THE RESTORATION OF ANCIENT HISTORY
Digging in vain
List of Oriental History
Sequence of Empires
Armenia and Alarodia
Synchronizing Eurasi and China
Notes & References
Did the historians of classical Greece merely leave us lies and fantasies about all the major empires, nations and events of antiquity?
Or: How to reconcile archaeologically-missing historical periods with historically-unexpected archaeological strata of the ancient world.
II. The sequence of ancient empires with the center in Assyria as it was taught by Greek historians since the time of Hekateios (-560/550 to -500/494).
III. Archaeologically-missing history and historically-unexpected archaeology in major areas of antiquity.
IV. How could historical periods so well known from Greek authors be shown to be "elusive", whereas in the very same territories modern archaeology revealed sensationally ancient civilizations unknown before the late 19th century?
V. Reconnecting occidental and oriental progress of civilization.
VI. The restoration of ancient Israel by abandoning fundamentalist dates of historical biblical narratives and pseudo-scholarly dates of strata in the land of Israel.
VII. Synchronization of ancient Eurasian chronology with the chronology of ancient China.
In the last 150 years the learned world was time and again struck by the discovery
of lost nations and forgotten empires which were so ancient that even the best historians of antiquity had never heard of them. This caused great surprise because these superancient civilizations were found in territories which were otherwise well known to the historians of Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Yet, the surprise did not end there. The nations and
empires which were described by the classical authors in great detail could hardly be verified by the spade. One and a half centuries of excavations, thus, brought as much desperation as it did provide success stories for European scholars. Modern archaeologists, e.g., dug in vain for the Kat or Khat in Katpatuka/Cappadocia, who kept Medes and Persians on the alert (-630 to -330), but hit much older and mysterious Khat/Hittites.
WASHSHUKANNI, the mysteriously missing capital of the Mitanni, is identical
with EKBATANA, the well identified capital of the Medes (See map).
(1)-540 Persian Empire (2)-620 Medish Empire
(1) Late-, Neo- and Middle-Assyrians (from -1340 to -610; with gaps; then gap to -300)
Students of Chaldaea are stunned by the archaeological absence of the most learned nation of antiquity which the Greeks considered as the cradle of knowledge. Nobody understands how this brilliant people, which blossomed between the time of Ninos (-750) and Alexander the Great (-330), which became the teacher of nations but left no deity, text, brick or even potsherd. Yet, the same researchers take great pride in the discovery of the Sumerians (1867) in the very heartland of Chaldaea. These Sumerians became teachers of mankind. Yet, they were so ancient that even the best historians of antiquity had never heard of them.
ARMENIA AND ALARODIA
Archaeological strata groups discovered within the last 125 years which were not expected historically (conventional dates).
Historical periods prior to Hellenism, which mysteriously left no archaeological traces (dates from Greek historiography).
(Airarat and Armenia of Seleucid Greeks) (-330)
(1) Urartians and Armians (!) of Assyrian Period (from -1240 to -600; with gaps; then gap to -300)
(1) Urartians--Alarodians and Armenians of Persian Period (XIIIth/XVIIIth satrapy) ca. -550
(2) Hurrites/Urartians and Hai of Indo-Aryan Mitanni Period (-1500 to -1350)
(2) Urartians and Armenians=Hai of Indo-Aryan Medish Period ca. -63C
(3) Hurrites (=Early Urartians) from the period of Naramsin's Old-Akkadians (-2350 to -2200, then gap)
(3) "Arima" (Ilias II: 783) and Alarodian neighbors from the period of Ninos-Assyria ca. -750
(4) Early Bronze Age (ca. -3000)
(4) Early Armenia ca. -115a
(Armenologists are stunned by the archaeological absence of the history of the Alarodians and Armenians from Ninos (-750) to Alexander the Great (-330) which was taken for granted for nearly two and a half millennia. They have to teach their students that the Armenian inlaws of the Persian Great Rings and the satrap of Armenia who became Great Ring himself (Darius III) appear to have been cave dwellers. Yet, they take pride in the discovery of the Urartians/Hurrites and Armians, which were too ancient for even the finest historians of antiquity to know.)
(3) Hyksos Rule (with Old-Akkadian material culture) in strata E to D/2 (-1680 to -1540)|
(3) Rule of Ninos-Assyrians in Egypt ca . -75C
(4) Syro-Palestinian Middle Bronze II/A to II/B in G/F (-1740 to -1680)
(4) Egypt before conquest by Ninos-Assyria ca. -1150
-4th millennium Egyptian ceramics mixed with Syro-Palestinian Middle Bronze II/A-ceramics of early -2nd millennium in stratum H
Early contact between Syro-Palestine and the Nile valley before -1150
Egyptologists are stunned by the archaeological absence of the history of Egypt from Ninos (-750) to the end of the Persian Period (-330) which was taken for granted for nearly two and a half millennia. They are convinced that there was not much to conquer for Alexander the Great, when even the finest stratigraphy exhibits a bewildering gap between -1085 and -330. On the other hand, they are struck by the continuity between the material culture of stratum B, which supposedly ends in -1085, in stratum A which only begins after -330. The confusion peaked in an attempt to shift strata of another area of Tell el-Daba between the continuous strata B and A CENTRAL ASIA with the finest stratigraphies at Namazga Depe and Altyn Depe Archaeolo- gical strata groups discovered in the 20th century which were not expected historically (conventional dates).
