregarding Isaiah 58:13,14. In the early nineteenth century, a small group pressed forward along the path of reformation and formed a Sabbath-keeping church known as Seventh-day Baptists. Thus, "He answered and said, Every plant, which My heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up." Matth. 15:13, for "In vain do they worship Me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men." Mark 7:7. Honoring any other day instead of the Sabbath was sin in the days of Hezekiah where they "... reared up altars for Baal ... and observed times", 2.Kings 21:3,6, against the Lord's command where he says, "Ye shall not ... observe times ... ye shall keep my sabbaths," Lev. 19:26,30. Therefore, be rooted only in Holy Scripture, 2.Tim. 3:16,17, and remember Jeremiah 17:24,25 and be "Lawful", Matth. 12:12; John 15:10.

How was the Sabbath changed
by Ralph Larson

As late as the year 791, Christians still kept the true Sabbath in Italy. Canon 13 of the council of Friaul (region north of Venice), states: "Further, when speaking of that Sabbath which the Jews observe—the last day of the week—and which also our peasants observe, He said only Sabbath…" Mansi 13, 851. Quoted in History of the Sabbath, Andrews, 539.

Northern Italy
"First therefore they called them Waldenses and because they observed no other day of rest but the Sabbath days, they called them insabbathas, as much as to say, as they observed no Sabbath." John P. Perris, Luther's Forerunners, 7–8, London, 1624.

"Robinson gives an account of some of the Waldenses of the Alps, who were called…Insabbatati. 'One says they were so named from the Hebrew word Sabbath, because they kept the Saturday for the Lord's day. Another says they were so called because they rejected all the festivals.'" General History of the Baptist Denomination, vol. 2, 413.

Louis XII, King of France (1498-1515), ordered an investigation of the lives of those Waldenses living in his country. It was reported to him that they "kept the Sabbath day, observed the ordinance of baptism; according to the primitive church, instructed their children in the articles of the Christian faith and the commandments of God." William Jones, History of the Christian Church, vol. 2, 71–72.

How and When was the Sabbath Changed?

From a decree of King Alphonso (published about 1194): "I command you that …heretics, to wit, Waldenses, Insabbathi (sabbathkeepers) and those who call themselves the poor of Lyons and all other heretics should be expelled away from the face of God…and ordered to depart from our kingdom." Marianae, Praefatio in Lucan Tudensem, vol. 25, 190.

The Spanish Inquisition alone murdered some 300,000 of its native, elite population, over 31,000 of them were burned at the stake. [Llorente, Jean Antoine, Historia Critica d la Inquisicion en Espana, Madrid, p. 6-7, 583.]

In the 17th Century, several ministers were persecuted for defending the Bible Sabbath. John Trask was put in prison; his wife remained in prison 15 years. John James was hanged for defending the Sabbath, and his head placed on a pole near the meeting house as a warning to others. Dr. Thomas Banfield, a former speaker in one of Cromwell's parliaments, wrote two books advocating the Sabbath truth, and likewise went to prison. Thomas Tillam, a Seventh Day Baptist minister, wrote a book, "The Seventh Day Sabbath Sought Out and Celebrated", published in 1657. You may read the entire powerful book at our website by clicking here. Edward Stennet, a minister, wrote a book entitled, "The Seventh Day is the Sabbath of the Lord." And from prison he wrote a long and pathetic letter to Sabbathkeepers in the Rhode Island colony (1688). See Christian Edwardson's Facts of Faith, 144.

"They held that Saturday was properly the Sabbath on which they abstained from work." Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. 2, 349.

"They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a sabbatical manner…These things Margaret abolished." A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation, vol. 1, 96.

"The Celts used a Latin Bible unlike the Vulgate, and kept Saturday as a day of rest, with special religious services on Sunday." Flick, The Rise of the Medieval Church, 237.

"It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labor. They obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of the week." Moffat, The Church in Scotland, 140.

"I find from a passage in Erasmus that at the early period of the Reformation of which he wrote, there were Sabbatarians in Bohemia, who not only kept the seventh day, but were said to be …scrupulous in resting on it." Cox Literature on the Sabbath Question, 201–202.

The great missionary leader, Count Zinzendorf, wrote in 1738: "I have employed the Sabbath for rest for many years already, and our Sunday for the proclamation of the gospel—that I have done without design and in simplicity of heart." Dugingsche Sammlung, 224.

And we might add the testimony of more historians but surely this is enough to show you that wherever the apostles went—east, west, north, or south—commandment keeping churches sprang up, churches who observed the true Bible Sabbath.

The Celtic Church

"They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a Sabbatical manner."
("A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation," Vol. 1, p. 96, New York: Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1900.)

For some history and B&W images showing 1) a delicately crafted bronze mirror with tendrile engraving found in England, 2) a map of Europe with named Celtic locations from ca. 300 BC, 3) a 27 inch wide silver bowl, called the Gundestrup caldron, which was found in a Danish bog, and thought to have been brought there from somewhere else by Danish Celtish warriors, 4) Celtic arms and armor, 5) An overall and a closeup image of a miniature bronze wagon, bearing a goddess and her attendants, which was burried with an Alpine chieftain at Strettweg, Mur River, Steiermark, Austria, (Lat. 47.1833, Lon. 14.65) in the 7th century BC, 6) A reconstructed Celtic village, 7) A view of the hill of Southbury Castle, England, thought to have been the location of Camelot - can be seen in J.J. Thorndike, `Discovery of Lost Worlds', American Heritage 1979's Geoffrey Bibby, `The Mysterious Celts', p. 174-197.

Dr. A. Butler says of Columba:

"Having continued his labors in Scotland thirty-four years he clearly and openly foretold his death, and on Saturday, the ninth of June, said to his disciple Diermit: `This day is called the Sabbath, that is, the rest day, and such will it truly be to me; for it will put an end to my labors.'"
(Butler's "Lives of the Saints", Vol. 1, A.D. 597, art. "St. Columba", p. 762, New York: F.F. Collier.)

In a footnote to Blair's translation of the Catholic historian, Bellesheim, we read:

"We seem to see here an allusion to the custom, observed in the early monastic Church of Ireland, of keeping the day of rest on Saturday, or the Sabbath."
At the St. Margaret's Chapel near Woodham (Essex) is the tomb of Peter Chamberlen, a Puritan Sabbatarian and physician to the royal family of England and Scotland.  We read: `As for his religion, was a Christian keeping ye commandments of God and faith of Jesus, being baptized about the year 1648 and keeping ye seventh-day for the Sabbath above 32 years.' ("History of the Catholic Church in Scotland", Vol. 1, p. 86.)

Professor James C. Moffatt, D.D., Professor of Church History at Princeton University says:

"It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labor. They obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of the week."
("The Church in Scotland", p. 140. Philadelphia, 1882.)[880]

The Celts

"The celts permitted their priests to marry, the Romans forbade it. The Celts held their own councils and enacted their own laws, independent of Rome. The Celts used a Latin Bible unlike the Vulgate, and kept Saturday as a day of rest, with special religious services on Sunday."
(Alexander G. Flick, "The Rise of the Medieval Church", p. 237.
New York: The Knickerbocker Press.)

An Appeal to the Celts

Today's Celts, or those who consider themselves such, seem to have forgotten, and like disobedient Israel of old, have forsaken the straight path of their ancestors and seem to follow a crooked path leading them under the influence of the enemy of the Lord Jesus. Dear Celtic People, This Website loves your history but please consider these things.

In this world it is only a small minority, a remnant, the little flock, which keeps the Sabbath day holy. They know that many Sunday keepers will yet join the true Sabbath keepers when the issues become clearer to them. It is only in this world that people refuse to worship God on His holy day. While they think themselves in majority, they are a vast minority compared to the rest of God's universe. As the RCC adopted Sunday sacredness in tandem with their pagan heritage, Protestant churches, having come out of her, failed to reform this unbiblical practice. Consequently they partake of her worship on the day of the sun. That they do it, perhaps not realizing, half heartedly may be evidenced by their lax worship standards for that first day of the week. Imagining themselves to not be under the law, they openly break all kinds of laws, trafficking and merchandising on their day, as much as the unconverted do. Considering themselves called of God, they fail to realize that they follow the god of this world and that all their other nice words and true to scripture sermonizing cannot erase that lie which they cling to, when they wake up Sunday mornings after having engaged in open rebellion on God's holy day the day before.

To proclaim that the Sabbath has been changed would be to consider it as grass that will wither and change with age, but according to God's Word we read:

"The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: but the word of our God shall stand forever." Isaiah 40:8

Should the law of God need revising? Anything that needs revision is imperfect. But we read:

"The law of the Lord is perfect ..." Psalm 19:7

God's Word and logic tells us, if something is already perfect, any attempted change will only render it imperfect.

Keeping the day of the sun not only transgresses against the 4th commandment but also the first, for it says:

"Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image ..." Exodus 20:3-4

God abhorred sun worshipping so much, that He gave Moses specific instructions how to erect the tabernacle in the wilderness, He gave him specific instruction to erect it facing east. Then when the Israelites came to worship in the morning, facing the tabernacle, they had to turn their backs to the east and to the rising of the sun, in contrast, to what sun worshippers were doing.[950]

The Israelites were taught not to intermarry with idolaters, the sun worshippers; neither were they to practice or adopt the religion of the sun worshippers, or to worship on Sunday, the day of the sun. They were to abhor the practice of bowing down to the sun, a creation of God. Neither were they to worship on Sunday, for the seventh day had been set aside since the days of creation to be hallowed. [956]

The Church in the 16th Century

By the 16th century, the visible church had gotten so bad that "death and hell" truly were its leaders. On the surface this church was the only church that God had. But those "faithful souls" scattered in it, and out of it, knew better. God knew better. The devil knew better. But he did not want anyone else to know what "The Real Thing" was. `The Real Thing' was known under various names like "unauthorized," "an ancient church," "Waldensian Christians," "United Brethren" and "Vaudois". Satan did not want people to understand that "Where Christ is even among the humble few, this is Christ's church, for `the presence of the High and Holy One who inhabiteth eternity can alone constitute a church.' That principle - known by God's people from Adam to Abraham, was an offence to the prince of darkness. While we want to honor all men, including popes (1.Peter 2:7), Satan set about to bind everyone on earth with the theory that, in order to be accepted of God, you must be accepted by the clergy of the authorized "church" which the devil had become a member of. He had done the same with the priests of Jerusalem in the days of Christ. Now, in Rome, it was worse. - Enter the Reformation.

Other Sabbath Keeping Groups in Europe
In Reformation Times the church at Nikolsburg (Lg 16.6 Lt 48.8), ca. 70 km north of Vienna, Austria, was also divided on the Sabbath question. The followers of Philip Jaeger and Jacob Wideman were called "Kleinhäufler" [a small group] or "Stäbler" [staff men], and the followers of Hans Spittelmaier [in Moravia, about 1529] received the name of "Schwertler" [(spiritual) sword-bearers] and Sabbatarians, Leonhard Lichtenstein (one of the princes of Lichtenstein) held to the latter party.[970] When persecution finally scattered them, the seeds of truth must have been sown by these very people in different parts where they visited on the Continent. .. Sabbath keepers were found in Bohemia, in Silesia (Schlesien) and in Poland. In the West they were found in Holland, northern Germany, in France - as for example M. de la Roque, who wrote in defense of the Sabbath against Bossuet, the Catholic Bishop of Meaux, a suburb just east of Paris. In England they appeared again during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (born1533, rgn.1558-1603) who was the last of the House of Tudor, and who reigned after the reign of Queen Mary, who was called the Catholic or the Bloody (1553-1558) of the House of Tudor. [Dr. Chalmers, `Encyclopedia,' art. `Sabbath', pp. 649, 650.]

The 17th Century

In the 17th century there were numerous Sabbath keepers in England. By way of recalling we would like to mention John Traske and his wife of London (1618). By 1661 there were John James, minister of the Whitechapel Road congregation in East London. Then there was Francis Bampfield an influential minister of the Church of England, and a prebendary of Exeter Cathedral but later pastor of a Sabbath keeping congregation which met at Pinners Hall, off Broad Street, near the Bank of England. He also was arrested while preaching in 1683 and died in Newgate prison. Thomas Bampfield, his brother, Speaker of the House of Parliament at one time, under Cromwell, published a book in defense of Sabbath keeping. Then there were later immigrants to America, men like Stephen Mumford (1664), Roger Williams, the first Sabbath keeping church in America was formed in Rhode Island in 1671. Evidently this movement caused a stir; for the report went over to England that the Rhode Island colony did not keep the "Sabbath" - meaning Sunday. Roger Williams wrote to his friends in England denying the report, but calling attention to the fact that there was no Scripture for "abolishing the seventh day," and adding: "You know yourselves do not keep the Sabbath, that is the seventh day." [Letters of Roger Williams,' Vol. VI, p. 348 (Narrangansett Club Publications).]

