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Kebra Nagast
Immanuel Velikovsky

Ancestor Ishmael Beliefs
The two types of science
Water Power & Creation
The Queen of the South
Make-da and Make-ra
The Son
The Haggada
Notes & References
Female Pharaohs

Ancestor Ishmael Beliefs

Famous Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar, who was he? What did he believe? Even the descendants of Abraham, who believed in the mortality of the soul and kept God's seventh day holy, and the descendants of his son, born of the free woman, so too probably the descendants of Ishmael believed these things, for we read, "And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirtyseven years: and he gave up the ghost and died: and was gathered unto his people. . . . and he died in the presence of all his brethren." Genesis 25:17,18 and "And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!" Gen. 17:18, hoping Ishmael might be a follower of the true God in Heaven while alive on earth as Abraham obeyed God and kept His commandments, statutes and laws, Gen. 26:5. But Ishmael nursed anger toward Abraham because of not being considered primary heir. However, all he knew originally about certain basic beliefs like what happens at death and on which day to rest, were uneffected by that at least for a season. So it is true that the descendants of Isaac and Ishmael became mighty nations and we may have this hope in our bosom that, once the Arabic descendants of Ishmael find out that their highly esteemed progenitor "Father" kept the Sabbath, they will too, and Islam will be pacified and God in Heaven glorified so peace can reign in the heart.

Sadly, the descendants of Ishmael took a course in history which estranged them from the God who created the world in six days by the power of His spoken word. The following may help us to understand the power of God and the forces He planted when He made planet earth.

Islam, too, believes that God created the earth. They would not worship a god who just consisted of words, with no deeds, would they? That is why the following is of great interest to the descandants of Ishmael. While many people today believe that nature is all there is, we know very well there is more to nature than meets the eye. While they defend mindless creation, the Creator used real science to make the world. While we all believe in real science that can be tested in the present in a laboratory, getting the same or similar results each time, the past of our earth cannot that way be tested because its origin belongs into the sphere not of real science but into the sphere of historical science since no one was there to watch it happen - except God - who had his report written up in His book, the Bible.

The two types of science

  1. Observational, real science which follows definite testing procedures which gave us radios, airplanes, automobiles, computers, and which we all can learn and use, and
  2. Historical science, which is used when we look at rocks, layers in the rocks, fossils and things made in the distant past. No one was there to see the rocks, continents and oceans form, except God. Evolution is historical science, not real science.

  • We cannot mix real and historical science. We must always distinguish between the two. Real science we can measure, historical science we have to make guesses.
  • Do not be fooled by teachers of evolution.
  • Water Power & Creation