Historical periods prior to Hellenism, which mysteriously left no archaeological traces (dates from Greek historiography).
HELLENISM since -250 PARTHIANS (-300)
(1) Namazga VI and later of Hartu/Amorite and Kassites (-2000 to -1700/-1400; then gap to -300)
(1) Satrapy XVI of the Persian (Mardian/Amardian) Empire ca. -520
(2) Namazga V/Altyn 3-1 .of Ur III-period (-2500/-2250 to -2150/-2000)
(2) Provinces Hyrcania and Parthia of the Medish Empire
(3) Namazga IV/Altyn 8-4 of Old-Akkadian times (-3000/-2500 to -2500/-2250
(3) Provinces Hyrcania and Parthia of Ninos-Assyria ca . -75C
(4) Namazga III/Altyn 13-9 (-3500/-3000 to -3000/-2500)
(4) Hyrcania and Parthia before Ninos-Assyria Namazga II-I/Altyn 15-14
Students of Ancient Central Asia are stunned by the archaeological absence of the history of the land bridge between the Near East and India/China, from Ninos down to the end of the Persian Empire, which was taken for granted for nearly two and a half millennia. They are convinced that there was no urban Central Asia to talk of when Alexander the Great conquered it. Yet, they take pride in the discovery of a steppe bronze and iron high culture which preceded China's by l500 and more years. On the other hand, they are bewildered to have found Achaenenid looking, i.e., post-550 pottery as early as -l500. They are even more puzzled by the similarity of the material culture of -2000 to the material culture of -330. Irrigation canals of -1800 are reused 1500 years later.
Archaeological strata groups discovered after 1875 which were not expected historically (conventional dates).
Historical periods prior to Hellenism, which mysteriously left no archaeological traces (dates from Greek historiography).
Buddhism [with architectural monuments not before -150] 1-330
(1) Mature Harappa Period (-2000 to -1700: then gap to -330)
insert***** I was not able to find this insert anymore ***********
Ancient Near Eastern sequence of Assyria-centered empires, from the Chalcolithic to Hellenism, in Classical Greek dates (left) which were used up to the 2nd century CE. when they were replaced by biblical dates which openly dominated comparative world chronology up to about 1870 and-in a disguised manner-are used up to the present.
[See also Olympia on this subject.]
[See also Olympia on this subject.]
Ancient Near East
(Greeks after -330; indigenous Asians of Seleucid and Parthian Empires)
-330 [See this Chartts Menu for Time Lines.]
 Flowering of the Polis ca. -550
 Akhaemenid Empire (=in Assyria "Middle-, Neo- and Late Assyrians l; in Babylonia "Old- to Late Babylonians" 2)
 Rise of the Polis ca -632*
 Medes and Chaldaeans (="Mitanni" 3 and "Ur III Sumerians 4)
 Mycenaean Period 5 ca. -750
 Ninos-Assyrians (="Old Akkadians" 6 = "Old-Assyrians" 7 = "Hyksos" 8 with "Chabur-Ware" for all)
 Middle Helladic 9 (Early Bronze Age ca. -1000
 Early Assyrian and Chaldaea (= "Ninevite-5 Ware 10 and Early Dynasty "Sumerians" 11)
* A date even closer to -600 is indicated for the rise of the Polis if archaeological evidence is set against arbitrary desk fabrications of ancient writers-e.g., Hippias of Elis-on the chronology of the Olympics with a mythical beginning at -776 (cf. B-J. Peiserm, 'The Crime of Hippias of Elis. Zur Kontroverse um die Olympionikenliste". in Stadion. Vol.XVI. No l pp 37-65. [For a map of the ancient Olympic site in Athens click Here!]
1...Up to now pseudo-astronomically Sothic dated. 'Middle-Assyrians', -1350 to -1100. "Neo"- and "Late"- Assyrians are Bible-Fundamentalistically dated -900 to -600 via by kings and eponyms tied to Israel and Judah and/or to Ptolemy's pseudo-astronomical chronology.
2. Old-Babylonians are Bible-Fundamentalistically dated (-2000 to -1750) by kinglists tied to Abraham. Late Babylonians are dated (-610 to -510) Bible-Fundamentalistically by kings and eponys tied to Judah and/or to Ptolemy's pseudo-astronomical chronology.
3. Up to now, pseudo-astronomically Sothic dated (-1550/1500 to-1350).
4. Neo-Sumerians are Bible-Fundamentalistically dated (-2120 to -2000) by kinglists tied to Abraham.
5. Up to now, pseudo-astronomically Sothic dated (-1600 to -1200).
6. Old-Akkadians are Bible-fundamentalistically dated (-2350 to -2200) by king lists tied to Abraham.
7. Old-Assyrians are Bible-Fundamentalistically dated (early -2nd millennium) by kinglists tied (via a low chronology Hammurabi) to Abraham.