Excerpts on `The Christian Sabbath'

Source: The `Catholic Mirror', Vol XI.IV. No. 34, Saturday, September 2, 1893, p. 8.

What Protestant pulpit does not ring almost every Sunday with loud and impassioned invectives against Sabbath violation (CIAS: they mean Sunday-sabbath)? Who can forget the fanatical clamor of the Protestant ministers throughout the length and breadth of the land against opening the gates of the World's Fair on Sunday? the thousands of petitions, signed by millions, to save the Lord's Day from desecration? Surely, such general and widespread excitement and noisy remonstrance could not have existed without the strongest grounds for such animated protests.

And when quarters were assigned at the World's Fair to the various sects of Protestantism for the exhibition of articles, who can forget the emphatic expressions of virtuous and conscientious indignation exhibited by our Presbyterian brethren, as soon as they learned of the decision of the Supreme Court not to interfere in the Sunday opening? The newspapers informed us that they flatly refused to utilize the space accorded them, or open their boxes, demanding the right to withdraw the articles, in rigid adherence to their principles, and thus decline all contact with the sacrilegious and Sabbath-breaking Exhibition.

Doubtless, our Calvinistic brethren deserved and shared the sympathy of all the other sects, who, however, lost the opportunity of posing as martyrs in vindication of the Sabbath observance. They thus became a "spectacle to the world, to angels, and to men," although their Protestant brethren, who failed to share the monopoly, were uncharitably and enviously disposed to attribute their steadfast adherence to religious principle, to Pharisaical pride and dogged obstinacy. Our purpose in throwing off this article, is to shed such light on this all-important question (for were the Sabbath question to be removed from the Protestant pulpit, the sects would feel lost, and the preachers be deprived of their "Cheshire cheese") that our readers may be able to comprehend the question in all its bearings, and thus reach a clear conviction.

The Christian world is, morally speaking, united on the question and practice of worshiping God on the first day of the week.

The Israelites, scattered all over the earth, keep the last day of the week sacred to the worship of the Deity. In this particular, the Seventh-day Adventists (a sect of Christians numerically few) have also selected the same day.

Israelites and Adventists both appeal to the Bible for the divine command, persistently obliging the strict observance of Saturday.

The Israelite respects the authority of the Old Testament only, but the Adventist, who is a Christian, accepts the New Testament on the same ground as the Old: viz., an inspired record also. He finds that the Bible, his teacher, is consistent in both parts, that the Redeemer, during His mortal life, never kept any other day than Saturday. The Gospels plainly evince to him this fact; whilst, in the pages of the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, and the Apocalypse, not the vestige of an act canceling the Saturday arrangement can be found.

The Adventists, therefore, in common with Israelites, derive their belief from the Old Testament, which position is confirmed by the New Testament, endorsed fully by the life and practice of the Redeemer and by His teaching of the Sacred Word and by the preaching of His apostles of the Sacred Word for nearly a century of the Christian era.

Numerically considered, the Seventh-day Adventists form an insignificant portion of the Protestants population of the earth, but, as the question is not one of numbers, but of truth, and right, a strict sense of justice forbids the condemnation of this little sect without a calm and unbiased investigation; this is none of our funeral.

The Protestant world has been, from its infancy, in the sixteenth century, in thorough accord with the Catholic Church, in keeping "holy," not Saturday, but Sunday. The discussion of the grounds that led to this unanimity of sentiment and practice of over 300 years, must help toward placing Protestantism on a solid basis in this particular, should the arguments in favor of its position overcome those furnished by the Israelites and Adventists, the Bible, the sole recognized teacher of both litigants, being the umpire and witness. If however, on the other hand, the latter furnish arguments, incontrovertible by the great mass of Protestants, both cases of litigants, appealing to their common teacher, the Bible, the great body of Protestants, so far from clamoring, as they do with vigorous pertinacity for the strict keeping of Sunday, have no other resource [recourse] left than the admission that they have been teaching and practicing what is Scripturaly false for over three centuries, by adopting the teaching and practice of what they have always pretended to believe an apostate church, contrary to every warrant and teaching of sacred Scripture. To add to the intensity of this Scriptural and unpardonable blunder, it involves one of the most positive and emphatic commands of God to His servant, man: "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy."

No Protestant living today has ever yet obeyed that command, preferring to follow the apostate church referred to than his teacher the Bible, which, from Genesis to Revelation, teaches no other doctrine, should the Israelites and Seventh-day Adventists be correct. Both sides appeal to the Bible as their "infallible" teacher. Let the Bible decide whether Saturday or Sunday be the day enjoined by God. One of the two bodies must be wrong, and, whereas a false position on this all-important question involves terrible penalties, threatened by God Himself, against the transgressor of this "perpetual covenant," we shall enter on the discussion of the merits of the arguments wielded by both sides. Neither is the discussion of this paramount subject above the capacity of ordinary minds, nor does it involve extraordinary study. It resolves itself into a few plain questions easy of solution:

1st. Which day of the week does the Bible enjoin to be kept holy?
2nd. Has the New Testament modified by precept or practice the original command?
3rd. Have Protestants, since the sixteenth century, obeyed the command of God by keeping "holy" the day enjoined by their infallible guide and teacher, the Bible? and if not, why not?

Today's Reasons

Law according to Pope John XXII.

"He (the Pope) alone promulgates the law; he alone is absolved from all law. He alone sits in the chair of St. Peter, not as mere man, but as man and God ... His will is law; what he pleases has the force of law." [Pope John XXII in one of his edicts according to Milman's `History of Latin Christianity', Vol. VII, book XII, Chap. VI.

A Statement of Father Enright.

"It was the holy Catholic Church that changed the day of rest from Saturday to Sunday the first day of the week. And it not only compelled all to keep Sunday but urged all persons to labor on the seventh day under pain of anathema. Protestants profess great reverence for the Bible, and yet by their solemn act of keeping Sunday they acknowledge the power of the Catholic Church."
"The Bible says, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy, but the Catholic Church says, No, keep the first day of the week, and, lo, the entire civilized world bows down in reverend obedience to the command of the Holy Catholic Church."
[Father Enright, long time president of Redemptor's College of America.]

Philip Melanchthon, {grandnephew of Johann Reuchlin (died 1522), a Latinist, Greek, Kabalism, Hebrew scholar,} said, "He changeth the tymes and lawes that any of the sixe worke dayes commanded of God will make them unholy and idle dayes when he lyste, or of their owne holy dayes abolished make worke dayes agen, or when the changed ye Saterday into Sondaye. . . . They have changed God's lawes and turned them into their owne tradicions to be kept above God's precepts." [British Museum, `Exposition of Daniel the Prophete,' Gathered out of Philipp Melanchthon, Johan Ecolampadius, etc., by George Joye, 1545, p. 119 with reference to Dan. 7:25.]

The reasons given today for keeping Sunday as the weekly holy day have changed. In his `Dies Domini', Pope John Paul II in 1998 admonishes his followers to be more faithful to keep Sunday. He backs this up by even going back to creation week, Genesis 2:2, calling Sabbath as if it was Sunday to support Sunday keeping, calling Sunday the church's precept. [`Dies Domini', Paragraph 18.]

"Sunday was established through Christian reflection and pastoral practice and wise pastoral intuition." [Paragraph, 27.]

"Christians felt, they had the authority to transfer Sabbath to Sunday."{Par. 63]

"Spiritual and pastoral riches of Sunday as it has been handed down to us by tradition." [Par. 81]

Comment: So it is evident that, in order for the papacy to be able to claim that the Pope is a god on earth, they must demonstrate that claim with an action, daring and dramatic enough so people will believe him. It is a sad fact, when people ignore the Word of God or do not know it, they are easy prey by clever impostors. Such they did by setting up a counterfeit day to keep as if it was holy.

Teeth and Claw in Roman Law

Pope John Paul II. said, "In this matter, my predecessor, Pope Leo XIII, in his encyclical Rerum Novarum, spoke of Sunday rest as a worker's right, which the state must guarantee." (Pope Leo XIII, was the Pope, at the end of the nineteenth century, who stated that it was diabolical doctrine to preach religious liberty.) From these statements it is clear—religious liberty is certainly not what the Pope has in mind. {See the entire article here.}

Why an Apostolic Letter then?

What was the atmosphere in which the Pope sent out this letter full of Biblical falsehoods and scholarship of the poorest type? Many people have been studying this letter, without seeing it in the context of his prior letter that was sent out on May 28, 1998. That letter was sent out in order to inject into the Roman Catholic Canon law some additional penance. Every one of these new laws deals with punishment! And that is the context in which this letter follows (the one of).

Those of us who are well acquainted with Revelation 13:15–17, know that the time is nigh when persecution will come to those who are faithful to the law of God, who desire to worship God in holiness on His holy day.

One of these new Canons, number 1436 states: "Whoever denies a truth which must be believed with divine and Catholic faith or who calls into doubt or who totally repudiates the Christian faith and does not retract after having been legitimately warned is to be punished as a heretic or an apostate with a major excommunication. A cleric moreover can be punished with other penalties not excluding these positions. In addition to these paces, whoever obstinately rejects the teaching that the Roman Pontiff or the College of Bishops exercising the authentic magisterium have set forth to be held definitively or who affirms what they have condemned as erroneous and does not retract after having been legitimately warned, is to be punished with an appropriate penalty."

Why did the Roman Catholic Church have to create this new Canon law in May, 1998, just prior to the issuing of this apostolic letter on Sunday, which is calling for civil legislation in the matter of Sunday worship? It is time for us to WAKE UP! We are at the end of earth's history. Prophecy is being fulfilled and everything is in place. In the United States everything is in place for the enactment of Sunday laws and penalties of a severe nature.

Another new Canon, which was enacted, was Canon 1371. It states: "The following are to be punished with a just penalty: [We know how much justice there was in the penalties meted out during the Dark Ages.] Apart from the case mentioned in Canon 1364, a person that teaches a doctrine condemned by the Roman Pontiff or by an ecumenical council or obstinately rejects the teachings mentioned in Canon 750 or in Canon 752 when warned by the apostolic See or by the ordinary, does not retract, a person who in any other way does not obey the lawful command or prohibition of the apostolic See or the ordinary or superior and after being warned persists in disobedience."

Did you notice how vague was the designation of those who would be punished? Nowhere does it say, "Those who are faithful to the Catholic faith" or "members of the Roman Catholic Church." It says only "whoever denies" or "a person" who does these things will receive these punishments. A person means any person. It has not defined that these laws and punishments are applicable to Roman Catholics and Roman Catholics alone.

And did you notice how vague the penalties were? Such words were used as: "punished as a heretic," "punished with an appropriate penalty" and "punished with a just penalty." There is no limit placed upon the punishments. However, we do not have to study very far into Catholic history to see what it means to be "punished as a heretic." Just read the stories of the Waldenses or the Reformers, and you can clearly see what the Papacy calls "an appropriate penalty." It is time to awake! These things are happening before our eyes and we need to know where we are.

