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Chronologically Helpful Parallels between the Hyksos and the Amalekites
Caring For the Poor

12th Dynasty
Amada Stele
Hyksos Dynasties
God's Care For the Poor The Exodus
18th Dynasty
Hyksos - Deutsch

The Hyksos in Historical Sources The Amalekites in the Scriptures

The Shepards
01. The Amu or Hyksos were driven out of Arabia after a great plague, earthquake and flood.
Papyrus Ipuwer "A foreign tribe from abroad has come to the land." 3:1; "What has happened? ... through it is the cause the Asiatics to know the condition of the land." 15:1. See: The ancient Arab author Macoudi, "L'Abrege des merveilles" and "Les Praires d'or", Vol. III, p.101; Kitab-Alaghaniy (trans. Fresnel), pp. 206ff.
Many perished during the migration in a sudden flood that swept the land of Arabia.
Kitab-Alaghaniy (transl. Fresnel), p. 207.
See also evidence of such floods from modern satellite pictures.
01. Egypt was laid in ruins by a series of catastrophic calamities. Though written in a poetic manner in trying to describe devastation through tectonic and/or meteorogical events, we read:
Exodus 7:14; 8:1; 15:7-12.
"By the blast of your nostrils the waters piled up. The surging waters stood firm like a wall; the deep waters congealed in the heart of the sea."
02. The Hyksos overran Egypt without encountering resistance.
Macoudi, "L.P", Vol. II, p.307; Aboulfeda H.a.p. p. 179. Josephus quoting Manetho in "Against Apion", I, Sec. 14, p. 611. "There was a king of ours, whose name was Timaus. Under him came to pass ... there came ... men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts ... and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them...."
02. The Amalekites lived in southern Palestine after escaping the calamities in Arabia.
Number 13:29
"The Amalekites live in the Negev (dwell in the land of the south)." NIV & KJ Translations. Even if the land of the south is usually Egypt in the scriptures, they had unhindered access to the Negev.
When they learned of the Israelites leaving Egypt they moved toward them to rob them of their possessions but could not overcome the Israelites at Mt. Sinai.[Parallel]
Numbers 14:43; Exodus 17:8-16; "The Amalekites came and attacked the Israelites at Rephedim." From years later we read this information: "Since the Amalekites and Canaanites are living in the valleys, turn back tomorrow and set out toward the desert along the route to the Red Sea." Numbers 14; 25, 43; 45.
03. They were cruel invaders.
Flinders Petrie, "Hyksos and Israelite Cities", p.12.
[UCR Rivera Library DT73.H9P48]
03. The Amalekites committed atrocities.
When you were weary and worn ... they cut off all who were lagging behind ..." Deuteronomy 25:17-19.
04. They were destructive people.
"..., they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner...." Manethos in Josephus Ibid; Also see the Speos Artemidos Inscription.
Restoration of the Desolation of the Hyksos
"... I have restored that which was in ruins, I have raised up that which was unfinished since the Asiatics ('mw) were in the midst of Avaris of the Northland, and the barbarians were in the midst of them, overthrowing, that which was made, while they ruled in ignorance of Re. ... I removed the abomination of the great god, [I] captured the land of their sandals. ..." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, `Speos Artemidos', Sec. 303; See also E. Naville, Bubastis, 1891, p. 29]
Hyksos king ApepaPSBA, Nov 1900
05. They were a contemptuous people.
Sallier Papyrus I; Papyrus Ipuwer 17:2;
"So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burned down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner: ney, some they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery." [Manetho in Josephus, AA, Bk. I, Sec. 14]
06. They enslaved and taxed the native Egyptian population.
Papyrus Ipuwer; Papyrus Ermitage; Manetho-Josephus.
06. They stole women and children.
Numbers 14:3
07. a)

They were from Asia.
(In those days Asia meant the whole Middle Eastern area.)
Manetho in Josephus, Ibid; Papyrus Ipuwer 14:10;
They were herdsmen.
Manetho in Josephus, Ibid.
07. They were of hamitic descent.
Encyclopedia of Islam.