    Let us talk about water for a moment. Water, H2O consists of 2 atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen, both of which are gases. Looking at just one molecule of H2O, we know a little more how unique water really is. It has a negative and a positive pole, it has a small electrical charge and a tiny electromagnetic (e-magnetic) field. It operates in its own dimension since it is self-contained with its own e-magnetic field -- it operates in random charge and tendency. It has solid, gaseous and liquid forms. So is it also possible to combine these three forms of water and you get monomer [H2O], dimer [H2O2] and trimer [H6O3] composites of water. Since the earth was covered with water which is rich in energy, those combined forces are important. Add on top of that the Bible's assertion that "the Spirit of God moved upon the water." Because of that energy, we would expect the watery earth to have a spherical shape. That shape would also override the natural tendency of the water molecules to operate in a random tendency. It would instead align those water molecules. The network of a crystalline lattice structure of clear and opaque areas of supercooled, pressurized hydrogen in it superconductive, fiberoptic, metallic form in the firmament around the earth. Because there is independent energy added, superintending over these elements, the entire spherical body takes on an e-magnetic field commensurate with the sum-total of all the individual e-magnetic fields of the composite atoms. - So, we say, by the Spirit of God hovering or brooding over that sphere of water (the entire earth), we now have an e-magnetic field generated around the entire body of the earth. Once the Spirit of God concluded that activity the normal random activity of the water molecules would again go back to random tendency, yet the e-magnetic field would keep the sphere in shape and keep the e-magnetic field above it in place. Besides that, something else would happen. When the water molecules go back to their natural random tendencies, that means, that normal electrolysis would occur. There would be some supercharged water molecules, by the trillions, in the area of the poles, which would then continue along the lines of the e-magnetic field from pole to pole, and strengthen the e-magnetic energy flowing therein. In other words, there would be supercharged water in the e-magnetic field lines supervised by the sphere's e-magnetic field. In addition to that, normal electrolysis would occur and brake some of the water molecules apart so that there would be free hydrogen and free oxygen available. More recent physical research also found that activity of energy, which is in motion around the planet's spherical body (that is any body, stelar, planets - in the universe), new hydrogen atoms are generated. So it was found that around the earth, matching the solar winds, there is an aura of hydrogen. That is interpreted to mean, that if you have any e-magnetic activity there is a tendency in the physical universe to produce free hydrogen atoms. [Jefery Lansky, `CU Researchers Discover (Hydrogen) Wall Around (the earth and) Solar System,' Joint Institutes for Laboratory Astrophysics, Daily Camera, Boulder, Colorado, January 17, 1995.] That is very important. Having said the above we can learn even more:
    The crystalline firmament created on day #2, and appreciated on day #3 of creation, has some very special characteristics. It was crystalline, it was hydrogen bonded into a crystal lattice that is super conductive in nature, fiber-optic, because scientific research shows, that if you maintain an energy field in a transparent crystal, you actually have a fiber-optic transfer so that the night is twilight rather than midnight blackness. That means that the pre-Flood plants in their biological rhythm, would not have had a total darkness but in their red shine would have a gentle bathing of light. This crystalline firmament was destroyed when the heated fountains of the deep broke through the crust of the earth, sending water some 70 miles into the air, thus destroying the pre-Flood canopy and initiating the by God perfectly tuned, inner earth nuclear reactor (for we have radioactive elements) which led to the water heating, crust breaking up and the land mass, the continents shifting, to say it in a few words. [See presentation on sound and light]

    The Queen of the South

    The rivalry between the Arabian and Ethiopian traditions for the Queen of the South can be decided against the Arabian claim and in favor of the Ethiopian, but only to the extent that she was the "queen of Egypt and Ethiopia", which is the true description by Josephus; which does not necessitate an approval of genealogical claims embodied in the Ethiopian traditions.

    Mohammed, who endorsed the Arabian claims, was obviously wrong. He put into the mouth of Solomon the following words:

    "I have compassed what ye compassed not; for I bring you from Seba [Saba] a sure information: verily, I found a woman ruling over them, and she was given all things, and she had a mighty throne; and I found her and her people adoring the sun instead of God." [10]


    The land of Saba (Hebr. Shwa), because of the similarity in name, had confused the writers on the Queen of Sheba even before Mohammed borrowed the last sentence of the quoted Sura from the Hebrew Haggada, which he probably had heard from the Jewish teachers in Medina.

    The Ethiopians are not satisfied merely to claim the Queen of the South as their queen; they insist that a child was born of her liaison with Solomon; his son, Menelik, is the direct ancestor of the dynasties of Abyssinian monarchs whose last representative was `Emperor Haile Selassie' . [July 23,1894 - deposed September 11th, 1974; died 1975]

    Being of David's seed, the son of Solomon and the Queen of the South, their legendary ancestor, is regarded by them as kindred to Jesus, who through Joseph, the carpenter of Nazareth, also traced his ancestry to David. [20]

    Philip and the Ethiopian Eunuch To this we might add, that the visit or pilgrimage of an Ethiopian eunuch to Israel was a sort of memory trip for this man, to connect with the country whose history had something in common with his own native land. We read:

    "And the angel of the Lord spoke unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go toward the south toward the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is desert. And he got up and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem to worship, was returning (on his way back home) and sitting in his chariot reading the book of Isaiah the Prophet." [Acts 8:26-28]

    Venerating the Queen of the South, who returned from her visit pregnant with royal seed, the Ethiopians honor more than any other passage in the Gospels the words:

    "He answered unto them ... An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign ... The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, a greater than Solomon is here." [Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31]

    The Abyssinian (Ethiopian) tradition is put down in writing in Kebra Nagast or The Book of the Glory of Kings.[30] The existing version in Ethiopia is a translation from an Arabic text, which in turn was translated from a Coptic text. It contains quotations from the Gospels and is therefore a fruit of the time when Christianity had already found its way to the African continent, in an early century of the present era.