Rightly Death for Heretics
New Brunswick (N.J.) Priest Says Catholics Would Thus Stop Spread of `Errors.'
"I do not doubt, if they were strong enough, that the Catholic people would hinder, even by death if necessary, the spread of heretical errors among the people, and I say rightly so."
This was the statement made by the Rev. Mr. Harney, a Paulist Father in St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church, in New Brunswick, N.J., Friday evening. The Paulist Fathers have been conducting a mission for the last three weeks in that church. Last week the services were for the benefit of non-Catholics.
A feature of last week's services was a `question box.' This question was read by Father Harney on Friday night:
"Does the Catholic Church regard Protestants as heretics, and does it not believe and teach that heretics should be punished, even with death if necessary?"
Father Harney's answer was:
"In a way, I say yes. Certainly the Church does consider Protestants heretics, in a way. A formal heretic is one who knows he is perverting the truths of God and the Catholic Church. No man, by sinning himself, should be allowed to lead others into sin.
"I do not doubt, if they were strong enough, that the Catholic people would hinder, even by death if necessary, the spread of such errors through the people. And I say rightly so.
"As human society protects itself against the murderer and the man who proves a traitor to the government, so the Church of God has the right to protect itself. The Catholic Church never dreamed of punishing one who is materially a heretic - one who believes things to be true that are not true - any more than a father would punish his child who does wrong unintenionally. The history of the church has been a history of toleration.
"The Catholics have proved more tolerant than the Protestants."
In an interview last night, Father Harney stated that his remarks on Friday evening, as above quoted, were correct. He said they expressed his personal convictions and were in accord with those of the Catholic Church. [New York Herald, Tuesday May 7, 1901; A Record of what the Beast Power says.] Comment: Was the Catholic Church more tolerant than the Protestants? In some cases yes, in others no. Depending on extend of their influence, readiness, politics at the time and many other variables. They had over a thousand years to make people right with God. They did not succeed. They have an account to settle with God.[1020]

Change in the Jewish Sabbath
MK Zebulon Orley [sic.], have announced the findings of a poll, showing 56% support amongst Israelis for his proposed legislation making Sunday a day of rest, allowing some public transportation and entertainment on Sabbath. In other words, they want to make Sunday to be the holy day while taking away sanctity from the real Sabbath of the Lord. So they let the people, since they can't do certain things on Sunday anymore, they can do them now on the Lord's Seventh Day Sabbath. They plan to glorify Sunday and de-glorify Sabbath. The question is why? "Orley's bill would also change the official approach to Sabbath as the country's day of rest. Though businesses and government offices would continue to be closed, places of entertainment would be permitted to be open, and public transportation needed now on Sabbaths would be available. The bill stipulates that such transportation and entertainment would be carried out with maximum sensitivity to the religious public. A survey conducted by Orley found that 56% supported the initiative while 30% objected. The poll was carried out by Brian Macy [sic.] Institute headed by Professor Nidjut Tet [sic.]. Orley explains, Work hours lost Sunday would be made up largely by increasing the work hours between Monday and Friday from 8 to 9 hours. The survey divides the respondents into religious categories, such as secular, highly religious, etc., however, it lumps together the religious Zionist public with those who consider themselves traditional by the observers. The poll finds that 64% of them supports the bill. And if you read the article, you find that they actually fudged the numbers as they did in France when they said that 75% of the people agreed when in reality 75% of the people disagreed to get the law passed.
There was a time when Sabbath was strictly observed in modern Israel.
Now, lets talk about the reason for this anticipated about face in Israel. We realize today, that any politician who opposes Rome commits political suicide. All politicians have to consider Rome now, for the Vatican controls the world. Near future Sunday legislation is in the works, because Sunday preaching pastors will be or are now already considered to be duly elected officials, who will be called upon to enforce Sunday laws (like in the Middle Ages).
The Nazarene paper, `Newswatch' from 1994, Nov/Dec issue states that in the United Nations Organisation at Geneva plans are being worked out to dissolve the United Nations to make way for a world tribunal. This planned project provides for a total unification of church and state and provides for a single form of worship.' That means no more denominational differences - a one world church. `The appointed day for all people will be Sunday. The number received by the people will include the right to buy and sell, in other words there will be an ID card. At the end of this presentation a Christian rose and asked the speaker, `What happens to the minorities who will not accept this plan?' He was told, `Their number (or their card) will be canceled ... and they will be deprived to buy and sell and will be marked for destruction.'
Is this the reason why Israel is pushing for two Sabbath days each week, so they can keep the regular Sabbath along with the global one? And how long will Rome allow this to take place? Once Israel or any nation will give in to such coercion, Satan will come in for the kill and prophecy affirms, God will come to reveal His glory and usher in the end of the reign of sin.

In the early centuries after the apostles, as various groups began to emerge within the Christian community, the notion of "episcopal succession" was developed. This view, more commonly designated today as "apostolic succession," argued that a church (and those in communion with it) that could trace a historical continuity through its successive bishops back to the apostolic age must be the true church, preserving thereby the original apostolic deposit of truth. The idea that apostolic authority also was transmitted by episcopal ordination was a later addition to this line of reasoning. Next the added the claim to absolute temporal power which they try to realize today.

This combination of ideas is appealing, but it rests on two assumptions, both false:

(a) that the role and authority of the twelve apostles could be transferred to successors, and
(b) that historical continuity of bishops guarantees the integrity of Christian doctrine. [In fact it has been estimated that 86.2% of Catholic doctrines cannot be found in the Bible. That shows that this church is not the successor of the apostles.]

The first position is untenable, of course, for the role of the twelve was unique. They were special witnesses to the incarnate Christ--His ministry, atoning death, especially His resurrection, and His ascension (cf. Acts 1:21, 22). Nowhere does Scripture indicate that their distinctive role and authority was to be transferred from generation to generation through certain selected persons. As John R.W. Stott has written: "The apostles were unique in both authorization and inspiration, and they have no successors."[1044]

The second position, which implies that a church with a pedigree of historical continuity to the apostolic age cannot err, is denied by the apostles themselves as well as by the plain facts of church history. These chosen men told of apostasies that would arise from among the leadership itself that would wrench the church after their time. (See Acts 20:28-31; 2. Thessalonians 2:1-8; 1. Timothy 4:1; 2. Peter 2:1-3; 1. John 2:19; 4:1-3.)

Not apostolic succession or a pedigree of historical continuity, but rather present loyalty to the expressed truths of Holy Scripture is the real key for determining which church group one joins. "A Christian community, however it may be administrated," states F.F.Bruce, "stands in the true apostolic succession if it maintains the apostles' teaching and displays 'the signs of an apostle.' "[1055]

Acknowledging the religious confusion of our times, Dr. Stott gives a practical answer to the question:"What church shall I join?" "Almost deafened by the babel of voices in the contemporary church, how are we to decide whom to follow? The answer is the same: we must test them all by the teaching of the apostles of Jesus Christ. 'Peace and mercy' will be on the church when it 'walks by this rule' (Galatians 6:16).... This is why the Bible is over the church and not vice versa."[1060]

True apostolic succession rests not upon the transmission of ecclesiastical authority, but upon spiritual relationship to Jesus.[1063] A life actuated by the apostles' spirit, the belief and teaching of the truth they taught, this is the true evidence of apostolic succession. None of these will lord it over others.

Inquiry Answered

The following is a letter written by J.L. Day of Thomaston, Georgia, May 22, 1934. He wrote to the Pope asking about the change from Saturday to Sunday, and the reply which he received.

Dear Sir: `Is the accusation true that Protestants accuse you of? They say you changed the Seventh Day Sabbath to the so-called Christian Sunday: identical with the First Day of the week. If so, when did you make the change and by what authority?' Yours very truly - J.L. Day

Dear Sir: `Regarding the change from the observance of the Jewish Sabbath to the Christian Sunday, I wish to draw your attention to the facts.

1) That Protestants, who accept the Bible as the only rule of faith and religion, should by all means go back to the observance of the Sabbath. The fact that they do not, but on the contrary Sunday, stultifies them in the eyes of every thinking man.
2) We Catholics do not accept the Bible as the only rule of faith. Besides the Bible we have the living Church, the authority of the Church, as a rule to guide us. We say this church, instituted by Christ to teach and guide men through life, has the right to change the Ceremonial Laws of the Old Testament; and hence, we accept her change of the Sabbath to Sunday. We frankly say "Yes, the Church made the change, made this law, as she made many other laws, for instance the Friday abstinence, the un-married priesthood, the laws concerning mixed marriages, the regulations of Catholic marriages, and a thousand other laws.
3) We also say that of all the Protestants, the Seventh-day Adventists are the only group that reason correctly and are consistent with their teachings. It is always somewhat laughable to see the Protestant Churches, in pulpit and legislature, demand the observance of Sunday, of which there is nothing in the Bible.
With Best Wishes - Peter R. Tramer, Editor, The Catholic Extension Magazine, 180 Wabash Ave., Chicago, Illinois (Under the blessing of Pope Pius XI)

Seventh-day Adventists are not the only ones who keep the seventh day in the week (Saturday) as the Sabbath. At present there are well over 25 million Christians worldwide who keep the Sabbath day. They are spread among more than 25 denominations and hundreds of independent congregations.

Answering Comments by visitors

`Christians shall not Judaize which is detestable!' [1075]

Reply: Christians are followers of Jesus Christ who is Lord also of the Seventh Day Sabbath, the only `Sabbath' known when he walked on this earth. The Bible presents Jesus in cooperation of the Godhead as the Creator God who made this world and everything in it by the Power of his Word. In commemoration of this creative act the Creator assigned the Seventh Day of Creation Week to be the day to Keep Holy - Forever: We read phrases like, `Remember the Sabbath' day for it contains the `Seal of God'', `do not forget', `keep it', `it is a sign' - forever and for all mankind. Jews were once God's chosen people to model for the whole earth how to worship the true God. They failed. It appears that nominal Christianity fails the test today just like the Jews did then. Nominal Christianity is worshipping God each week a day too late - they don't want to remember and espouse God's chosen day, instead they keep a day which was given man by the god of this world in honor of the sun and is an affront to our Creator God, whom those hate, who do not keep His commandments - which are eternally binding and could not be annulled, that being the reason, that Jesus had to die on the cross. To say it bluntly, disobeying even one of God's 10 laws, His standard, amounts to aiding and abetting the enemy of God and disregards the sacrifice of Jesus as if it was nothing. God's Sabbath is not that old Jewish day, "a yoke of bondage" - it is the offspring of Jesus Christ. The Sabbath was not a part of the old covenant or the new, for covenants were not needed in a perfect state before sin entered. The Sabbath was never intended to be a shadow of the death of Christ and the cross, for then we should have had a shadow of death cast across the bright light of Eden before death ever existed. The Sabbath of Creation Week was made for all mankind, not just the Jews, it is the day on which the worship of God lifts the mind of men from earth to heaven. [This may be a difficult message for some but it is important!]

The Ancient English Right to Keep and Bear Arms Protected Against the Inquisition and Enforcement of Canon Law [1100], Providing the Cradle for Liberty With the Common Law.

Under Alfred the Great (871-899 AD), the Right Creates a Society in Sharp Contrast to the Continent in the Dark Ages [1105]. (Charles Hollister, Anglo- Saxon Military Institution, 11-42, Oxford University Press 1962; Francis Grose, Military Antiquities Respecting a History of the British Army, Vol. I at 1-2, London, 1812; J.J. Bagley & P.B. Rowely, A Documentary History of England, 1066-1540, Vol. I at 155-156, New York, 1965; E.G. Heath, The Grey Goose Wing 109, London, 1971)

(Rex v. Knight, 90 English Republic 330; 87 Eng. Rep., King's Bench, 1686; "In 1514 the ban on cross bows was extended to include firearms." 64, Henry VIIi, c. 13, 1511; Noel Perrin, Giving up the Gun, 59- 60, Boston, 1979; Jim Hill, The Minuteman in War and Peace, 26-27, Harrisburg, 1968; Charles Oman, The History of the Art of War in the 16th Century, 29, New York, 1937; Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of Virginia ... taken in shorthand by David Robertson of Petersburg, at 271, 275 [2nd ed. Richmond, 1805])

See also the `Ezana Inscription' and how it might correlate by mentioning the Sabbath day.

Atonement Study Freedom's Test

A Short Bible Study on the Sabbath day

Introduction: How did Sunday keeping begin? Bible students will not be able to find evidence in the New Testament that Sunday was considered to be a holy day by either Jesus Christ or the Apostles or any of the NT writers. In fact, no reputable history or encyclopedia has ever produced evidence that Sunday was kept by Christians in the First Century after Christ was born. But the Apostle Paul puts the beginning of a departure from the truth after his death, Acts 20:29-30. And the Prophet Daniel predicted the appearance of a power among the divisions of the Roman empire who would "think to change times and law" (Dan. 7:25). It was at this time, after the 1st century, that Sunday keeping among other things, was being promoted in the Christian church in an ecumenical move to merge Mithraistic paganism with Christianity. After the Emperor Constantine decided to favor Christianity, he made the first Sunday law on record in 321 AD, to be followed by many man made enactments ever since.

Back: 2 Covenants
1. Who gave the law and does it have any authority over me?

Answer: _______________________________

Isaiah 33:22. "The Lord is our lawgiver, the Lord is our king."
Isaiah 45:12. "I have made the earth and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded."
Ezekiel 18:4. "Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die."
Note: God made the law; He has authority to do as the Creator and Sustainer of man. A soul is a complete, flesh and blood human being who is (in the biblical sense) made up of his body (the soul) and his breath. At death he rests in his grave until resurrection day. - However, the death we die because of old age or for other reasons is not the final wage of sin, the second death from which there is no resurrection is the actual, permanent wage of sin. Therefore it is said, those who are born twice die once, and those who are born once die twice. Being `born' here means, first, our natural birth and, second, our re-birth because of conversion to Christ.
2. Why is the law important?