They were herdsmen.
Judges 6:3,33; 7:12; 1.Samuel 15:9,14
08. They were skilled with bow and arrow.
Papyrus Ipuwer 14:10; 15:3; Carnarvon Tablet.
08. They destroyed Egypt.
Macoudi, Ibid.
09. They ruled as Pharaohs.
Scarabs of Hyksos kings; Sallier Papyrus I; Manetho in Josephus; Breasted, `A History of Ancient Egypt', p.218.
The name of the first and last king was Apop.
"The prince of the southern city remained silent and wept a long time, and he did not know how to return answer to the messenger of king Apophis [Apop]." Papyrus Sallier I; "... Would that I might bring their beauty before thy face. Verily it is greater than [that of] any office." Papyrus Sallier II.
See also Flinders Petrie, `A History of Egypt', p. 243.
09. The name/title of the first and last king was Agog.
"Their (Israel's) king will be greater than Agog ..." Numbers 24:7; " ... but Saul and the army spared Agag and the best of the sheep and cattle ..." 1.Samuel 15:8.
Apop IApepi I/Apop I
10. They ruled over Syria and Canaan without peer.
Edouard Meyer, `Geschichte des Altertums', Vol. I, Pl. 2, p.319.
10. They intermingled with the Philistines.
"... when the people of Jabesh Gilead heard of what the Philistines had done to Saul ... After the death of Saul, David returned from defeating the Amalekites and stayed in Ziklag two days ... Who are you? An Amalekite ... Where are you from? I am the son of an alien, an Amalekite." 1. Samuel 31:11; 2.Samuels 1:1, 8, 13.
11. They build city fortresses east of the delta.
Excavation results; Josephus, `Against Apion', Bk. I, Sec. 14.
11. They had city fortresses.
"Saul went to the city of Amalek (of the Amalekites) and set an ambush in the ravine ..." 1.Samuel 15:5-7.
12. They invaded their neighbors fields just before harvest. 12. The Midianites and Amalekites despoiled the harvest.
"Whenever the Israelites planted their crops, the Midianites, Amalekites and other eastern peoples invaded the country ... and ruined the crops ... and did not spare a living thing for Israel ..." Judges 6:3-6; 7:12, 22-25; "He fought ... and defeated the Amalekites, delivering Israel from the hands of those who plundered them." 1.Samuel 14:48
13. They ruled Egypt for some 500 years.
Josephus, `Against Apion', Bk. I, Sec. 14, "says 511 years".
13. They ruled Egypt from the time of the Exodus to King Saul.
14. Their end came when their fortress city was besieged by a foreign host. 14. King Saul besieged their fortress.
1. Samuel 15:5.
15. A part of their population was allowed to depart.
Even though Josephus had some misinformation and made the `Shepherd-kings' into Israelites, he was right in placing their history into the time of Thummosis, a name not far removed from the Tuthmosides. "... upon his dispair of taking the place by that siege, they came to a composition with them, that they should leave Egypt ..." Josephus, `Against Apion', Bk. I, Sec. 14. But the battle was not yet over and won by the besiegers afterwards.
15. Saul allowed the Kenites from among the Amalekites to depart.
1. Samuel 15:6.
16. The expelled Amus lived in the fortress of Sharuhen.
They were besieged and lost.
Tomb of Ahmose.
16. King David continued the war against Amalek and their city Rabbah [Sharuhen?] and vanquished them.
2.Samuel 11; Ginzeberg, `Legends', IV, 99; Al-Samhudi, Geschichte der Stadt Medina', p.26.

This comparison underscores the fact that the Hyksos of history were the Amalekites of the Scriptures.

The Amada Stele of Amenhotep II

The Amada Stele is thought by some to have been composed by clever scribes in that Egyptian words were sort of strung in a repetition of syllables, some of them depending upon the reader to associate them with their customary vocalization and others perhaps creating the `repetition' only visually. Interestingly enough the Amada Stele of Amenhotep II refers to "hill-country sheiks among the princes of Retenu" as the king prides himself that none among these people mentioned can draw the string of his bow as he can. Some have taken this reference to the `hill-country sheiks' as referring to the Hyksos. [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 792] At this point we must understand that those people we call today the Hyksos were not called that by the Egyptians themselves. In the records of Ahmose we simply read:

"One besieged the city of Avaris, I showed valor on foot before his majesty..." "Now after his majesty had slain the Asiatics..." [Breasted, `Records', Vol. II, Sec. 8, 14]

The Papyrus Ipuwer written in later period Egyptian Demotic script. From this reference we learn that the Hyksos themselves, having come from `Asiatic lands', probably mostly from what is today Saudi Arabia, some 400 years before, were still regarded as Asiatics probably to differentiate them from native born Egyptians who now were engaged in getting back control over their land. There is no indication that the `hill-country sheiks' are a term for the Hyksos. Hill-country sheiks lived in the Middle Eastern lands long after the Hyksos were gone. In revised view they could have been any other Arabic group or tribe of people living their nomadic life wherever they could.