    And so we showed above, Christianity found its way to Ethiopia via the eunuch, who had himself baptized into the faith of Jesus by his apostle Philip.

    With colorful imagination Kebra Nagast recounts the bridal night of Solomon and the Queen of the South; among the presents he gave her there were "a vessel wherein one could travel over the sea, and a vessel wherein one could travel by air."

    When the queen returned to her country, "her officials who had remained there brought gifts to their mistress, and made obeisance to her, and did homage to her, and all the borders of the country rejoiced at her coming ... And she ordered her kingdom aright, and none disobeyed her command; for she loved wisdom and God strengthened her kingdom."

    This quotation from the

    Festival words Kebra Nagast resembles the story of the festival for the officials and for the whole rejoicing land, arranged by Queen Hatshepsut after her return from her journey; so do the words that "she ordered her kingdom aright" and that she "loved wisdom", as she had it written:

    "I conciliated them by love that they may give to thee praise ... because of thy fame in the countries.

    I know them, I am their wise lord ..." [40]

    In the days of the successor to Makere, we learn from the inscriptions of Thutmose III that, despite his hatred of Israel before its division in the days of Jeroboam, it appears he had learned about law making from the leading law makers of his era and the role of wisdom for he wrote:

    "Behold, my majesty made every monument, every law, (and) every regulation which I made, for my father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes, presider over Karnak, because I so well knew his fame. I was wise in his excellence, resting in the midst of the body ... " [50]

    But there is nothing so extraordinary in these things as to compel the conclusion that Ethiopian tradition about the Queen of the South knows more than the Scriptures narrate. Even the romance might be borrowed from a Jewish source [60], which in a single line says that the king responded to the desire of the guest queen. In the Jewish tradition there is nothing about a child having been born of this intimacy. [70]

    Of course that would have happened 9 months later, far away in the south of Egypt.

    It would of course strengthen the claim to originality of the Ethiopian tradition if it disclosed some fact not contained in the Scriptures, which could be checked with the help of our knowledge about Queen Hatshepsut, and which would be more than an accidental coincident. Even in this case it would necessarily mean that - in the words of Kebra Nagast - Solomon "worked his will with her", and a child of that union was enthroned in Aksum, "the New Jerusalem"; but it would show that the Ethiopian legend about the Queen of the South going to Jerusalem is not entirely a fanciful addition to the scriptural story, like the legend of Bilkis, the Queen of Saba of the Arabian authors.

    Make-da and Make-ra

    There is a detail in the Ethiopian legend which only by a rare chance could have been invented. The Ethiopians call the Queen of the South Makeda. The royal name of Queen Hatshepsut, mentioned throughout the Punt reliefs, is Make-ra. "Ra" is the divine name of an Egyptian god. The main part of the Egyptian queen is identical with the first two syllables in the name of the Queen of the South. It was preserved in the Ethiopian tradition; it did not come from the Scriptures.

    One can imagine that if the name was not handed down by an uninterrupted tradition it could have been disclosed by some Copt, who might have lived in early Christian times in Egypt, seen the Punt texts in Deir el Bahari, and been able to read them, and in this way might have identified Hatshepsut with the Queen of Sheba ahead of the present author. There may have been a chronological reason, too, for such a hypothetical Copt to identify Hatshepsut with the Queen of the South, or he might have heard a legend that the reliefs of Deir el Bahari do represent a voyage to Jerusalem. The same theory could be applied to Josephus, who might have written "queen of Egypt and Ethiopia" on the basis of the scenes of the bas-reliefs at Deir el Bahari; he might have mentioned the kussiim (blacks) because they were in the picture. This is a forced construction since Josephus never was in Egypt; on the other hand, the historical facts known to Josephus and not preserved in the Scriptures must have been transmitted by some means during the 1000 years which separate Josephus from Solomon.

    The Son

    Thutmose I, father of Hatshepsut, conquered the northern part of Ethiopia known as Nubia. It is of interest that in Egyptian documents the viceroy of Ethiopia (Nubia) was called "king's son", which is supposed to be only a title, without implying blood relationship with the Egyptian king. [80] The name of the "king's son" in the time of Hatshepsut is not preserved; in the days of her successor, Thutmose III, the viceroy of Ethiopia was named Nehi.[82]

    Another incident in the Ethiopian legend - the robbing of the Temple in Jerusalem - we also deal with at this website. The actual successor to Hatshepsut on the Egyptian throne was the one who sacked the Temple, a deed attributed to the putative son of Solomon and the Queen of the South.