Answer: "_____________________________

Romans 6:23. "For the wages of sin is death." (Eze. 18:4)
1.John 3:4. "Sin is the transgression of the law."
Romans 3:23. "For all have sinned."
Note: Since we are all sinners, we are all condemned to death by the law.
3. How do we escape the death penalty imposed by the law?

Answer: "_____________________________

John 3:16-17. "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved."
1.John 1:7. "And the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin."
John 3:7. "Ye must be born again."
Note: Faith comes by reading or hearing and believing the Word of God.
4. How can I be born again?

Answer: _____________________________

Acts 16:31. "And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house."
1.John 1:9. "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness."
Acts 3:19. "Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out."
Notes: Believe Christ can save you, confess your sins and rebellion, repent, acknowledge the wrong you have done asking for forgiveness. Christ will forgive and restore you to His image.
5. What part does the law play in our salvation?

Answer: ______________________________

Romans 3:20. "For by the law is the knowledge of sin."
Psalms 19:7. "The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul."
Note: As a mirror reveals the dirt on someone's face but cannot remove it, so the law of God reveals sin but cannot rid us of it. The law shows the problem and sends us to Christ for cleansing.
6. Can the law save us?

Answer: _______________________________

Romans 3:20. "Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight."
Ephesians 2:8-9. "For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast."
Note: The Apostle Paul teaches that the law is good for showing us our sin and thus our need for Christ but that it cannot save us; for that we need the grace of God. Those who have received forgiveness and pardon for their sins are under grace; they are no longer under the death penalty demanded by the law.
7. Does living under the grace through faith mean we do not need to keep the law anymore?

Answer: _______________________________

Romans 6:15. "What then? shall we sin, because we are not under the law, but under grace? God forbid."
Romans 3:31. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law."
Note: Being under grace does not mean that we are now free to break the law; it means that the law is written in our hearts and we are now in harmony with it and want to obey it.
8. What enables a person to keep the commandments?

Answer: ______________________________

John 3:5-6. "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit."
1 Corinthians 3:16. "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the spirit of God dwelleth in you."
Galatians 5:16. "This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh."
Romans 8:7, 13-14. "The carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. But if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God."
Galatians 5:22-23. " But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance."
1 John 5:12. "He that has the Son has life; and he that has not the Son of God has not life."
John 15:4. "Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine: no more can ye, except ye abide in me."
Note: When a person is born again, Jesus, through the Holy Spirit, dwells in that person and brings him or her into harmony with God's law.
John 14:15. "If ye love me, keep my commandments."
Note: We do not keep the law to be saved, we keep it because we are saved.
9. Did Jesus keep the law?

Answer: __________________________

John 15:10. "I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love."
1 Peter 2:21-22. "Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps: Who did no sin."
Luke 4:16. "As his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day."
Note: A test of loyalty [1200]. Exodus 31:17; Deut. 26:18; John 14:21."God is calling upon all to behold the Lamb of God, which takes away the sin of the world. Christ lifts the guilt of sin from the sinner, standing Himself under the condemnation of the Lawgiver. He came to this world to live the law in humanity, that Satan's charge that man can not keep the law might be demonstrated as false. He kept the law in humanity, and when He was accused falsely by the Pharisees, He turned to them, asking with a voice of authority and power, "Which of you convinceth Me of sin?" (John 8:46) He came to reveal to the heavenly universe, to the worlds unfallen, and to sinful men, that every provision has been made by God in behalf of humanity, and that through the imputed righteousness of Christ, all who receive Him by faith can show their loyalty by keeping the law. As the repenting sinner lays hold of Christ as His personal Saviour, he is made a partaker of the divine nature." (Signs of the Times, April 7, 1898 par. 8)
10. Are the Ten Commandments binding for New Testament Christians?

Answer: ___________________________

Jesus says:
Matthew 5:17-18. "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till be fulfilled."
Matthew 19:17. "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments."
John 14:15. "If ye love me, keep my commandments."
Note: The principles embodied in the Ten Commandments are a part of God's character of love. These laws show us how to come into harmony with God's nature. When they are presented, the rebellious heart says, "How can I get out of keeping them?" The heart that loves God wants to keep them and come into unity and harmony with God.
11. How does the born-again Christian relate to the law?

Answer: _________________________

Romans 3:31. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we established the law."
John 15:10. "If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love."
1 John 2:3-4. "And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. He that says, I know him, and keeps not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him."
Psalm 40:8. "I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart."
Note: God's people are called to proclaim the Sabbath truth and many will, with trembling hands, search the Bible for proof of Sunday sacredness. Unable to find such, they are brought to a decision. How will you decide?
12. What role does the law have under the new covenant?

Answer: __________________________

Hebrews 8:10. "For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts."
Notes: Those under the New Covenant will know and love God's law.
13. The fourth commandment says, "Remember the Sabbath." Which day of the week is the Sabbath?

Answer: _________________________

Genesis 2:3. " And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work."
Exodus 20:9-10. "Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God."
John 19:31. "The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, ... besought Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away."
Matthew 28:1. "In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre."
Note: Saturday is the Sabbath, the seventh day of the week: Sunday is the first day of the week.
14. Can God's law be changed? ________________________________
Luke 16:17. "It is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail."
Psalm 89:34. "My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips."
Malachi 3:6. "For I am the Lord, I change not."
Note: The Sabbath is a powerful testimony to the sovereignty of God. Only He can create, and only He can make something holy. This is why Adventists object so strongly to the change from Sabbath to Sunday as the Christian day of rest and worship. Without a clear divine mandate, such a development is nothing less than an affront to God.
15. Did the Apostles keep the Sabbath?
Answer: ____________________________
The Apostles taught the gentiles to keep the Sabbath holy.
"And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures." (Acts 17:2). "Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia: and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem. But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and sat down." (Acts 13:13,14). "And on the sabbath we went out of the city by a river side, where prayer was wont to be made; and we sat down, and spake unto the women which resorted thither." (Acts 16:13). "And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks." (Acts 18:4).
Note: The apostles in the early NT church not only obeyed God's Sabbath command, but they also taught the converted Gentiles to worship on the Sabbath day. Not even once do they refer to the first day of the week (Sunday) as a holy day.
16. How long will the law endure?

Answer: ____________________________

The NT contains some 84 testimonies which teach that the 7th day Sabbath (known also as Saturday) is still God's holy day.

Psalms 111:7-8. "All his commandments are sure. They stand fast for ever and ever."
Revelation 12:17. "And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ."
Revelation 14:12. "Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus."
Note: These two texts from Revelation refer to the end time saints.
Revelation 22:14. "Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city."
Isaiah 66:23. "And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, says the Lord."
How will people be saved, those who never knew these truths? - The Bible indicates that there will be many who never heard of Jesus or knew about the Sabbath who will be in heaven because they lived up to all the light they had. They cherished heaven's principles. and the blood of Christ covered them. After they get to heaven they learn that they are there because Christ died for them - as it is related to us in Zechariah 13:6: "And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends." That means some of the redeemed never knew that Christ died for them. Some never knew of the seventh day Sabbath, yet they will be saved for the same reason. Many will keep the Sabbath for the first time in heaven, Isa. 66:22,23; people like John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Charles Wesley and the godly William Miller. - But those who learn of these truths here and willfully reject and disobey it because they trust in being good church members somewhere will experience this - "He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him" 1.John 2:4; Rev. 21:8. The underlying principle is this, "Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin." James 4:17. God looks at our heart.
Note: The commandments will endure into all eternity. Love for God and love for others are part of what makes heaven such a delightful place.
17. One more question, does a person have any role to play in becoming righteous by faith?
Answer: ____________________________
We lovingly and willingly follow Jesus.
"Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven." (Matthew 7:21). "I protest, brothers, by my pride in you, which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die every day." (1.Cor. 15:31, ESV). "For even thereunto where ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps." (1.Peter 2:21).

Our role in salvation is to lovingly and willingly follow where Jesus leads. That is why we have missionaries.
Note: Yes, Jesus says we must do His Father's will. In Old Testament days, a person who truly had been converted kept bringing lambs to sacrifice, indicating his sorrow for sin and his wholehearted desire to let the Lord totally lead in his life.
Today, though we cannot work the miracles needed to become righteous, we must daily recommit to Jesus, 1.Cor. 15:31, inviting Him to control our lives so those miracles can take place. We must be willing to be obedient and to follow where Jesus leads (John 12:26; Isaiah 1:18-20).
Sin causes us to want to have our own way (Isa. 53:6) and, thus, rebel against the Lord as Satan did in the beginning (Isa. 14:12-14). Permitting Jesus to rule our lives is sometimes as wrenchingly difficult as having an eye plucked out or an arm torn off (Matthew 5:29,30), because sin is addictive and can be overcome only by God's miraculous power (Mark 10:27).
Many believe that Jesus will take all who profess salvation to heaven, regardless of their conduct. But this is not so. It is a fabrication by Satan. A Christian must follow Jesus' lifestyle (1.Peter 2:21). The powerful blood of Jesus can accomplish this for us all (Hebrews 13:12), but only if we give Jesus full control of our lives and happy follow where He leads - even though the path may sometimes be stony and rough (Matth. 7:13,14,21).

The End of the Bible Study on some Aspects of Sabbath day keeping

Keeping the Sabbath on a Round World

And now to trace you round this rolling world,
An eastern and a western route you've twirled,
And made out nothing by the spacious travel,
But what I call a wretched, foolish cavil,
And now to make you clearly understand
That Sabbath day may be in every land,
At least these parts where mortal men reside
(And nowhere else can precepts be applied),
There was a place where first the orb of light
Appeared to rise, and westward took its flight;
That moment, in that place the day began,
And as he in his circuit westward ran,
Or rather, as the earth did eastward spin,
To parts more westward daylight did begin.
And thus at different times, from place to place,
The day began - this clearly was the case.
And I should think a man must be a dunce
To think that day began all round at once,
So that in foreign lands it doth appear,
There was a first day there as well as here,
And if there was a first day, the earth around,
As sure as fate the seventh can be found.
And thus you see it matters not a whit,
On which meridian of earth we get,
Since each distinctly had its dawn of light,
And ever since, successive day and night;
Thus while our antipodes in darkness sleep,
We here the true, primeval Sabbath keep.

William Stillman, 1810; R&H, February 3, 1852.

Miscellaneous Notes & References not necessarily linking to the text above

[01] When was Revelation written? Here we shall address the view that John, disciple of Jesus, who wrote the Book of Revelation did so before the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. since he does not mention that event. The apostle John was the youngest of the 12 apostles. Writing the Book of Revelation he plainly states it is the Revelation of Jesus Christ. John in vision was completely dependent on the promptings of God on what to write and not on himself. Knowing what Matthew, Mark and Luke had written about he was inspired to structure his writings differently. He was of a younger generation and there was no need, he, as God's mouth piece, could not add any additional information on his own volition the three previous authors had not mentioned. So John used a very personal style of writing with respect to his relations with Jesus and omits what they already wrote about. Jesus was the High Priest of God to him. To bring out this message was his special contribution. He states the `mystery', of which the other apostles gave the `history'. The other evangelists wrote of the bodily things of Jesus Christ, John of the spiritual things. So his approach is entirely different in all his writings and that explains sufficiently why he does not mention the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple but brings out many details of the heavenly temple which, toward the end of his long life in 96 A.D., was of more importance to God' purposes. During that year he could be found under Roman arrest on the small Island of Patmos. The early Christian era authors Polycarb, Victorinus (died 303 A.D.) and Eusebius place the writing of the Book of Revelation in the reign of the Roman Emperor Domitian (81-96 A.D.).