Of a Hyksos king named Khian we have an alabaster lid from Knossos bearing his name. See William Culican, `The First Merchant's Ventures', London, 1966, p. 34.

What can we learn from the Hyksos Dynasties?

Dynasties 14 - 17 are regarded as that of the Hyksos occupiers of Egypt. When they first arrived Egypt had just lost its king and army, making their takeover of the country very easy. As the above comparison shows, the Hyksos rulers overcame native resistance with force and punishments. Having been a desert wandering tribe for some time they sought to plunder the neighboring lands of their harvest, meaning, that the Egyptian farmers may have found ways to prevent their crops from reaching Hyksos government store houses in sufficient quantities. These raids may also indicate, that the troops stationed in desert outposts were not receiving sufficient supplies, and thus augmented them by robbery. El Arish, also known as Avaris, was one of the largest fortified outposts facing Palestine. It was the seat of their power and became the center which needed to be conquered when Ahmose and Khamose decided they had enough support to try and route the foreign invaders from their lands. During the 400 years of their reign Egyptian artisans and workmen like before produced their products with great skill and dexterity giving the impression that life was going on as before. For the most part this was probably true but underneath the serenity their must have been a seething wish to be free again.

God's Care For the Poor

We are created by God, our Almighty God of agape love, who loves each one of us, even before we love Him, and wants to save us. The true God in heaven we don't have to fear, for He is a God of great love for all His Creation. He gives us sunshine and rain, flowers, food and music. He is the only true God who dwells on high in heaven. He forces no one, He respects our free choice, but He bids us to willingly and freely serve Him, for He can help in the time of need.

To promote the assembling of the people for religious service, as well as to provide for the poor, a second tithe of all the increase was required. [200] Concerning the first tithe, the Lord had declared, "I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel." Numbers 18:21. But in regard to the second He commanded, "Thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, in the place which He shall choose to place His name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the Lord thy God always." Deuteronomy 14:23, 29; 16:11-14. This tithe, or its equivalent in money, they were for two years to bring to the place where the sanctuary was established. After presenting a thank offering to God, and a specified portion to the priest, the offerers were to use the remainder for a religious feast, in which the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow should participate. Thus provision was made for the thank offerings and feasts at the yearly festivals, and the people were drawn to the society of the priests and Levites, that they might receive instruction and encouragement in the service of God.

Every third year, however, this second tithe was to be used at home, in entertaining the Levite and the poor, as Moses said, "That they may eat within thy gates, and be filled." Deuteronomy 26:12. This tithe would provide a fund for the uses of charity and hospitality.

And further provision was made for the poor. There is nothing, after their recognition of the claims of God, that more distinguishes the laws given by Moses than the liberal, tender, and hospitable spirit enjoined toward the poor. Although God had promised greatly to bless His people, it was not His design that poverty should be wholly unknown among them. He declared that the poor should never cease out of the land. There would ever be those among His The schools of the prophets provided training in various trades as well as instruction in the Scriptures, sacred history, and spiritual devotion.people who would call into exercise their sympathy, tenderness, and benevolence. Then, as now, persons were subject to misfortune, sickness, and loss of property; yet so long as they followed the instruction given by God, there were no beggars among them, neither any who suffered for food.

The law of God gave the poor a right to a certain portion of the produce of the soil. When hungry, a man was at liberty to go to his neighbor's field or orchard or vineyard, and eat of the grain or fruit to satisfy his hunger. It was in accordance with this permission that the disciples of Jesus plucked and ate of the standing grain as they passed through a field upon the Sabbath day.

All the gleanings of harvest field, orchard, and vineyard, belonged to the poor. "When thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy field," said Moses, "and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go again to fetch it. . . . When thou beatest thine olive tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again. . . . When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it afterward: it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt." Deuteronomy 24:19-22; Leviticus 19:9, 10.