8. Up to now, pseudo-astronomically Sothic dated (-1650 to -l500).
9. Up to now, pseudo-astronomically Sothic dated (-1800 to -l600).
10. Bible-Fundamentalistically dated (-3200/3000 to -2350) by king lists tied to Abraham
11. Bible-Fundamentalistically dated (-3200/3000 to -2350) by king lists tied to Abraham.
VI. THE RESTORATION OF ANCIENT ISRAEL BY ABANDONING FUNDAMENTALIST DATES OF HISTORICAL BIBLICAL NARRATIVES AS WELL AS PSEUDO-SCHOLARLY DATES OF STRATA IN THE LAND OF ISRAEL
Mainstream scholars are in the process of deleting Ancient Israel from history books. The entire period from Abraham the Patriarch in the -21st century (fundamentalist date) to the flowering of the Divided Kingdom in the -9th century (fundamentalist date) is found missing in the archaeological record. The period from the -9th to the -6th century (fundamentalist dates) is bewildering, for a different reason. The corresponding strata are found immediately below Hellenism of -300. Moreover, there are no windblown layers between Hellenistic strata of -300 and Israel/Judah strata of 700/-600, and the material culture (architecture, artifacts, ceramics etc. ) between -600 and -300 is clearly continuous. From an unbiased stratigraphical point of view, therefore, what now is fundamentalistically dated -900 to -600 requires a hard evidence chronology of -600 to -300. Yet, if the strata now dated - 900 to -600 in biblical years are changed to -600 to -300 in evidence based years, Israel's entire biblical history from -2100 to -600 is lost. Statements like "historical Israel remained as elusive as ever", therefore, dominate the most 'advanced' level of Bible research (T. L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People, Leiden, 1992, p. 27).
The worst enemy of Israel's history, indeed, is biblical chronology.*) Whoever puts his faith in it, cannot help but be tempted to extinguish Ancient Israel from the map. This is not only true for anti-Semites and anti-Zionists and neutral researchers, but even for the best and the brightest of Israeli scholars. I do not, of course, subscribe to each and every detail contained in historical biblical narratives, but claim that the material remains in the strata-groups of Israel, which today are up for grabs, are not over stretched, if one detects in them some hard evidence for written traditions. I cannot see a convincing reason to deprive Israel of the major events in her ancient history, as they are preserved in biblical legends. The main haven of fundamentalism, I believe, is rooted in biblical chronology and not in the historical narratives of biblical Israel. Before disposing of any Jewish stories (and of no less formidable Greek ones, about Ninos-Assyrian, Medish and Persian superpowers, Chaldaean creators of civilization, or Armenian, Cappadocia, Central Asian and Indian history between -600 and -300 etc. ), I would, rather, abandon biblical and mainstream chronologies alike. Then, everything is open for a new debate. Today, such an exchange must appear futile. Usually, an event in Israel's books with a fundamentalist date, is compared to the same date which unscholarly mainstream chronology forced upon a stratum in Israel's soil. If the biblically dated story does not match the stratum (with an identical date acquired by different means ), the story is discarded. Yet, the nations dwelling in the 'liberated' strata remain unknown, but they are said to have anticipated "Canaanite and later Israelite cult practice" (S. Richard, "The Early Bronze Age: Archaeological Sources for the History of Palestine", in Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 50, 1987, March, p. 32 - my emphasis). Thus, the strata removed from biblical Canaanites and Israelites, are transferred to enigmatic Proto-Canaanites and Proto-Israelites. [*) Click Here to learn about some underlying reasons for this statement.]
The Exodus  provides a typical example for the mismatch between the biblical date of a biblical historical event, and the mainstream date for a stratum in Israel. A stratum which would fit the story does exist. Yet, the story is discarded because the stratum in question has received an unfitting date. If, however, both unscholarly dates are discarded, the Exodus might well reenter history books. I put the "Exodus" event at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, when the Hyksos are expelled from Egypt. To the writer, this expulsion is identical with the expulsion of the pre-Medish Ninos-Assyrians from Egypt. Therefore, the Exodus falls in the time of the rise of Media , i.e., in conventional terms, of the Mitanni. The Medes=Mitanni emerge as the new superpower around -630. An Exodus date of ca. -630, of course, has nothing to do with a biblical Exodus date of -1450 or with a mainstream Hyksos expulsion date of ca. -1550. The latter-pseudo-astronomical Sothic-date of - 1550 led to the discarding of the Exodus story because it came too late.
As may be seen from Amihai Mazar's fine Summary, the dramatic shift from Middle to Late Bronze, exhibits many of the ingredients of an Exodus event, stretching from natural catastrophes hitting the Hyksos to military and non- military destruction in Israel. As an adherent to Sothic pseudo-astronomical dating, Mazar, of course, dates that shift around -1550 and, therefore, can not match it to a fundamentalistically or otherwise-dated Exodus:
"The most significant event concerning Palestine was the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt in the mid-sixteenth century B.C.E. The Hyksos princes fled from the Eastern Delta of Egypt to Southern Palestine; the Egyptians followed them there and put them under siege in the city of Sharuhen. This event was probably followed by turmoil and military conflicts throughout the country, as a number of Middle Bronze cities were destroyed during the mid-sixteenth century B.C.E.... However, unlike the great collapse of the urban culture at the end of the Early Bronze III period [after which I see the "Abrahamites" coming from Mesopotamian Chaldaea to Israel around -800 - G.H.], the turmoils of the mid-sixteenth century B.C.E. did not cause a total break of the Canaanite urban culture" (A. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10,000-586 B.C.E., New York et al., 1990, p. 226).
Pre-Exodus "Israel-in-Egypt" thus refers to mercenaries, administrators and settlers coming with the Ninos-Assyrian (=Old-Akkadian=Hyksos) forces, who could not help but launch their attacks during-the stratigraphy-dated - 8th century on Egypt from Israelite soil.