[50] Of Ignatius of Antioch seven brief letters exist, six of them were written to the churches of Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Rome, Philadelphia, and Smyrna; and one a personal note to Polycarb, bishop of Smyrna. They are full of gratitude for kindnesses shown on his journey, of warnings against spiritual perils, and of exhortations to unity. To Ignatius Christ's sacrifice is "the blood of God." He greets the Roman converts with "Jesus Christ our God." Yet he did not identify Christ wholly with the Father. To Polycarb he wrote, "He is truly of the race of David according to the flesh, but Son of God by the divine will and power." (Smyrina letter, i.) This sentence he may have freely re-written after Paul's Letter to the Romans where we read, "Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name: Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ." Romans 1:3-6. `His most original thought was that the incarnation was the manifestation of God for the revelation of a new humanity.' In that he compartmentalizes his doctrinal understanding. He thought that before Christ the world was under the devil and death and that Christ brought life and immortality. We may prefer to interpret this as the life after resurrection, which is the eternal life. Like John he saw salvation as life, in the sense of the transformation of sinful mortality into a blessed immortality - again, as the Bible teaches, after resurrection.
Comment: His written record ought to be always read with an awareness of slight changes by introducing words into lacunae of damaged texts and of outright forgeries in particular when his assertions conflict with the biblical record.

[58] The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, Chap. 14:1, Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol. 7, page 381.

[64] According to Greek Dictionaries, kuriakkos means, belonging to a lord or master.

[70] Besides Origen's (or Eusebius's) Hexapla Bible there is also a Syrian Hexaplar translation of the Greek Bible. Hexapla source material can be found in the Ambrosian Library in Milan (unless its name changed since 1902, the date of our source).

[72] The roots of paganism (as well as naturalism), go back to Babylonian time and before, when `Enuma Elish' states there were warring factions in heaven, where one killed the other, and one supernatural deity survived and dissected the body of Kiomat, the prey, and from that body he made the heavens of the upper torso and the earth from the lower. And from those decomposing parts of deity the life forms sprang that we observe today and have observed through the fossil record. But that is relatively consistent with some of the thoughts that have been spread in ancient Egyptian times and with their Nile River. Some of the thoughts that Anaxomander and Pheristicle expressed in Grecian history by their mysteries. Lucretious expressed the same basic concept in Roman observation. And throughout the centuries various individuals and religious bodies have placed their concepts in folk stories that would be legendary, sometimes even in written form, but it all comes to a concept of a cosmic egg, or a consciousness which in time expressed itself in tangible living form. Darwin's,`natural selection' is according to some the answer. They hold, everything that we see, know and feel, our psychic experiences, are all the result of random processes. -- Bertrand Russell wrote, "Man's origin, growth, hopes and fears, his loves and beliefs, are but the outcome of accidental connotation/collotation of the atom; all the labor of the ages, all the devotion, all the inspiration, all the noon-day brightness of human genius, are destined to distinction in the vast death of the solar system, Only on the firm foundation of unyielding despair can the soul's habitation be safely build." If nature is all their is, he was right. But we show he was wrong.
All the gods, all the conflicts are the result of sin. Is there a God behind all the things we see today? Here are some statements of some leading thinkers.
H.S. Lipson: "Evolution became in a sense a scientific religion. Almost all scientists have accepted it and many are prepared to bend their observations to fit it. To my mind evolution does not stand up at all. I think, however, that we must go further than this and admit that the only acceptable explanation is Creation."
Sir Frederick Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghic? after one decade of research: `Life to come about anywhere has 1 chance to the 40,000. That is to say, it did not happen that way. All the electrons in the entire universe are: 10 to the 80th power. If every space was filled, crammed with atoms, we would have 10 to the 130th power. - It is easier for a whirlwind to blow through a junkyard and assemble a Boing 747 in flight then for life to originate by naturalistic processes. Hoyle then published, "Someone has been monkeying with the physics of the universe, with chemistry and with Biology." That "someone" was spelled with a capital "S", (Satan).
Michael Dembton, `Evolution Theory in Crisis,' states, that in biology, nature, expressed in the cell, you have DNA which is the information and repository system, you have the protein synthesis apparatus which supplies the protein for the DNA. However the protein synthesis apparatus cannot function without being programmed by the DNA protein, nor can it function without the RNA providing the energy for its own synthesis, nor can any of these three composites function without a cell membrane in a living system. - Therefore, the origin of life in a step by step series of processes could not occur. You must have all the increments of life, fully developed present. "There is nothing in all of the universe, to our knowledge, in the inorganic material, that in any way compares with the nature of organic living material."
D.J. Fujiyama, `Science on Trial,' "Creation and evolution, between them exults the possible explanation for the origin of living things. Organisms either appeared on earth fully developed or they did not. If they did appear in a fully developed state, they must have been created by some omnipotent intelligence." There is no 3rd possibility.
Astronomer George Greensteen, "As we survey all the evidence the thought consistently arises that some supernatural Agency must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof for the existence of a Supreme Being. Was it God who stepped in and so providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?"
George Ellis, co-author with Stephen Hawking, `The Large-Scale Structure of Spacetime.' "The construction of nature points to a purposeful designer." - - He also stated, that "the cause outside the space-time dimension is obvious, that the Cause of the universe, is outside that spacetime dimension."
Thus our beautiful earth, as originally designed, with myriads of life forms, with a supporting infra-structure, designed inside the globe, with a core keeping the electro-magnetic field oriented, with radioactive elements inside the earth giving the precise nuclear radiation and thermal energy. With the band of asphalt, hydrocarbon, moderating and sustaining a constant temperature with that energy so pro-wisely? designed into the internal structure, with the water, the great Cajun, then transporting that energy through aqueducts and aquifiers to the surface of the globe so that there would be a gentle overflow of water, refreshing and cleansing all of the deposits and the refuse of the Creation of the surface. - Is it possible that the Creator not only designed the infrastructure of the globe and a habitat for living forms, but provided a beautiful thermal canopy that would receive the short wave energy from stellar bodies and amplify the mid-spectral light for the benefit of man and other living systems upon the earth? - Is it possible that all of these living systems were designed, coordinated, orchestrated for the benefit of one, that God would ultimately create on the final sixth day in a literal creation week in His own image to express His own purpose and design to be in charge of the Creation to be master of all that God had designed for the earth and to actually influence the universe itself? -Is that possible?
Our model begins with the Creator Himself. George Ellis and other major scholars have admitted that the 1st Cause, is outside the space-time dimension.
When we consider the possibility of God, can we identify that God? We can do it academically, scientifically, as well as Biblically.
Religions of the world have a common tenor. These deities are always found in conflict. That is extremely important. Know this, if we have created a religion, we will interpret the tenants of that religion in terms of our own experience. This way the religions of the world were created. They express the superintending deity often in plurality, often in conflict, and often having lived on planet earth, then ascended to the sky and then were deified. We find the ingrained notion, that literally, a deification of man is involved. They invoke those great leaders like Hercules, Dionysius and others known in classical studies, and how these were men, later deified, thus we will be deifying ourselves in interpreting all the cosmos in relation to them. - Thus, all of the great religions and creation myths of the world fall into that category of sensual pre-occupation, disturbing conflict among the gods, and an exploit of the creation by that god - we say all the creation stories, except one. - All of these myths of gods and their creations, these pagan gods, some recognized culturally, some found out by anthropologists and sociologists, as we examine extent and extinct cultural definitions - all of these deities, creators for lives origin - sooner or later come to a concept of sacrifice, but the sacrifice of all of these concepts and deities, religious entities, involved what we would call murder, exploit, annihilation, of an opponent, except one. - There is one concept, exclusively, uniquely, that qualifies in a dimension far beyond, any of the man-made concepts of religion and gods, there is a revelatory concept of a God, who did not exploit and take advantage of His Creation, but instead redeem His fallen Creation, He gave Himself.

[120] Sir Wm. Domville (1830-1887), whose elaborate (1849) treatise on the Sabbath is often referenced wrote,
"I have carefully searched through all the extant works of Irenaeus, and can with certainty state that no such passage, or any one at all resembling it, is there to be found. The edition I consulted was that by Massuet (Paris, 1710); but to assure myself further, I have since looked to the editions by Erasmus (Paris, 1563), and Grabe (Oxford, 1702), and in neither do I find the passage in question." [William Domville, Examination of the Six Texts, pp. 131-132.]
It is a remarkable fact that those who quote this as the language of Irenaeus, if they give any reference, cite their readers to Dwight's Theology, instead of referring them to the place in the works of Irenaeus were it is supposed to be found. It was Dr. Dwight who first came up with this quote and enriched the theologians with such a quote. Domville said of that: "He (Dwight) had the misfortune to be afflicted with a disease in his eyes from the early age of twenty-three, a calamity (says his lexicographer) by which he was deprived of the capacity for reading and study. ... The knowledge which he gained from books after the period mentioned above [by which his editor must mean his age of 23] was almost exclusively at second hand, by aid of others." [Ibid., p. 128.]
Domville then states another fact which gives us unquestionable the source of this quote attributed to Irrenaeus. He writes, "But although not to be found in Irrenaeus, there are, in the writings ascribed to another Father, namely, in the interpolated epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians, and in one of its interpolated passages, expressions so clearly resembling those of Dr. Dwight's quotation as to leave no doubt of the source from which he quoted." [Ibid., p. 130.]
Such is the circuitous route of how such false information got into comments on this topic. As a result of Dr. Dwight's poor eye sight, a second hand, interpolated passage from an epistle falsely ascribed to Ignatius, was published for the world as the genuine testimony of Irenaeus. A case where the blind are leading the blind. In conclusion: In all of Irenaeus writings, there is no instance in which he calls Sunday the Lord's day! There is, further, no sentence in existence in which he even mentions the first day of the week! [Andrews, J.N., The Complete Testimony of the Fathers of the First Three Centuries Concerning the Sabbath and Lord's Day, p. 42-44.]

[136] There are a number of personalities by the name of Eusebius: (1) E. of Nicomedia (??? - †ca. 341), bishop of the time of Lucia, Alexander (312?-328) and Arius;. This E. of Nicomedia became later E. of Constantinopel.; (2) E. of Caesarea, church historian; (3) E., bishop of Vercelli in Italy (??? - †371).; (4) E., bishop of Dorylaeum, (ca. 420).; [See Wiliston Walker, A History of the Christian Church, N.Y., 1959.]

[150] It was the intent of Marcion to replace the New Testament scriptures with, what he called a purified Gospel of Luke and the Letters of Paul. It was his apostate idea that the God of Israel was only a just but not a merciful God, a foreign God from whose rule and law Jesus had rescued the believers. The theologians of the church eventually succeeded in defending the Scriptures against this heresy.

[166] Sources on the change include, Rev. Peter Geiermann, The Convert's Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, Herder Books, copyrights 1930, 1957, 1977, p. 50f.; The Catholic Mirror, Sept. 23, 1893; The Prompta Bibliotheca published in 1910 in Rome by the press of the propaganda.; Pope Nicholas, Dis., 96.; Decretal de Translat., Episcop. Cap.; Rev. Stephen Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, p. 174.; Dwight's theology, Vol. 4, p. 401.; Neander, The History of the Christian Religion and Church, p. 186, transl. by Henry John Rose, B.D. (Philadelphia: James M. Campbell & Co., 1843).; Rev. Amos Binney, Theological Compend, pp. 180,181, 1902 edit.; Statements by Edward T. Hiscox, The Baptist Manual, 1890's.

[177] This was the time of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD). During his reign Roman legions were stationed at Nahal Hever which empties into the Dead Sea from the West. While there, they discovered a cave where members of the Bar-Kokhba (2nd Jewish revolt) were hiding. Sadly, dozens of skeletons were found inside. Of course there were many more ancient men who voiced opinions on various subjects but the Sabbath/Sunday issues are dealt with in great detail above. One man's name sometimes is being mentioned, Porphyry (ca. 233-304 AD), who wrote Isagoge.

