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Palestine Exploration Fund
Pre-dynastic Egypt and the Early Bronze Age at Maadi
The existence of foreign Palestinian ceramic imports at Maadi, a busy trading center near Cairo, has long been known and has factored heavily in discussions about its place in the relative chronological sequence of Late Predynastic Lower Egypt. Designated Ware V, or `Palestinian Ware', by the excavators, these imports were limited to one principal form:
A globular jar with broad, flat base, high shoulder, and long, pronounced cylindrical neck. Ledge- or lug handles were usually found attached to the shoulder. Besides its unique form, Ware V pottery has also exhibited manufacturing techniques and clay compositions not found in local wares. 31 complete jars were recovered ...'On the basis of a study of bitumen, carnelian beads and the numerous chipped stone evidence at Maadi and the presence of tabular-like flint similar to that from southern Palestine in Early Bronze context a trade model was established. Inside some pots at Maadi as well as in pottery from Nahal Besor (Wadi Ghazzeh), southern Palestine, at Site `H' Nile mollusk shells and spikes of Nile catfish were found. The site `H' material was dated to the EB IA Period. The evidence led archaeologists to the conclusion that these goods were exchanged by profit seeking, freelance middlemen operations and were not the result of military domination. [Timothy P. Harrison, `Economics with an Entrepeneurial Spirit: Early Bronze Trade with Late Predynastic Egypt' in BA, June 1993, p. 81-93. See also E. Pernicka and A. Hauptmann, `Chemische und mineralogische Analyse einiger Erz-und Kupferfunde von Maadi' in I. Rizkana and J. Seeher, `Maadi III'. 1989, pp. 137-140.; Maadi copper samples were chemically analyzed to be from Wadi Feinan in Jordan.]
On what basis were the finds at Maadi dated to Pre-Dynastic times? The author states:
"Since chronological correlations between two regions are essential to any discussion of the nature of their interaction, a basic chronological framework needs to be in place before an examination of the archaeological evidence can begin."
What we have to be careful of as a result of the above sentence is that it is not part of `circular reasoning'. If pottery finds and artifacts figure in establishing dynastic times then one cannot securely determine dynastic times on the same type of evidence. An argument could be made that subsistence economy was in place throughout all ages.
From long ago Jerusalem was surrounded by fields and orchards but west of the city arose 20 mysterious earth and stone mounds. Albright excavated mound #2 in the 1920's and found them to contain Early Iron pot sherds which he attributed to 1100 BC. Later digs by Ruth Amiran determined the three mounds she exposed were of late kingdom of Judah times. So we read: "Hezekiah slept with his fathers and they buried him with the sons of David, and all of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem honored him at his death." [2.Chr. 32:33; Jeremiah 34:5] The `honor' paid by all of Judah and Jerusalem is mentioned after the king was buried, so it apparently does not refer to the funeral. Giving honor is a separate matter. On the death of king Asa he was buried, "in his own sepulcher ... A very great fire was made in his honour." [Ibid. 16:14] On the death of Jehoram, "His people made no fire for him ..." [Ibid. 21:19] These `mounds of burning' were protected in that people were not allowed to take stones from them for their own projects. When a king died, a month or so later, after the king was buried in the City of David, a ceremony took place for all the people (2.Chr. 32:33). There was no space for them in the narrow streets of Jerusalem. To avoid damaging agricultural plantations that ringed the city, they gathered on the barren hills outside the city. The entire ceremony took only a few hours. A platform was built around which the crowd stood in sorrow. Perhaps there were a few speeches, then a huge fire was ignited in memory of the deceased king. Afterward each participant took a basket of stones and dirt and piled the material within rings of stone walls in order to cover the place of burning, forming a large artificial memorial mound. (Jeremiah 34:5) It is interesting that there are 19 (or 20) of these mounds. Between king David and Zedekiah, there were 21 kings. [Gabrial Barkay, Mounds of Mystery in BAR, Vol. 29, May/Jun, 2003, p. 32-39f.]
Where can I find that?|
01) The complete display of tomb paintings and their hieroglyphic inscriptions as well as a 3-line inscription inside the Theban Tomb (TT1) of Sennedjem can be seen in KMT, Vol. 12, Spring 2001, p. 46-(58)-59.
02) The hieroglyphics on one side of the tip of the Luxor obelisk of Ramses II can be seen in KMT, Spring 2001, p. 88.
03) The complete Theban Tomb (TT100) of the vizier Rekhmere can be seen in KMT, Summer 2003, p. 28-44.