By taking stratigraphy seriously, I also had to restore the Amarna- correspondence to its evidence-based chronological position. The partners of the Medes ("Mitanni") in Akhet-Aton are to be dated to the late -7th and early -6th century of the Medes. The founder of the "House of David" emerged in these turmoils from a tribal background in the Judaean territory. The biblical narratives about David put him nearly half a millennium after Joshua and Exodus. Yet, all the ingredients of the stories indicate their contemporaneity. The compilers of the Bible put 500 years between them, because they did not know better. They had no resort to libraries, and were in no position to check the dates and sequences of events by looking at the stratigraphy.
The Joshua-stories  refer to the Nino-Assyrian (=Hyksos=Old-Akkadian) coastal flight out of Egypt. They belong to Israel rather than to Judah. The flight is stopped by the Medes ("Mitanni") who play the main role in vanquishing Ninos-Assyria. The "Exodus"-people even know the Medes by their indigenous name; this name was derived from the most bellicose of the Medo-Persian tribes, Amardians/Mardians, and recorded as "Amorites" by the biblical authors. The Mitanni=Medes rule as far as Megiddo, whence the Medish=Mitanni governor, Biridiya, corresponds with Egypt. This powerful Medish position is reflected in Joshua's failure to conquer Megiddo. Media's treason-minded allies, the Scythians, from Asia's steppes, go their own way and rush up to the borders of Egypt (Herodotus, The History I: 105) to give the Exodus people of the Joshua-legends a lot of trouble. The Exodus people remember their aggressors simply as Asians ("Amalekites"). We find their icons (stag, panther) well preserved in the Medish ("Mitanni") strata of Scythopolis (Beth Shean).
The David-legends belong to Judah rather than to Israel. Yet, the problems of iron shortage, clashes with Philistines, who were also looking for a haven in the Land of Israel-indicate the same historical context. The Hyksos expulsion coincides with a broadened use of iron. Mainstream chronology dates David (biblical fundamentalism) 600 years after the Hyksos (pseudo-astronomy). Yet, he is still only beginning with iron technology. This puts him right in the Late Bronze Age-with its emergence of iron technology-if we do not believe that iron took 600 years to travel 35 kms from Philistine sites to Judaean hills.
What sets David apart from Joshua is that the former rather has to build himself a position in his native land, whereas the latter is on the attack against people who already may have forgotten their forefathers whose descendants were returning. These earlier "Israelites"-as mentioned above-settled in the Nile valley some 100 years earlier, reaching Egypt as subjects of the Ninos-Assyrian world power. Moreover, the masses now fleeing from Egypt must have included many ethnic groups- notably descendants of Ninos-Assyrians who were hindered by the Medes=Mitanni from returning to Assyria proper (now Media's heartland as we know from Mitanni rule in Nineveh) and had to be content with disputed territory in Israel.
From this context it becomes clear that early Judah and early Israel, simultaneously, lived under Egyptian and/or Medish rule during the -7th/-6th century. The steady growth of these ethno-political entities in the early - 6th century could not have gone unnoticed by these big powers. And, indeed, the Amarna correspondence of the early -6th Medes=Mitanni mentions warring and conquering Habiru time and time again. These statements, I conclude, refer to further conquests of the "Exodus"-people and to the expansion of the House of David. That's why I utterly disagree with the conventional conviction that "we have no historical evidence to associate the fourteenth-century Amarna letters and the 'Apiru' mentioned in them with the origins of Israel" (T.L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People, Leiden, 1992, p. 135).
This "fourteenth-century" is derived from pseudo-astronomical Egyptology. But even after giving Amarna its stratigraphical date, the early -6th century of Medish=Mitanni times, nobody will look in that period for the beginnings of Judah and Israel. David, after all, is dated fundamentalistically, to the - lOth century, whereas the Exodus is either dated by the same technique to the -15th century or-inconclusively-to a variety of later Egyptian kings. Stratigraphically and, therefore, chronologically, all three items are connected:
( i ) The complaints of the Amarna correspondence about Habiru reflect
(ii) the growth of Israel through the Exodus people and
(iii) the growth of Judah through the House of David.
Now, with the House of David emerging in the Medish period we should be able to look for descendants of this princely house in the Persian period-which immediately follows Media, around -540. To do this, one has to scan the strata found immediately below the Hellenistic strata-which are dated beginning around -300. If one performs such a search program in Tel Dan, he or she will have to start immediately below its Hellenistic stratum I. Abraham Biran found his stele, with the "House of David" inscription, in a location belonging somewhere between Dan's strata II and III. That is as close to a Persian period successor of David as one can get. It also confirms the identity of Shalmaneser III-Jehu's overlord (cf. p. 22 above)-who had to be identified with early -5th century Artaxerxes I in the garb of his Assyrian satrapy.
Post-neolithic stratigraphy of Tel Dan. Conventional dates of biblical fundamentalism and pseudo astronomy are put in brackets (right column). Tentative evidence-based dates are given under strata in underlined italics (center column).