[182] Emperor worship was usual in the Roman Empire - the "Sol Dominus Imperii Romani", The Sun, Lord of the Roman Empire. This new title and the title "Sol Invicto" appeared together now after Mithraism had taken hold on the coins of Emperor Pius, Elagabulus, Aurelianus, Probus & Constantine. Lucius Verus succeeded to the imperial purple, as the associate of Marcus Aurelius, on the 9th of March, 161 AD. View of ancient SardisHe died in 169 AD. Early in 162 he left Rome because of the attack of Vologases III on Armenia and was successful in defeating that Parthian monarch. In the spring of 166 he set out on his return journey to Rome, and on the way he stopped at Ephesus, where a monument was erected to celebrate his victory and he was officially received by the clerk of the city. It is possible that a well known Sardis inscription was carved at about this time.
That Sardis was twice "warden" (honored), probably of a temple for emperor worship, is also stated in `Sardis', Vol. VII, Nos. 18.5; 63.5; 67; and possibly in 64, 49 and 70. In all other instances the Greek word `dis' is spelled out. Sardis was first `neokoros' as early as the time of Hadrian [D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor, Princeton, 1950, . 1497f]. Up to the present the second neocorate has not been proved to be earlier than the time of Clodius Albinus, the rival of Septimius Severus (192-211 AD); although Buckler and Robinson rightly conjectured that it was granted under Antoninus Pius, Sardis, Vol. VII, 1, Nos. 64,72. [K. Hanell in Pauly-Wissowa, `Realenzyklopaedie', XVI, 2425f.; T.R.S. Broughton in T. Frank (ed.) `Economic Survey of the Roman Empire', Vol. IV (Baltimore, 1938), p. 742.; Philostratus (born ca. 170 AD]
A third "necorate" was granted by Elagabalus.
The chief priest was the principal official of the `svivon' of Asia and held office for one year. Besides the duty of conducting the worship of Roma and the emperor, he had secular functions as well. It was Magie who rejected the idea that special local archiereis were elected in addition to the chief priest of the city.
The Sardis inscription reads: "The city of Sardians, twice temple-warden, [honored?] the Imperator Caesar Aurelius Antoninus Verus Augustus. Claudius Antonius Lepidus dedicated [this], [being] high priest of Asia, first treasurer, who by virtue of his office took charge of the arrangements for the gymnasium." [BASOR, #158, April 1960, p. 8-9.]

[200] Samuel Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, McMillan Publishing, London, 1904, pp. 577-578. Dictionary: 1) "tonsured" - a bald shaved spot on the crown of the head with a ring of hair on the outside in honor of the "dies solis" sun god. All the other gods (weekdays which followed Moon Day/ Monday) were subservient to the "dies lunae" moon god. (Lev. 21:5; Deut. 14:1); 2) "acolytes" - Men and women dressed in robes as altar boys function today during a Catholic church service.; 3) "litany" - Mystic words spoken in an unknown language. - It did not take long that Christians discovered, that, if they patterned their church service after such rituals, they were not persecuted anymore.

[240] The breaking of bread and drinking of the fruit of grapes has a long history. The Lord's Supper builds on this custom but redirects its emphasis to Jesus Christ and how He gave His life, the blood, His body, the bread as the Lamb of God on the cross. Speaking on the `bread of life' Jesus also builds upon the provisions of manna and his feeding of the 5000 at the Sea of Galilee, showing how mindful God is of wholesome nourishment for our physical needs. God uses these images to show how His Word in Bible study brings heaven to His church and individual believers. What separates a common meal from the Christ instituted `Lord's Supper' or `Communion Service' is the opening `foot washing' and the reading of the scriptures to direct the participants thoughts to the efficacy of Christ's example. Many entertain the error in esteeming themselves more highly than their fellow members. This self elevation often results in evil surmisings and bitterness of spirit. The ordinance of foot washing preceding the Lord's Supper is to clear away these misunderstandings, to bring man out of his selfishness, down from his stilts of self-exaltation, to the humility of heart that will lead him to serve his brother. Early authors at first wrote about the memorial of Christ and His death saying, `Thou "didst bestow upon us spiritual food and drink and eternal life through Thy Son"' and from Christ come "life and knowledge." Subsequent authors from the time of Ignatius on, began to teach erroneous views by interpreting Bible verses out of context of the entire Bible.

[250] What did Philo-Judaeus, a contemporary of Josephus, say about Sabbath keeping? Philo bears an emphatic testimony relative to the character of the Sabbath as a memorial. We read, "But after the whole world had been completed according to the perfect nature of the number six, the Father hallowed the day following, the seventh, praising it, and calling it holy. For that day is the festival, not of one city or one country, but of all the earth; a day which alone it is right to call the day of festival for all people, and the birth-day of the world." [Philo, Works, Vol. 1, `The Creation of the World,', Sec. 30.]

[253] It is truly amazing and shows the insight and inspiration of the Bible how the eighth day is represented in its pages. Of course the 8th day is the same as the 1st day - today's Sunday. The `eighth' came to some prominence and awareness in the days of King Jeroboam, after the separation of the Ten Tribes from the still a bit more faithful Two Tribes in the days of Jeroboam. This king, in order to consolodiate his position and keep his tribal people from keeping contact with the southern two tribes, changed God's `Day of Atonement' ordinance from the 15th day of the 7th month to the 15th day of the 8th month, for we read in God's book of records, "And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. . . .the fifteenth day of the eighth month." 1.Kings 12:32,33. This change implemented by this Egyptian educated, heathen king was a change of the expressly stated ordinances and laws of God, just like later the Roman Church, at the time of the ten ruling horn powers in Europe, sinned against God by changing God's sacred and holy seventh day Sabbath to the eighth day. Not only that, they too blasphemed God like Jeroboam (in that he, not being an ordained priest, offered sacrifices and incence on the altar), in that they desecrated God's sign of His Creatorship of heaven and earth and changed it to the day the pagans kept, as if it was holy, and that with pride in their hearts, disregarding the fact that God will bring such sinners before His bar of justice, where the records are examined to determine who will live with God in His kingdom and who will not. Then, at the end of the world the sheep will be separated from the goats, Matth. 25:32,33. Then those who have despised the Word of God will face the Author of the inspired oracles, the Bible. And we should know that we cannot afford to live with no reference to the day of judgment; for though long delayed, it is now near, even at the door, and hasteth greatly. The trumpet of the Archangel will soon startle the living and wake the dead. At that day the wicked will be separated from the just, as the shepherd divides the goats from the sheep.

[265] He also said, ". . . we desire that all peoples subject to our benign Empire shall live under the same religion that the divine Peter, the Apostle" gave. Of course we know that the Apostle Simon Peter had nothing to do with this Romish Church. If anyone, it was Simon Magus (Acts 8:9-25) who was changed into the Apostle `Simon Peter' by the church which patronized Justinian, and which is documented in Code of Justinian, Book III, title 12, law 3.(See also Simon Magus in German.)

[277] Pagan mythology has it that Apollo and Artemis were born on the Island of Delos which lies opposite of Naxos and out of sight from the Cycladic Islands of Keros, Dashkalio, Amorgos, Ios and Sikinos. [Current World Archaeology, Dec/Jan 07/08, No, 26, p. 12-26.]

[280] Duruy, Victor, History of Rome, Vol. 7, p. 489.

[288] Eusebius, Commentary on the Psalms, Psalm 91, in Patrologie Cursus Completus, ed. J.P. Migne, p. 23, 1169-1172. Where in their thinking the `Logos' is understood to be Christ, the `New Alliance' a new covenant and `things proscribed' or changed away from the "Bible" Sabbath.
See also Hutton Webster, Rest Days, pp. 122-123, 270. Webster was an American anthropologist and historian teaching at the university of Nebraska.
Walter Woodburn Hyde, Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire, 1946, p. 60, 261. Hyde (1870-??) was an American ancient history professor and writer in several universities.
Agostinho de Almeida Paiva, O Mitraiomo, p. 3.
Chamber's Encyclopedia, Article: `Sabbath'.
Antoine Villen, A History of the Commandments of the Church, 1915, p. 23. He was a Catholic priest and professor at the Catholic University of Paris, France.

[300] Over the centuries numerous ecclesiastical councils took place: 1) The council of Toulouse (1229) met during the years of the crusade against the Albigenses, ruled: "We prohibit laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament. . . . We forbid them most severely to have the above books in the popular vernacular." "The lords of the districts shall carefully seek out the heretics in dwellings, hovels, and forests, and even their underground retreats shall be entirely wiped out." "This pest (the Bible) had taken such an extension that some people had appointed priests of their own, and even some evangelists who distorted and destroyed the truth of the gospel and made new gospels for their own purpose ... (they know that) the preaching and explanation of the Bible is absolutely forbidden to the lay members." -- Acts of Inquisition, Philip Van Limborch, `History of the Inquisition', Ch. 8.--Council Tolosanum, Pope Gregory IX, Anno. Chr. 1229. Canons 14 and 2. This council sat at the time of the crusade against the Albigenses. 2) The council of Tarragona, 1234, ruled on the matter of forbidden books (The Catholic Index Expurgatorius) that: "No one may possess the books of the Old and the New Testaments in the Roman Language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he be suspected until he is cleared of all suspicion."--D. Lortsch, `Histoire de la Bible en France', 1910, P. 14.; 3) At the council of Constance, in 1415, Wycliffe was posthumously condemned by Arundel, the archbishop of Canterbury, as "That pestilent wretch of damnable heresy who invented a new translation of the Scriptures in his mother tongue." The council of Basel (July-Dec 1431 and 1433). When Dr. M. Luther stated that councils have contradicted each other he meant that the Lateran Council (1215)** reversed the claim of the Council of Constance and Basel, that a council is above the pope. The opposition to the Bible by the RCC has continued through the centuries and was increased particularly at the time of the founding of the Bible Societies. On December 8, 1866, Pope Pius IX, in his encyclical `Quanta Cura', issued a syllabus of 80 errors under 10 different headings. Under heading 5 we find listed: "Socialism, communism, clandestine societies, Bible Societies. . . . pests of this sort must be destroyed by all possible means." (The voice of antichrist)
Additional sources: R.F. Bellarmine, `On the Authority of Councils', ed. 1619.; William E. H. Lecky, `History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe', London: Longmans, Green & Company, 1904.; Neander, `The History of the Christian Religion and Church', trans. by Henry Rose, B.D., Philadelphia: James M. Campbell & Co., 1843.;
This `Lateran Council' decreed, "That all heretics, (that is all who have an opinion of their own), shall be delivered over to the civil magistrate to be burned." (See `Brutus' in a serious of articles titled, `Against the Liberties of the United States' in the `New York Observer', Leavitt, Lord & Co., 1835, Libr. of Congress.; compiled., p. 41.) The `Council of Chalcedone' took place in 451 AD. Its pronouncements were not accepted by the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria resulting in his religion not being regarded as orthodox by most in Christendom.

[350] The part of the world where Sabbath keeping was preserved for centuries was in Abyssinia/ Ethiopia as a consequence of the eunuch accepting the gospel of Jesus Christ. Up to the 16th century Sabbath was the day of worship and Sunday a day of general assembly. The Muslims surrounding Ethiopia, were instrumental in changing their language. The more the language changed, the more the Ethiopian Bible became a dead book to them and the people were starved spiritually. Around 1534 the Abyssinians were hard pressed by the surrounding Muslims and they asked the current world power, Portugal, to send help. This help arrived in the form of a regiment of Portugese soldiers accompanied by Jesuits. These churchmen influenced King Zadenghel to submit to the papacy by 1604. One of the first efforts they made was to issue a proclamation: "... prohibiting all subjects, upon severe penalties, to observe Saturday any longer." The king's successor Segued submitted to the papacy. [Literature: I.L., `The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius' and/or `Fiery Jesuits', 1661; William Guy Carr, `Pawns in the Game'; Lady Queensborough, `Occult Theocrasy'; Avro Manhattan, `Catholic Power Today'; Filop Miller, `The Power of the Jesuits'.]
The by the RCC clergy supported campaign of conquest into Abyssenia under Mussolini ended in a similar way as that of the 16th century. Jesuit cardinal of Milan, Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster's initial enthusiasm on the victory of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany is understandable as the `Company of Jesus' had suffered the same fate in Abyssinia, as in the European countries. With the help of the usurper Segud, whom they had converted and put on the throne, the sons of Loyola tried to impose catholicism on the whole country, provoking uprisings and bloody repressions; but they were finally expelled by the `Negus Basilides'. [ Camille Cianfarra, `La Guerre et la Vatican', Le Portulan, Paris 1946, pp. 46-48.]

[0215] How does the Bible characterize the Antichrist? - The Anti-Christ is actually a person who thinks he takes the place of Christ. He substitutes himself, he is a pretender. We recall that even in the closest circle of the followers of Jesus was one who in time was found to be a pretender. His name was Judas Ischariot. As we study the life of Judas we discover the following parallels between him and the anti-Christ.