Every seventh year special provision was made for the poor. The sabbatical year, as it was called, began at the end of the harvest. At the seedtime, which followed the ingathering, the people were not to sow; they should not dress the vineyard in the spring; and they must expect neither harvest nor vintage. Of that which the land produced spontaneously they might eat while fresh, but they were not to lay up any portion of it in their storehouses. The yield of this year was to be free for the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and even for the creatures of the field. Exodus 23:10, 11; Leviticus 25:5.

But if the land ordinarily produced only enough to supply the wants of the people, how were they to subsist during the year when no crops were gathered? For this the promise of God made ample provision. "I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year," He said, "and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store." Leviticus 25:21, 22.

The observance of the sabbatical year was to be a benefit to both the land and the people. The soil, lying untilled for one season, would afterward produce more plentifully. The people were released from the pressing labors of the field; and while there were various branches of work that could be followed during this time, all enjoyed greater leisure, which afforded opportunity for the restoration of their physical powers for the exertions of the following years. They had more time for meditation and prayer, for acquainting themselves with the teachings and requirements of the Lord, and for the instruction of their households.

In the sabbatical year the Hebrew slaves were to be set at liberty, and they were not to be sent away portionless. The Lord's direction was: "When thou sendest him out free from thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty. Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy winepress: of that wherewith the Lord thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him." Deuteronomy 15:13, 14.

The hire of a laborer was to be promptly paid: "Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in thy land: . . . at his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it." Deuteronomy 24:14, 15.

Special directions were also given concerning the treatment of fugitives from service: "Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant which is escaped from his master unto thee. He shall dwell with thee, even among you, in that place which he shall choose in one of thy gates, where it liketh him best: thou shalt not oppress him." Deuteronomy 23:15, 16.

To the poor, the seventh year was a year of release from debt. The Hebrews were enjoined at all times to assist their needy brethren by lending them money without interest. To take usury from a poor man was expressly forbidden: "If thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee. Take thou no usury of him, or increase: but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase." Leviticus 25:35-37. If the debt remained unpaid until the year of release, the principal itself could not be recovered. The people were expressly warned against withholding from their brethren needed assistance on account of this: "If there be among you a poor man of one of thy brethren, . . . thou shalt not harden thine heart, nor shut thine hand from thy poor brother. . . . Beware that there be not a thought in thy wicked heart, saying, The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and thine eye be evil against thy poor brother, and thou givest him nought; and he cry unto the Lord against thee, and it be sin unto thee." "The poor shall never cease out of the land; therefore I command thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land," "and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need, in that which he wanteth." Deuteronomy 15:7-9, 11, 8.

None need fear that their liberality would bring them to want. Obedience to God's commandments would surely result in prosperity. "Thou shalt lend unto many nations," He said, "but thou shalt not borrow; and thou shalt reign over many nations, but they shall not reign over thee." Deuteronomy 15:6.

After "seven sabbaths of years," "seven times seven years," came that great year of release--the jubilee. "Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound . . . throughout all your land. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." Leviticus 25:9, 10.

"On the tenth day of the seventh month, in the Day of Atonement," the trumpet of the jubilee was sounded. Throughout the land, wherever the Jewish people dwelt, the sound was heard, calling upon all the children of Jacob to welcome the year of release. On the great Day of Atonement satisfaction was made for the sins of Israel, and with gladness of heart the people would welcome the jubilee.

As in the sabbatical year, the land was not to be sown or reaped, and all that it produced was to be regarded as the rightful property of the poor. Certain classes of Hebrew slaves--all who did not receive their liberty in the sabbatical year--were now set free. But that which especially distinguished the year of jubilee was the reversion of all landed property to the family of the original possessor. By the special direction of God the land had been divided by lot. After the division was made no one was at liberty to trade his estate. Neither was he to sell his land unless poverty compelled him to do so, and then, whenever he or any of his kindred might desire to redeem it, the purchaser must not refuse to sell it; and if unredeemed, it would revert to its first possessor or his heirs in the year of jubilee.

The Lord declared to Israel: "The land shall not be sold forever: for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and sojourners with Me." Leviticus 25:23. The people were to be impressed with the fact that it was God's land which they were permitted to possess for a time; that He was the rightful owner, the original proprietor, and that He would have special consideration made for the poor and unfortunate. It was to be impressed upon the minds of all that the poor have as much right to a place in God's world as have the more wealthy.