Periods in conventional terminology
Hellenism/Romans (Greek dates)
strata + strata groups (1) - (4) Evidence dates Hellenism/Romans (Greek Dates)
HELLENISM -300 onwards (-300 onwards)
mysterious Hiatus of 400 years between -700 and -300 (biblical dates)
Biran's stela with "House of David" inscription in Aramaic
(biblical dates )
III -425 to -300
IV -480 to -425
(pseudo-astronomical dates of Egyptology)
(1) V, VI -540 to -480 EMERGENCE OF PERSIA
Mysterious Hiatus of 1500 years
Late Bronze or MITANNI age ( in pseudo-astronomical dates )
(2) Mass burial -630 -540 MEDES ARRIVE
Middle Bronze II or HYKSOS age (in pseudo-astronomical dates) (Old-Akkadian culture)
City ramparts -750 to -630 NINOS-ASSYRIANS
poorly stratified Early Bronze plus Middle Bronze I remains. MYSTERIOUS LACK of material to cover 1, 600 year
The rehabilitation of Israel's history through synchronization of the content of major historical narratives in Israel's Bible With the strata in Israel's soil.
Neither Egyptology's pseudo-astronomical nor Assyriology's hidden fundamentalist kinglist dates nor fundamentalist dates of true believers are accepted. The author's column on the right is tentatively dated by the chronology of Assyria-centered empires known from Herodotus I: 95, 102: Ninos-Assyrians (="Old-Akkadians" = "Hyksos") Medes plus Chaldaeans (="Mitanni" plus "Sumerians"), Persian period Assyria (= post-"Mitanni" Assyrians). This chronological sequence is related to the amount and volume of strata in the ground of the Land of Israel.
Macalister's Gezer dates and terminology (1912)
Conventional dates and terminology
Author's terminology and chronology for HISTORY OF ISRAEL
Hellenism Enigmatic absence of Persian stratum 550-330
Hellenistic urban strata group 330-100
4th Semitic Farmer's Almanac from Gezer in earliest alphabetical Hebrew in Phoenician characters 1000-550
Iron Age (to -586) through Iron much earlier; Sargonids, Neo-Babylonians + Persians
ONSET OF ISRAEL'S HISTORY' Period from Abraham to the beginning of monarchy considered a fantasy; more confusion down to 2nd temple in - 6th or -4th century.
-18th c. Amorite cuneiform in Hazor 1200-33301)
(1) 1st pre-Hellenistic urban strata-group. ISRAEL in Persian period with "monarch's" borders being identical with Satrapy Transeuphrates (Divided Kingdoms). The beginning of alphabetical Hebrew. 530-330
3rd Semitic 1400-1000
Late Bronze Age (MITANNI + CHATTI), though Iron already used. Indo-Aryans rule in "Canaan". cuneiform from Megiddo to Amarna partly sounds like "purest Hebrew" (Bohl). the "Habiru" of the Amarna letters are comparable to the Joshua/David developments in Israel/Juda under impact of Hyksos refugees.
(2) 2nd pre-Hellenistic urban strata-group. ISRAEL under Amorites + Hittites of Ezekial 16:3 (=Medish Mardoi and Chatti). David/Joshua. Late cuneiform "Hebrew".
Destruction between 3rd and 2nd pre-Hellenistic stratum = "EXODUS" (Hyksos' expulsion from Egypt) 620-530
2nd Semitic (late)
Middle Bronze IIB-C ENIGMATIC HYKSOS with 2350 BCE Old-Akkadian material culture and Old-Akkadian cuneiform in Hazor. 1800-1550
(3a) 3rd pre-Hellenistic urban strata-group/upper part. ISRAEL (part of Hyksos) IN EGYPT.
Early cuneiform "Hebrew" 720-720
2nd Semitic (early) 1800-1400
Middle Bronze MBIIA (with 2500 BCE EARLY DYNASTIC IIIB Mesopotamian pottery.
Bronze appears only now. STRATUM OF MASSIVE MESOPOTAMIAN (CHALDAEAN) IMPACT
(3B) 3rd pre-Hellenistic urban strata-group/lower part
ONSET OF ISRAEL'S HISTORY with earliest Chaldaean impact in "ABRAHAM" Stratum.
ONSET OF ISRAEL'S HISTORY with Abraham the Patriarch.
Early Bronze to Middle Bronze I though no bronze yet. NO STRONG IMPACT FROM MESOPOTAMIA, where Nineveh-5 and Uruk Ware dominate pottery.
(4) 4th pre Hellenistic urban strata-group Preliterate Period. "Canaan" before immigration from Chaldaea 950-800
5th pre-Hellenistic strata group of pre-urban Chalcolithic period.