Judas Ischariot The Anti-Christ
1. Judas was called the "son of perdition." John 17:12 The Anti-Christ is called the "son of perdition." 2.Thess. 2:3
2. He worked miracles. Matth. 10:1; Lk. 10:17. He worked miracles. 2.Thess. 2:9
3. He was Influential in community. Matth. 10 He is Influential in community. Rev. 13:3,8
4. He is within the church. Matth. 10 Also within the church. 2.Thess. 2:4
5. He was church treasurer. Jh. 13:29 Is part of a wealthy church. Rev. 17:4
6. He preached in the name of the Lord. Lk. 10:1,2 Also preached in the name of the Lord. 2.Thess. 2:4
7. He was a trusted friend of Jesus. Ps. 41:9 A trusted friend of the Christians. Rev. 13:3,8
8. He betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Jh. 13:21-30; 18:1-6. Betrayed gospel while professing to uplift it. Rev. 17:3-5; 2.Thess. 2:3,4
9. He is a professed follower of Christ. Matth. 10:4 A professed Christian. 2.Thess. 2:3,4
10. The disciples of Jesus were shocked at his final moves. Jh. 13:18-30 The Christians are shocked at its final moves. Rev. 13:17,18
11. He was a good disciple gone bad. Mt. 10; Jh. 13:18-30 A good church gone bad. Rev. 17:3-5

[400] For your information: `Introduction of Christianity in the Rhine Land', Ancient Egypt, Part I, Mar 1928, p. 12-16: Features images of: A silver plate on the coffin of St. Paulinus; Noah and his family on a sarcophagus from Treves. Part I, Mar 1928.

[425] Some defenders of the Sunday movement will state that Jesus Christ and the apostles frequently spoke on a subject and ended with a reference to the resurrection and that is precisely why the early Christian church began to hold Sunday as the sacred day. What these defenders of Sunday keeping do not acknowledge is that this change from Sabbath to Sunday was arranged by the more and more apostate turning Christian church and therefore represents rebellion toward the Law of God since the 4th commandment was never abolished by God.

[436] The day of the resurrection of Jesus Christ is never called the Lord's day in the Bible; however, that special day is memorialized by the rite of adult baptism (Romans 6:3-5) during which the baptismal candidate is immersed (buried) in the water, which symbolizes the death and resurrection of Christ. The "Lord's Day" is either the day of the Second Coming of Christ (Is. 13:9; Mat. 12:8; Mk. 2:28; Lk. 6:5) or the seventh day (Saturday) Sabbath day (Matthew 12:8). There is not a single hint in the Bible that true believers in the Almighty God, Creator of the universe, ought to be worshiped on any other day than the seventh day Sabbath, which He hallowed and sanctified for all to worship on. It was Satan's plan to upset this and give the world a fictitious day - their pagan Sunday-sabbath.

[450] Actually, fasting does not only refer to abstaining from food. It also can mean to abstain from other activities, like too much sports, watching television, etc.

[456] The phrase `... his soul hateth', Psalm 11:5, which appears only here in the Bible, seems to be quoted out of context for it does not talk of the Sabbath in that Bible verse but of those who love violence like those who persecuted God's people.

[482] Sun worship is historically connected to Roman style Mithraism. The spread of Mithraism was already underway when Caesar Augustus became emperor, just before the birth of Jesus Christ. It was destined to become the strongest rival of the Christian faith. Its popularity caused Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) erect a temple to Mithra at the seaport of Ostia, just south of Rome. His son Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180) was responsible for executing Polycarb. [John Fox, Martyrs, p. 20.]
Following the execution of the entirely of Christian soldiers composed 7000 member Theban legion stationed in France in 286 AD by command of the crude, autocratic Emperor Diocletian (284-305) probably influenced by the eastern Caesar Galerius, Mithraism won the day in the Roman lands, the soldiery, public and elite.[Diocletian came to power after the murder of his predecessor Numerian.]
Since among Christians the days of the week had no names but were called by their number (first, second, etc), calling days by names is of purely pagan origin. While the names for the 2nd (Monday) through the 6th day (Friday) were fairly new, the name for the 1st day (Sun-day) was not. `Dies Solis' became the main day `lighting' up the moon day (Monday), etc. Mithraism was a counterfeit of Christianity. It had a dying, rising god, who was celebrated every year (earliest roots of Christmas). It had special, religious suppers when followers ate of their god. It had a type of baptism by the blood of a bull and kept the first day holy, the Day of the Sun. The Emperor Aurelian (270-279), whose mother was a priestess of the Sun, made the solar cult official. His biographer, Flavius Vopiscus, wrote that the priests of the Temple of the Sun at Rome were called "pontiffs." They were priests of their dying-rising saviour-god Mithra and second in command ("vicegerents") in the Church(es) of Mithra.
Along with these developments, a standing quarrel between Asia Minor and Rome arose over the time of the observance of Easter in the time of Polycarb (ca. 154 AD). In Asia Minor Easter was celebrated with a vigil (night watch), terminating in a supper. It became the Roman custom, and that of some ports of the East, to hold the Easter (Ishtar) feast days always on the Day of the Sun. Polycarb's discussion with Anicetus revolved around if for Easter the day of the week or the month should be the norm. They parted leaving things as they were. The situation was further complicated by a dispute, ca. 167 AD in Laodicea, as to the nature of the celebration on the 14th of the month of Nissan. They could not agree if to transfer Easter to the 14th or 15th of Nissan. - This way, in short, the ideology and customs of the pagan Easter celebration was included in time in first day Sun-day worship.[Williston Walker, A History of the Christian Church, 1959, p. 61-62.]

[540] Hrabanus Maurus, Liber de Computo (A book Concerning Computation), Chap. XXVII ("Concerning Festivals"), as translated by the writer from the Latin text in Migne's Patrologia Latina, Vol. CVII, col. 682.

[580] ------------, De Clericorum Institutione (Concerning the Instruction of the Clergymen), Book II, Chap. XLVI, as translated by the writer from the Latin text in Migne's Patrologia Latina, Vol. CVII, col. 361.

[583] The wording in the Latin text reads: "Statuit autem idem papa ut otium Sabbati magis in diem Dominicam transferretur, ut ea die a terrenis operibus ad laudandum Deum vacaremus."

[615] The image of Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, is featured on a coin from Ticinium of ca. 326 AD, shown in BA, Mar 1986, p. 30. She is said to have been the first of several Roman noblewomen who traveled to Palestine when she was in her seventies in +326.

[650] "The church of Christ, therefore, is a body of which the Spirit of Jesus is the soul. It is a company of Christlike men and women whom the Holy Spirit has called, enlightened, and sanctified through the preaching of the word; who are encouraged to look forward to a glorious future prepared for the people of God; and who, meanwhile, manifest their faith in all manner of loving services done to their fellow believers.
The church, is therefore in some sense invisible. Its secret is its hidden fellowship with Jesus. Its roots penetrate the unseen, and draw from thence nourishment needed to sustain its life. But it is a visible society, and can be seen wherever the word of God is faithfully proclaimed, and wherever faith is manifested in testimony and in bringing forth the fruits of the Spirit.
This is the essential mode of describing the church which has found place in the Reformation creeds." [Thomas M. Lindsay, `A History of the Reformation', 1906, p. 485.]

[720] A certain hieroglyphic sign interpreted to be the determinative for country, had also been thought to mean city. When pictographs and Hittite glyphs from the Hittite monuments at Boghaz Kheui, Aleppo, Carchemish, etc. were studied, that same sign was traced back to the winged solar disc. [A.H. Sayce, The Hittite Monuments in PSBA, July 6, 1880, p. 76-(77)-79.]

[740] The Jesuits, besides fighting the "infidels", became bodyguards to defend the unrestricted power of the Church against the "Church". In effect the popes sold the Church to the `Order of Jesus' and, in consequence, surrendered themselves into their hands. That is why the pontiff in Rome is not really the main figure in Roman Catholicism, but the so-called `black' (invisible, unpublicized) pope is. [See also Gaston Bally, Les Jesuites, 1902, p. 11-13.] Famous Jesuits included: Ferdinand II. and Ferdinand III., the Swedish born Sigismond III, king of Poland, Cardinal Infant and a Duke of Savoy.[Pierre Dominique, La politique des Jesuits, Paris, 1955, p. 37. An example of Jesuit wicked methods is the murder of the Protestant (Huguenot) Henry IV (1589-1610) of Bourbone. The wily Aquaviva, general of the Jesuits during this time, had led Henry IV to believe that his order would loyally serve national interests. On the 16th of May 1610, on the eve of Henry's campaign against Austria, he was murdered by Ravaillac who was inspired by the writings of Fathers Mariana and Suarez in which they sanctioned the murder of heretic "tyrants" or those insufficiently devoted to the papacy's interests. The Duke of Epernon, who made the king read a letter while the assassin was lying in wait, was a notorious friend of the Jesuits, and Michelet* proved that they knew of this attempt. "In fact, Ravaillac had confessed to the Jesuit Father d'Aubigny just before and, when the judges interrogated the priest, he merely replied that God had given him gifts to forget immediately what he had heard in the confessional."[Pierre Dominique, 'La politique des Jesuits, Paris, 1955, p. 95.; *Michelet et Guinet: Des Jesuits, Hachette, Paulin, Paris, 1845, p. 185-187.] - Today the order has infiltrated all centers of power frequently without them being aware since they work often through front organizations which appear to be innocent and humanitarian. Thus the governments of America, Germany, England, Poland, many other nations, the secret societies of Masonry with its many branches, and even the Vatican itself with its many orders. Their three goals are to regain control, this time of the whole world, to undo what Protestantism has done, and to restart persecutions. - - The sad thing is that the RCC has its people betrayed and the masses of them are facing spiritual disaster. - - Other books on them may include: Rene Fulop Miller, `Les Jesuites et le secret de leur puissance,' Librarie Plon, Paris, 1933; J. Huber, `Les Jesuites', Sandoz et Fischbacher, Paris, 1875.; H. Boehmer, `Les Jesuites,' Armand Colins, Paris 1910.

[760] This speech took place in the Castle of Trent, on Sunday, January 18, 1562. - Walker, Frank M., `Why the Protestant Reformation Failed!', Published in Petah Tikvah Volume 15, No. 1, found at Yashanet.com/library/reformf.htm. Which pope led out in this change from Sabbath to Sunday? It was Pope Sylvester. Note: Pope Sylvester II reigned 999-1003 AD.

[780] Dr. Edward L. Hiscox, `The Baptist Manual', in a paper read before a New York Minister's Conference, held Nov. 13, 1893 - as quoted in "Source Book for Bible Students" pp.473,474, 1919 Edition.

[880] Traces of the Christian influence in Ireland can be seen by visiting a) Clonmacnoise (south of Athlone), one of the missionary schools of Columba in Ireland; b) or see the model of a monastery settlement founded by Comgall in 558 A.D. at Bangor (near Belfast), Ireland; c) See also the 7th century Christian church, Gallarus Oratory in Ireland.; d) Visit also the Chapel at Glendalough, south of Dublin. The monastery complex, begun in the 6th Century, became one of the intellectual centers of Ireland until 1214 A.D.; e) Some Irish people lived in beehive shaped stone houses found in various parts; f) The `Rosetta Stone' of Ireland was found in Donegal and is inscribed on one side with ancient Celtic Ogham script and on the other with Latin, indicating the antiquity of their culture, which dates back to Roman times and before.

Traces of the Christian influence in Scotland can be seen by visiting a) Queen Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh where one can see a stained glass window of St. Columba, founder of the known school of Iona, and founder of many other Sabbatarian educational centers; b) Visit the National Library of Edinburgh where one can find over 15,000 books and tracts on the Sabbath issue. (The Vatican has some 25 miles of shelved books, Luisa Ambrosini, `The Secret Archives of the Vatican'.) A collection which was bequeathed to the National Library of Scotland in 1854 by a Presbyterian lawyer and antiquarian, Robert Cox, whose hobby it was to collect everything he could find on the Sabbath.; c) Visit the site of Columba's cell at Iona and see the reconstruction of the 12th Century Benedictine abbey, built on the spot of the old monastic school established by the missionaries in 536 A.D. The mission school continued to function, sending missionaries to Scotland, Wales, England and Europe. Columba and his monks** followed the Bible as their sole authority and observed the 7th day as the Sabbath. d) Visit the non-conformist Welsh Church which was also called "Baptist" because of their belief of baptism by immersion. One of their grave stones reads: "Here lyeth the body of Anne Attkinson who departed this life y 24 day of May 1706 aged 77 - My life is hid with Christ in God, When this my Saviour Dear dos come again the J with him in glory shall appear." e) Beginning with the heroic figure of the Dinooth (530-610 A.D.), the Welsh sabbatarian church resisted efforts of the RC to destroy it, until in 1115 when the first Roman bishop was seated at St. David's. The changes forced on them were never fully accepted. They became the force behind the great Methodist revivals in the 18th century. (** Monks and hermits are not part of God's plan for salvation, for, wherever man goes he carries the world, this evil age, with him for it is in his heart.)