    The Queen of the South


    Make-da and Make-ra

    The Son

    The Haggada

    We took a short leave of the historical material to investigate the Ethiopian legend, and now we should like also to take a look at one or two Hebrew legends about the Queen of Sheba. Having become acquainted with the historical person, we are interested to know what stimulated the folk fantasy and how it worked.

    We have already mentioned the divine command heard by Queen Hatshepsut compelling her to undertake her expedition to the Divine Land. On the murals, in the coronation scene and in other scenes, Hatshepsut is portrayed before the god Horus with the head of a hawk; a serpent of Lower Egypt or a vulture of Upper Egypt, as royal emblems, are also often pictured with her. [90]

    A curious legend in the Haggada [100] narrates that the Queen of Sheba, while on her way one morning to pay homage to the god of the sun, received a message from a bird summoning her to visit Solomon in Jerusalem.

    In the inscriptions Hatshepsut is called king; the pronoun used for her is sometimes "she" and sometimes "he"; on the pictures her raiment is that of a king. She is called the daughter of Amon, but in the picture of her birth a boy is molded by Khnum, the shaper of men. It was unusual, and contrary to the political and religious conceptions of the Egyptians, to have a woman ruling on the throne, therefore she disguised herself and assumed the attributes of a man. On many of her statues and bas-reliefs she is portrayed with a beard.

    Rabbi Jonathan ca. 300 AD maintained that it was a king and not a queen of Sheba who visited Solomon. Egyptologist of the 1st half of the 19th century pictured and described Hatshepsut as a king, being misled by some of her statues and the masculine pronoun she applied to herself.

    Could it be that, a few centuries after Hatshepsut, the pictures of Deir el Bahari, seen by visitors to Egypt, gave rise to these two strange legends?

    Enno Littmann: Deutsche Aksum Expedition, Berlin 1913
    The German Aksum Expedition went to this place in 1905 when Enno Littmann took this BW photo which we color enhanced. - - Die Deutsche Aksum Expedition von 1905 war in diesem Dorf als Enno Littmann dies Bild aufnahm. It is/was a periodic reoccurance then, sadly with Roman overtones.

    Notes & References

    [010] The Koran, Sura, XXVII, 22-24. (transl. Palmer confirmed by transl. of Abdullah Yusuf Ali.

    [020] "They never doubted that Solomon was the father of the son of the Queen of Sheba. It followed as a matter of course that the male descendants of this son were the lawful kings of Ethiopia, and as Solomon was an ancestor of Christ they were kinsmen of our Lord, and they claimed the reign by divine right." [Budge, `Kebra Nagast', p. x] Today, as it has for some centuries before, this `divine right' is also claimed by another, unrighteous, persecuting and despotic power as we show here.

    [030] "The Kebra Nagast is a great storehouse of legends and traditions, some historical and some of a purely folklore character, derived from the Old Testament and the later Rabbinic writings, and from Egyptian (both pagan and Christian), Arabian and Ethiopian sources. Of the early history of the compilation and its maker, and of its subsequent editors we know nothing, but the principal groundwork of its earliest form was the tradition that were current in Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt during the first four centuries of the Christian era." [Budge, pp. XV-XVI]

    [040] Records, Vol. II, Sec. 288.

    [050] Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 568.

    [060] Alphabet of Ben Sira 21b, Ginzberg, `Legends', VI, 289.

    [070] Alphabet of Ben Sira 21b also states that Solomon married the queen of Sheba.

    [080] G.A.Reisner, `The Viceroys of Ethiopia', Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. VI (1920), p. 31.

    [082] Prof. J. Breasted, The Royal Feud in the Wadi Halfa Temple, PSBA, Nov. 1909, p.271. "Of this line, besides the first word, only the last third is preserved, but it contains the important fact that the inscription was recorded by Nehi, the great Nubian viceroy of Thutmoses III."

    [090] E. Naville, `Deir el Bahari', Pt. II, Plates 35, 38, 39; idid., Pt. III, Plate 58, etc.

    [100] Ginzberg, `Legends', Vol. IV, p. 143.

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