VII. SYNCHRONIZATION OF ANCIENT EURASIAN CHRONOLOGY WITH THE CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT CHINA
When the vast stretch of land from Spain to the Indus-Valley entered the Bronze Age in the -4th millennium, China slowly moved into the New stone Age (Neolithic). Even the urban oases in the Central Asian and Afghan west of China, which entered the Bronze Age more or less simultaneously with Mesopotamia, failed to tempt the Chinese to adopt the technological level of their barbarian steppe neighbors. The mythology of western Asia spoke of theomachies (combats of celestial deities) as the triggers of high culture in the -3rd millennium, whereas China's mythology did not do so for another 1, 500 to 2, 000 years. When the Eurasian land mass entered the Iron Age around -1600/-1400, China slowly moved into the Bronze Age. The Chinese waited an additional millennium-around 600/-400- before they could bring themselves to work iron. The Chinese did not seem to care about falling millennia behind. Yet, they were extremely careful not to miss a single developmental step in culture, religion and technology the neighbors in the west had gone through so much earlier. Why did they not take a shortcut into iron technology, after they had to make good the 1,500 years they had lost in bronze technology? Modern students of Ancient China have no way of comprehending the behavior of such a gifted nation. They simply feel embarrassed: "Whichever chronological scheme we may chose, the fact is that the known beginning of civilization in China is approximately a millennium and a half later than the initial phases of Near Eastern civilization. We can also take note of the fact that many essential elements of Chinese civilization, such as bronze metallurgy, writing, the horse chariot, human sacrifice, and so forth, had appeared earlier in Mesopotamia. Here, then, is the problem of East-West relationships all over again" (K. Chang, The Archaeology of China, New Haven & London, 1963, p. 136). Western scholars are quick to blame their Chinese colleagues for this anachronistic relationship: "A more serious omission, perhaps, is the comparative silence of Chinese archaeologists when it comes to placing Chinese history in its Asiatic context" (M. Pirazzoli-t'Serstevens, "China. The archaeological background", in C. Flon, ed., The World Atlas of Archaeology, London, 1985, p. 259). Western and Chinese scholars alike exhibit full confidence in conventional chronologies. Yet, it is only the territory from Spain to the Indus-Valley which is dated by Mesopotamian king lists tied to the biblical birthdate of Abraham the Patriarch, China -like Mesoamerica-is dated independently. It, therefore, can be used as an interesting measuring rod for the true age of the beginning of the Bronze Age.
Synopsis of the 3000 B.C.E. emergence of high civilization ("Bronze Age") in the territories of Egypt, Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia, Iran, Central Asia and the Indus Valley, which take pride in being the "cradle of civilization" but later have to pay with chronological gaps (framed with dotted lines) of some 1500 years, as opposed to the territories of the Ganges Valley and China, which suffer from a late beginning of high civilization but can take pride in the absence of chronological gaps in their histories:
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1) G. Heinsohn and the Evidence of Stratigraphy
Heinsohn has made a very important contribution to the revisionist debate by focussing attention on the evidence of stratigraphy outside Egypt. Dayton had uncovered many examples in museums around the world where near identical ancient artefacts of very similar styles and manufacturing techniques were given dates which varied sometimes by as much as 1000-1500 years. Heinsohn, from an extensive study of archaeological reports from most of the better known sites across Asia Minor, showed how these anachronisms had arisen. At site after site, archaeologists had artificially increased the age of the lower strata by inserting, without supporting evidence, 'occupation gaps' of many centuries. They did this in order to meet the expectations of excessive antiquity among historians, who had used Biblically derived dates for Abraham (c. 2100), initially seen as broadly contemporary with the great Assyrian king Hammurabi. Using this elongated time frame, great empires of the past such as the Sumerians, Akkadians and Old Babylonians were invented by late 19th C and early 20th C scholars to fill the historical voids. The ancient Greek and Roman historians, not surprisingly, knew nothing of these ancient peoples. Sumerian, said Heinsohn, 'is the language of the well known Kassite/Chaldeans, whose literacy deserves its fame'.
He showed that the Bronze Age started in China and Mesoamerica some 1500 years later than in the Near East and proposed this gap be largely closed by lowering the ages of the Mediterranean civilisations. He cited the Indus Valley where the early period civilisations, dated from Mesopotamian seals to c. 2400BC, sit right underneath the Buddhist strata of 7-6C. Seals from Mesopotamia are found in the Indus valley and in Mesopotamia there are seals from the Indus Valley. So the excavators have to say they have an occupation gap of some 1700 years. Thus some sites only about 30km apart have chronologies some 1500 years apart. But in the same strata, supposedly 1500 years apart, they frequently find the same pottery.
C&CR had insufficient space to provide a full forum for Heinsohn's work, but a volume entitled Ghost Empires of the Past was published in C&CR format in 1988, thanks to help from SIS stalwarts Birgit Liesching and Derek Shelley-Pearce. In this, Heinsohn set out many chronological 'problems' and 'riddles', and argued persuasively for equating, among others, the Mittani with the Medes and the Empire Hittites with the Late Chaldeans.
His excellent paper on the archaeology of Hazor (C&CR 1996:1) revealed some important anachronisms. For example, two cuneiform tablets written in Old-Babylonian Akkadian and two more written in the Akaddian of the Amarna era were found in the upper layers of the site. Heinsohn asks 'How did tablets from the early second millennium end up in a stratum reaching its peak in the period of the Persian Empire (550-330 BC)?'. The tablets were, of course, immediately labelled 'heirlooms' by their finders. But, as Heinsohn pointed out, it seems strange that the later Hazoreans kept tablets for over 1000yrs as heirlooms from the MBA or LBA, yet were apparently incapable of producing any texts of their own. Also, a clay jar inscribed in 23C Old-Akkadian was found in the Hyksos layer c17C. Yes, you've guessed - this was explained as yet another boring old 'heirloom'. Heinsohn makes a plea to archaeologists to 'set textbooks aside and allow oneself the liberty of following reason and hard stratigraphical evidence'. The textbook schemes 'separate by enormous time spans what is found in parallel stratigraphical locations, exhibiting very similar material cultures.' Unfortunately for archaeologists, the writers of the textbooks are often the 'Guardians of the Dogma' who control the funding for archaeological research. As a result, an archaeologist brave enough to confront conventional thinking may quickly find himself both professionally discredited and out of a job.