[950] Exodus 26:15ff; 27:9ff; 30:7; 38; 2.Chronicles 29:6; Ezekiel 8:15-16. See also Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. III, chapter vi, 3, p. 72. From Exodus 26 we learn that the two long sides of the tent tabernacle were on the south and north side (Ex. 26:18,20). The closed shorter side of this rectangular structure was on the west side (Ex. 26:22) making the east side where the entrance was going to be (Ex. 26:36).

[956] Jacob M. Teske, `The Seventh-Day Sabbath and A National Sunday Law', Hanford, Ca. 1991, p. 14-23.

[970] The principality of Lichtenstein is located at ca. Lg. 9.1, Lt. 47.10 with the capital of Vaduz, between Switzerland and Austria. See also "Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder", cited by Andrews & Conradi, "History of the Sabbath", Ed. 1912, p. 641.

[1020] The atrocities committed against heretics in the past are horrendous and affected many innocent people. When a certain Catholic, Jean Teisseire, was by mistake cited before the tribunal of the Inquisition, among the proofs that he offered, that he was not a heretic, were: "I eat flesh, and lie, and swear, and am a faithful Catholic."[Louis Marie De Cormenin's (1788-1868) History of the Popes, Lucius III, pars. 9-12, p. 98, note.] That shows the whole power of the papacy was devoted to compelling mankind to sin. In their mind those who followed Christ and obeyed the commandments of God were worthy of death.
For literature on how the saints were worn out see, (a) Thatcher & McNeal, Source Book for Medieval History, p. 210 & Migne, p. 214, col. 71. as to what pope Innocent III ordered.; (b) Lecky, History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, Vol. II, p. 32, on the intensifying of persecution.; (c) Metley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, Part 3, ch. 2, on how Philip II. (1556-1598) of Spain sent the Duke of Alva (1508-1582) to take over the Netherlands in the days of `William of Orange', (1533-1584).; (d) See The Western Watchman (St. Louis), Dec. 24, 1908, how Catholic authors admitted how they exterminated what they call heresy by the sword.; (e) Prof. Alfred Baudrillart (rector of the Cath. Institute), The Catholic Church, the Renaissance and Protestantism, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1908, pp. 182, 183.

[1044] John R.W. Stott. `Only One Way', p. 187.

[1055] F.F. Bruce, `The Spreading Flame', p. 209.

[1060] Dr. Stott, `Only One Way', pp. 186, 187.

[1063] The idea that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of Peter was unfortunately repeated during "Vatican II". See - Austin Flannery, Editor, Vatican II, Vol. I, ch. III, `The church is hierarchical', §23, p. 376. - - However, on July 4, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI., with his apostolic letter `Summorum Pontificum' has single-handedly abandoned Vatican II's 1962-65 work of presenting the mass in common vernacular, to be now held in Latin. In doing so he revived the 16th Century Tridentine Mass because he sees his work as a restorer of the church whose head he became.

[1075] In the days of the early apostles there existed some dissenting factions** among the early Christian church, "there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed ... it was needful to circumcise ... and to command them to keep the law of Moses." Acts 15:5. There arose also this problem, "some false brothers had infiltrated our ranks to spy on the freedom we have in Christ Jesus and to make us slaves" Gal. 2:4. These dissenters believed that all should obey the Jewish Law; they were therefore called the "Judaizers". Please note that this refers to those who advocate to keep the law of Moses and the Jewish law. The Law of Moses were the hand written laws in a book which was kept in a side pocket of the Ark of the Covenant. They pertained to social issues and issues having to do with the ceremonies of the tabernacle - i.e. clothing, washings and importance of cleansing (hygiene), and similar laws. The Judaic Law called for very stringent observation of these laws. The laws pertaining to the temple services were done away with when Jesus fulfilled them when he died on the cross. The Ten Commandments are not the laws of Moses or the Jews, they are God's eternal law. Keepers of the Ten Commandments are not Judaizers otherwise a person believing in honoring his parents would also be a Judaizer. Paul never annulled the Law of God, he only curtailed the handwritten laws of Moses as described above. Some theologians keep blurring these distinctions to not have to keep God's holy Sabbath day after having kept Sunday by mistake for many centuries. It seems, they just don't want to be bothered with the eternal laws of God either. That is why Edward Gibbon wrote of the difference between theologians and historians, saying: "The theologian may indulge the pleasing task of describing religion as she decended from heaven, arrayed in her native purity. A more melancholy duty is imposed on the historian. He must discover the inevitable mixture of error and corruption which she contracted in a long residence upon earth, among a weak and degenerate race of beings." [(b) Modern Libr. Publisher, E.Gibbons, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. I, chap. 15, p. 382.] Students may sometimes admire those theologians and/or thinkers who seem so detached when they study things out. To me that seems dangerous, to be detached - especially in things pertaining to faith in God.
** When there are factions in a church, it clarifies who are genuine Christians and who, false. The Bible contains many incidents and warnings concerning those who create factions. Their motivations are associated with competition, pride, boredom, impulses of the flesh, and the desire to control (Acts 8:18, 19; 15:24; 20:28-31; Romans 16:17, 18; 2 Corinthians 11:3, 4; 11:12-20; Galatians 1:6-9; 2:4, 5; 4:17; 5:12, 19-21; 6:12, 13; Ephesians 4:14; 5:6, 11; Philippians 1:15; 3:2, 18, 19; Colossians 2:8, 18-23; 2 Thessalonians 3:10-14; 1 Timothy 1:3, 4; 4:1-7; 6:3-5; 2 Timothy 2:16-19; 3:1-9, 13; 4:3, 4; Titus 1:10-16; 3:9-11; Hebrews 13:9; James 4:1-4; 1 Peter 5:2; 2 Peter 2; 1 John 2:18, 19; 4:1; 2 John 7; 3 John 9, 10; Jude 1-25; Revelation 2:2, 6, 9, 14, 15, 20; 3:9, 17; 12:17; 21:8, 27; 22:11, 15).

[0550] 1) Followers of Christ - What are they to do?- Mat. 19:16,17;

2) Who is the Lord of the Sabbath? - Mark 2:27,28;
3) Forever - Jesus modeled for us how to live - John 15:10;
4) A sign of obedience - Exodus 31:13; Ex. 16:27,28; Isaiah 58:13,14; Mat. 24:20; Acts 17:2;
5) The word `sign' in Deuteronomy 6:8 means `mark' or `sign', Romans 4:11.
6) Sabbath will be kept in heaven (so don't be a stranger, get used to it now) - Is. 66:22,23; The Sabbath is a sign not only of creation but also of redemption. It points us to the salvation we have in Jesus, who not only re-creates us now (2Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15) but offers the hope of an eternity in a new heaven and a new earth (2Pet. 3:13). In fact, the Jews have seen the Sabbath as a symbol of the "world to come"; that is, the new heaven and the new earth. It is a weekly foretaste of what we will have for eternity and should serve as a special reminder of what we have been given in Jesus.
7) The `Seal of God' is the same as the `Seal of the Holy Spirit'; In the Book of Ephesians the apostle Paul takes us back to creation week, "he has chosen us in him before the foundation of the world" to be holy and without blame, in other words keepers of God's law. God's law has the quality of transcendental dignity for it is the basis of all human law. The law of God is part of the "gospel of salvation" for it safeguards us from going astray and becoming strangers to God's kingdom. The law of God may be looked upon as part of the "mystery of His will" even though it is quite plainly laid out for anyone to understand. If we do not keep the day holy which God sanctified and which bears the imprint of His Seal then we "grieve the Holy Spirit" Eph. 1:4,7,13; 4:30.

8) "... the king trusteth in the Lord, and through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved. Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies: thy right hand shall find out those who hate you." Psalms 21:7,8. The Lord gives `mercy' to a repentent sinner because the law condemns. But his hand knows how to find those who hate Him.

[1100] When President Kennedy put the US Constitution above the Canon Law of the Church it spelled disaster for him according to a 700 page book by Eric John Phelps, Vatican Assassins, www.vaticanassassins.org. Canon Law says in essence, to be accused is to be guilty, a principle taking place in America especially today - Two cases: Senator Kerry, Craig and many others, know it. They were accused and therefore guilty. - Bill Clinton, on the other hand, knew the floppside when he said, `I haven't been accused of anything.' The list of man of Bible based faith is long which the applicators of the inquisition accused of heresy and executed. Among them were men like Lord Cobham, John Huss, Tyndale and many more before and after these men. The pontificate of Pope Clement V (1305-1314) marks the conclusion, to the present, of the official collections of church or "canon" law. The awful body of ecclesiastical authority was the product of the apostate history of the catholic church since the early councils, and embraced their decisions, the decrees of synods and of Popes. The Middle Ages had seen many collections of these church laws, of which the most famous was the Concordantia discordantium canonum, commonly called Decretum, gathered, probably in 1148, by Gratian, a teacher of canon law in Bologna. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) caused an official collection to be formed, in 1234, including new decrees up to his time; to his reign also the start of the savage inquisition can be traced. Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) published a similar addition in 1298, and Clement V enlarged it in 1314, though his work was not published till 1317, under his successor, John XXII (1316-1334). This unbiblical structure laboriously erected through the centuries, is a mass of ecclesiastical jurisprudence recognizing no God given individual rights and liberties but embracing all domains of ecclesiastical life. Though official collections ceased from Clement V to the 20th century, the creation of church law has continued in all ages. Finally, Pius X (1903-1914), in 1904 ordered the codification and simplification of the whole body of canon law by a special commission. Most university trained lawyers probably have but a misty understanding of this body of old laws. In May 1917, Benedict XV (1914-1922), promulgated the Codex juris canonici (five "books" containing 2414 canons).

[1055] The term `Dark Ages' were characterized by man attempting to alter or set aside many of the fundamental teachings of the Bible. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that, in such a time, as also in the centuries preceding immediately the first advent of Christ, the manifestation of the gift of prophecy almost wholly disappeared. Some claim the term `dark ages' was first coined by the humanists. Why? Because in their mind they were `dark' because the greatest institution of all times was the most influential agent for such a long span of time, the Catholic church. During its period of just about absolute power over Europe, Christian growth, education and health care were largely stymied and little progress was achieved until the time of reformation. Subsequent to a return to some scriptural authority rather than popery, education, health care and social improvements were brought about. Like the old church so humanism too, failed to aid mankind but instead used violence to fulfill their philosophical believes about man.

[1200] The Greatest Test -What happens is that God, in effect, is planning to parole prisoners from planet earth and release them into the society of other worlds where there has never been any sin, and where we may be sure that the inhabitants do not ever want to have any sin. God therefore needs a test for the purpose of predicting human behavior. What kind of test would meet His requirements?

  1. Such a test would have to be applicable to all people in all places on earth.
  2. It would have to be applicable to people of all ages.
  3. It would have to be applicable to people in all conditions of ability, education, talent, and wealth.
  4. It would have to be reasonable and fair.
  5. It would have to be unique, so that motivation would be clear.

There is only one thing that is available to all people of all ages and all conditions in all parts of the earth, and that is time. Everyone's day has 24 hours; everyone's week has seven days, and so on. This fact is true of nothing else but time. The use of time for a test is therefore strongly indicated. But how? To have a test involving time spent in work, or study, or even in recreation would be unfair. Not all persons can do these things, even should they so desire. What else is left?
Time spent in rest. This test could be fair. Not everyone can work, or study, or even play, but everyone can rest. But what about the question of motivation? People rest for different reasons. Some even rest so they can be more efficient in doing evil. Time spent in rest then falls a little short of meeting the need for a universal test.
Let us reflect about this test for a moment. People rest for different reasons, even bad reasons, but they do not restrict themselves to a particular time for resting. If we see them doing so, we may be sure that the reason is their desire to do the will of their Creator. Motivation would then be clear.
Now we are beginning to understand what the Sabbath is all about, It is indeed a sign, just as we read in Ezekiel 20. It provides a time for rest, for fellowship, and for worship. But more than this, it meets the need of a test for predicting human behavior. If we faithfully comply with the Sabbath commandment, we are demonstrating what we will do when the reason for God's commandment is not altogether clear to us.
Human reason can recognize the need for rest, but not on a particular day. As far as human reason is concerned, resting could be done on any day, or even on portions of days. The command to rest upon the seventh day is not based on human reason and, unlike the other commandments, makes no appeal to human reason. It is founded upon the revealed will of God, and nothing else. It therefore provides a very clear and satisfactory answer to the question, `What will this person do when he does not fully understand the reason for God's commandment?' It is an effective test for predicting human behavior and for deciding who is safe to save.

Bible Topics Main Menu Submenu