Such were the provisions made by our merciful Creator, to lessen suffering, to bring some ray of hope, to flash some gleam of sunshine, into the life of the destitute and distressed. The Lord would place a check upon the inordinate love of property and power. Great evils would result from the continued accumulation of wealth by one class, and the poverty and degradation of another. Without some restraint the power of the wealthy would become a monopoly, and the poor, though in every respect fully as worthy in God's sight, would be regarded and treated as inferior to their more prosperous brethren. The sense of this oppression would arouse the passions of the poorer class. There would be a feeling of despair and desperation which would tend to demoralize society and open the door to crimes of every description. The regulations that God established were designed to promote social equality. The provisions of the sabbatical year and the jubilee would, in a great measure, set right that which during the interval had gone wrong in the social and political economy of the nation.

These regulations were designed to bless the rich no less than the poor. They would restrain avarice and a disposition for self-exaltation, and would cultivate a noble spirit of benevolence; and by fostering good will and confidence between all classes, they would promote social order, the stability of government. We are all woven together in the great web of humanity, and whatever we can do to benefit and uplift others will reflect in blessing upon ourselves. The law of mutual dependence runs through all classes of society. The poor are not more dependent upon the rich than are the rich upon the poor. While the one class ask a share in the blessings which God has bestowed upon their wealthier neighbors, the other need the faithful service, the strength of brain and bone and muscle, that are the capital of the poor.

Great blessings were promised to Israel on condition of obedience to the Lord's directions. "I will give you rain in due season," He declared, "and the land shall yield her increase, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit. And your threshing shall reach unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the sowing time: and ye shall eat your bread to the full, and dwell in your land safely. And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid: and I will rid evil beasts out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land. . . . I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be My people. . . . But if ye will not hearken unto Me, and will not do all these commandments; and . . . ye break My covenant: . . . ye shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it. And I will set My face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that hate you shall reign over you; and ye shall flee when none pursueth you." Leviticus 26:4-17.

There are many who urge with great enthusiasm that all men should have an equal share in the temporal blessings of God. But this was not the purpose of the Creator. A diversity of condition is one of the means by which God designs to prove and develop character. Yet He intends that those who have worldly possessions shall regard themselves merely as stewards of His goods, as entrusted with means to be employed for the benefit of the suffering and the needy.

Christ has said that we shall have the poor always with us, and He unites His interest with that of His suffering people. The heart of our Redeemer sympathizes with the poorest and lowliest of His earthly children. He tells us that they are His representatives on earth. He has placed them among us to awaken in our hearts the love that He feels toward the suffering and oppressed. Pity and benevolence shown to them are accepted by Christ as if shown to Himself. An act of cruelty or neglect toward them is regarded as though done to Him.

If the law given by God for the benefit of the poor had continued to be carried out, how different would be the present condition of the world, morally, spiritually, and temporally! Selfishness and self-importance would not be manifested as now, but each would cherish a kind regard for the happiness and welfare of others; and such widespread destitution as is now seen in many lands would not exist.

The principles which God has enjoined, would prevent the terrible evils that in all ages have resulted from the oppression of the rich toward the poor and the suspicion and hatred of the poor toward the rich. While they might hinder the amassing of great wealth and the indulgence of unbounded luxury, they would prevent the consequent ignorance and degradation of tens of thousands whose ill-paid servitude is required to build up these colossal fortunes. They would bring a peaceful solution of those problems that now threaten to fill the world with anarchy and bloodshed. - [EG White, Patriarchs & Prophets, Chapter 51. Ch. 7, 11, 50, 73, 59.]

Notes & References

[200] Since we are shown what the second tithe supports, what does the first tithe support?
"But the tithe was set apart for the support of those who ministered in the sanctuary." [CS 71.2]
"There is to be no division between the ministry and the medical work. The physician should labor equally with the minister, and with as much earnestness and thoroughness for the salvation of the soul as well as for the restoration of the body. Some, who do not see the advantage of educating the youth to be physicians both of the mind and of the body, say that the tithe should not be used to support medical missionaries, who devote their time to treating the sick. In response to such statements as these, I am instructed to say that the mind must not become so narrowed down that it cannot take in the truth of the situation. A minister of the gospel who is also a medical missionary, who can cure physical ailments, is a much more efficient worker than one who cannot do this. His work as a minister of the gospel is much more complete." {CCh 310.4 - This was in the days around the time when it was written. Medicin has changed greatly since and this insturction may have to be re-evaluated.}

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