Heinsohn has presented many well-researched papers exposing stratigraphical problems, and suggesting much lower chronologies for Near Eastern civilisations. His stratigraphy and stylistic-based chronologies and, more recently his explanation for the 'lost' Persian layer throughout the Persian Empire have generated much debate and some unanswered controversy among revisionists. [From:http://www.knowledge.co.uk/sis/ancient.htm]
*This author's revision of ancient chronology claims that the gaps do not really represent a cessation of settlements but are due to unscholarly chronological constructs based on either Bible-fundamentalist premises of Assyriologists and/or pseudo-astronomical calculations of Egyptologists. Therefore, the years assigned to the gaps simply do not exist at all. The
territories in India, Central Asia, Iran, Asia Minor, the Levant, Egypt and Mesopotamia proper, which have been dated via Abraham the Patriarch and false astronomical assumptions, must abandon the one-and-a-half-millennia allotted to their gaps-plus a few more centuries. The latter have to be deduced from the Early Dynasties whose levels nowhere provide the stratigraphic depth to reliably fill their conventional 600 years. Thus, the emergence of post-Neolithic high civilization does not come about before the turn to the 1st millennium B.C.E.. This reduction brings China, the Ganges Valley as well as Mesoamerica (Olmecs) etc., into line with the rest of the world.
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"VELIIKOVSKY- ANCIENT MYTH AND MODERN SCIENCE" DWARDU CARDONA- Electrical engineer, founder Canadian Society of Interdisciplinary Studies, senior editor of AEON. Researcher and prolific writer on comparative mythology having published over 100 articles in various journals.
VICTOR CLUBE- Dean of the astrophysics department at Oxford University, England. Co-author of two books, "Cosmic Serpent" and "Cosmic Winter", claiming that major cometary disasters have occurred within historic times, devastating early civilizations. His current work is aimed at alerting government agencies to such perils as comet Shoemaker/Levy and encouraging governments to mobilize the technologies necessary to identify potential cometary intruders and to provide terrestrial defenses against them.
EV COCHRANE- Associate Editor Kronos; executive editor and publisher AEON; published many articles in Kronos and AEON from comparative mythology, to planet/comet catastrophism and biological evolution; currently finishing major work: "The Many Faces of Venus".
VINE DELORIA- An American Indian activist, lawyer, historian, educator author screen writer and consultant. He is author of "Custer Died For Your Sins", "God Is Red", "Indians of The Pacific Northwest", "The Nations Within", and 10 other books on native peoples issues. He has served on the editorial boards of the American Historical Society, the National Geographic Society, the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Journal of International and Comparative Law, and over 15 other publications. He has over 5 honorary degrees, has authored 8 special government reports on Indian affairs., and has over 100 periodical articles including articles in Pensee and Kronos.
ROBERT DRISCOLL- Graduated Caltech (physics) and Case Tech (mechanical engineering) (cum laude); author "Unified Theory of Ether, Field and Matter", 1964; member American Physical Society and his articles on physics have appeared in The Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Hadronic Journal, Physics Essays, AEON, author of numerous journal articles.
CHARLES GINENTHAL- Editor-in-Chief, The Velikovskian;; contributor to Kronos, AEON, Meta Research Bulletin; author: "Carl Sagan and Immanuel Velikovsky" and "The Continuing Velikovsky Affair: The Second Generation". Charles is also working on a cosmology invoking electromagnetism as a counterforce to gravity in interplanetary and interstellar space.
ROBERT GRUBAUGH- Structural Dynamicist 1967-1990 at TRW Ballistic Missiles Division, San Bernardino CA, Section Chief, Department Manager, Senior Staff Engineer- Analyzed trajectories in relation to stipulated orbital conditions; inventor of a rotational shock measuring device, now being used by the Japanese for earthquake measuring.
RICHARD HEINBERG- Velikovsky's personal assistant and editor of his unpublished manuscripts. Heinberg's popular book, "Memories & Visions of Paradise" was hailed by Jean Houston (noted authority on the great religions) as "...a new classic in the study of the world's psyche." He is also the author of two other books and numerous articles on mythology, anthropology, and ecology.
GUNNAR HEINSOHN- Masters Sociology 1971, Doctorate Social Sciences 1973, Doctorate Economics 1982, Freie Universitaet, Berlin; tenured Professor, University of Bremen 1984. Author of over 15 books and 300 articles since 1969 in the fields of history, economics, theory and chronology of civilization, the separation of modern man from Neanderthal, Bronze Age Mesopotamian civilization, Greek city state economics, origins of Jewish monotheism, recontructions and revisions of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Akhaemenid and Indus-Valley civilizations, the European witch hunts, and the 20th century Jewish Holocaust.
EARL MILTON- BS 1956, MS inorganic chemistry 1958, doctorate gas phase spectroscopy University of Lethbridge, Montreal; staff University of Saskatchewan, photometrics of the aurora borealis; founding faculty member and head Centennial University at Lethbridge where he engaged in laboratory research on the aurora and stellar spectra and developed an all-electric theory governing cosmic and terrestrial events; currently completing manuscripts on astro-catastrophism including collaboration on an Encyclopedia of Quantavolution and Catastrophes; editor of "Recollections of a Fallen Sky, Velikovsky and Cultural Amnesia" and co-author of "Solaria Binaria: Origins and History of the Solar System"
WILLIAM MULLEN- Recognized as one of the world's leading classicists, Dr. Mullen is currently Professor of Classics at Bard College. Undergraduate study- Harvard, Magna cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa, and Bowdoin prize for best undergraduate essay; Ph.D. University of Texas at Austin; Assistant Professor of Classics, University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Mullen is the author of "Choreia; Pindar, and Dance" (Princeton University Press, 1982), and articles on "Dithyramb" and "Choral Dancing," in the "INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DANCE," in addition to many other articles and published works.
DONALD PATTEN- B.A. and M.A. degrees in geography from the University of Washington. Author of The Biblical Flood and the Ice Epoch (1966), The Long Day of Joshua and Six Other Catastrophes (1973), and Catastrophism and the Old Testament (1987). He is also a principal in the production of two videos, "Cataclysm From Space 2800 B.C." and "The Discovery of Noah's Ark."
LYNN E. ROSE- Professor of philosophy, State University of New York at Buffalo; B.A. cum laude, Ohio State University, 1955, in ancient history and Classical Languages (Greek), Phi Beta Kappa; .M.A. in Philosophy, Ohio State University, 1957; Ph.D. in Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania, Author of over a half-dozen books on Classics and several dozen journal articles.
DAVID TALBOTT- Founder and publisher of Pensee magazine's ten-issue series, "Immanuel Velikovsky Reconsidered," which helped to spark international interest in Velikovsky's work in the mid seventies. Author of "The Saturn Myth" (Doubleday, 1980), and founder of the journal AEON: A Symposium on Myth and Science.
WALLACE THORNHILL- computer systems engineer with IBM and the Australian Government; postgraduate Astrophysics studies at Queen Mary College, University of London; papers on Venus and the origin of chondritic meteorites have been published in the UK Society for Interdisciplinary Studies (SIS) Review and the Proceedings of the National Australian Convention of Amateur Astronomers; Past committee member of SIS. ROGER W. WESCOTT- B.A. Princeton, (linguistics, summa cum laude); Ph.D. Princeton, linguistics 1948; Rhodes Scholar; anthropological field work in Nigeria; director African Language Program, Michigan State University.; Author of over 40 books and 400 articles; listed in Who's Who; Professor of Linguistics in the Humanities Division of the Graduate School and Professor of Anthropology in the Social Science Division of the College of Liberal Arts at Drew University in Madison, New Jersey; first holder of The Endowed Chair of Excellence in Humanities at the University of Tennessee.; current President of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations.
SAMUEL WINDSOR- Windsor is a mechanical engineer previously employed by Boeing and by the Department of the Navy in building nuclear submarines. Currently working as a naval architect and marine engineer. His essays have appeared in the journals Catastrophism and Ancient History and AEON.
TOM VAN FLANDERN- Phd 1969 Yale, celestial mechanics; former director U. S. Naval Observatory, Celestial Mechanics Branch; teacher of astronomy and consultant to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; frequent contributor to scholarly technical journals and astronomy magazines.
Author- "Dark Matter, Missing Planets, & New Comets".
DUANE VORHEES- Doctorate in American Culture Studies from Bowling Green State University. His dissertation was "A Cultural and Intellectual Biography of Immanuel Velikovsky." Dr. Vorhees is currently with the University of Maryland, Asia Division, teaching American History, literature and related courses. He is the author of numerous articles in Kronos and AEON.
IRVING WOLFE- B.A. English and Philosophy 1956, M.A. English 1958, doctorate Drama 1970 McGill University, Montreal; Professor of Drama, McGill University 1978 to present; author of over 25 articles and 50 papers on Velikovsky and the role of global catastrophe in the shaping of ancient and contemporary dramatic themes, in the formation of cultural amnesia, in the creation of world religions and other forms of collective behavior; frequent lecturer and consultant outside the university.
NANCY OWEN- B.S Michegan State University, M.E. University of Texas; author "Astronomical Events on the Dates of the Dresden Codex" and "Archeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America", contributed papers to Sobretiro de: Estudios de Cultura Maya Vol VIII, SIS Review, , Il Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas, ESOP, Memorias del Primera Coloqueo Internacional de Mayistas; presented papers at the Museum of Natural History, NY, AAAS- Mexico City.
ERIC MILLER- Poet, playwright, writer; former Trustee of Island Campus (Pacific Institute for Advanced Studies); correspondent with and performed research for I. Velikovsky; author of "Passion for Murder: The Homicidal Deeds of Dr. Sigmund Freud" (1985 New Directions), "Venus Worship In Ancient China" (manuscript), "The Errors of Einstein" (manuscript).
CHARLES RASPIL- B.A. Political Science. 1967, City College of NY; currently working as a Fair Hearing representative for the City of New York; published in Horus, The Velikovskian, Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science.
Notes & References
 When Professor Heinson wrote this paper, he did not know about the underwater landbridge connecting Nuweiba Beach with the Saudi Arabian side across the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea area. This feature makes the Exodus possible in the otherwise deep Gulf. The historical Exodus occurred at this location and marks the beginning of the Amalekite/Hyksos occupation of Egypt until the dawn of the 18th dynasty in the days of King Saul of Israel.
 The five kings of Joshua chapter 10 are: (1) Adonizedec of Jerusalem, (2) Hoham of Hebron, (3) Piram of Jarmuth, (4) Japhia of Lachish, and (5) Debir of Eglon; Joshua 10:1-3. The city names or locations that figure prominently during the events are: Jerusalem, Gibeon, Gilgal, Beth-horon, Azekah, Makkedah.
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