04) An obelisk which once stood at Philae is now located at the house of W.J. Bankes, England. -- Not long ago a crate filled with 212 ancient Egyptian ostraca, over 100 of them tax receipts, were found in a cellar of the elegant country home of Kingston Lacy in Dorset, England. These ostraka were brought here by the 19th century pioneer Egyptologist William John Bankes. [See Current World Archaeology, Dec/Jan 07/08, No. 26, p. 10.
See KMT, Summer 2003, p. 66.
05) A carved ivory head, blackened by a fire that destroyed Hazor, can be seen on the front page of BAR, May/Jun 1999.
06) British Museum (BM) text 21946 published in Wiseman, Chronicles, Plate XVI, p. 70, reads as follows: "Rev. 9: attu(MU) VIkam ituKislimi(GAN) àr(LUGAL) Akkadi(URI)ki umman(ERIM.ME)-ú id-ki-ma-ana kurHat-tú ummani(ERIM-ni-ME)-ú i-pur-ma.
Rev. 10: mad-ba-ri irtedu(US)-ma kurA-ra-bi ma-du-tu buî(NIG)-ú-nu bu-li-ú-nu u ilani(DINGIR.ME)-ú-nu ma-di ih-tab-tu-nu ina ituAddari(SE) arru(LUGAL) ana mati(KUR)-ú itur(GWUR). - (9) "In the 6th year in the month of Kislev the king of Akkad mustered his army and marched to the Hatti-land. From the Hatti-land he sent out his companies, (10) and scouring the desert they took much plunder from many Arabs, their possessions, animals and gods. In the month of Adar the king returned to his own land." [W.J.Dumbrell in AJBA, 1972, p. 99ff.]
(11) Iron II hand made pottery from Tell el-Kheleifeh (Ezion Geber/Eilat). BA, Sep 1959, p. 104.
(12) A picture of the ruins of ancient Gibeon as they looked in 1959. Ibid. from (11), Feb 1960, p. 16.
(13) Henri-Pauk Eydoux, `The Buried Past', N.Y., 1967: Drawn B&W detail maps of a) the small village of Lespugue, 12 miles north of Saint-Gauden near the Sauve and Garonne Rivers, and the city of Toulouse, France - famous for the 1922 find of the little statue of what its discoverer, the `Count of Saint-Perier' called a statue of `Venus' of the Aurignacian Period in the limestone `Cave of Curtains', other caves there were named `Cave of Dogs, Bulls & Harpoons'; b) Barnenez on the little peninsula of Kernelehen, Bretagne on the French Atlantic coast near Brest, location of the famous tumulus with the 11 dolmens (weight of d. H ca. 30 tons) (family graves); c) the Barnenez granite dolmen probably from the island of Sterec or Terenez Point (1 mile away) is related to the 85, 90 & 100 ton dolmens at Bagneux (2° 19' east & 48° 49' north), Fete-Bernard and Arequera, Andalusia. Fragments of pottery was judged to be similar to neolithic Iberian(?) type pottery, like bell beakers, from a completely sealed corbelled roof dolmen on Carn Island in Ploudalmezeau, in Leon (Finistere) found in 1954. Inside the Bernanez dolmen were found immensly hard and polishable dolerite, a type of diorite, axes of extremely fine grain. Identical stone axes were found in the South of England, the Channel Islands, the Paris basin, the Loire Valley, the Haute Garonne and Brittany. Also found was a small, arsenic rich copper dagger meaning the arsenic was used to harden it and often found at the end of a copper containing vein.; c) the Graeco-Etruscan city of Spina located on the tip of land on the north shore of the Valli di Comachia, just south of Venice, Italy, (at ca. 12.20 ° east & 44.40 ° north). The Etruscan shrine of `Fanum Voltumnae' was probably located near the city of Orvieto (ca. 12.01° east & 42.5° north).[Current World Archaeology, Dec/Jan 07/08, No. 26, p. 23-28. Students: Beware of teachers who teach long ages. There was only one Ice Age. Any long age scenarious must be critically examined. More often then not it is not that difficult to discover sloppy research on the part of evolutionary proponents.]
(14) An image of the so-called `Elijah chair' above the Sea of Galilee in Eretz, Sept. 2001, p. 40.
(15) A group of Roman milestones, Ibid. from (14), p. 47.
(16) a) An image of the El Amarna granaries, House #T36.11, and Seton Lloyd's model of them as well as b) a plan of the house of the vizier Nakht and c) a plan of the workers village and their house floor plan can be seen in Betty Winkelman, Homes of the Nobles at Akhetaten in KMT, Summer 1999, p. 66-(76)-79.
(17) A good quality color photo of the `Horns of Hittin' and the Mt. Arbel and Mt. Netal area can be seen in Eretz, Mar 2002, p. 12. Also shown is a large view of the waterworks and old aqueduct of the Nahal Taninim near Mt. Carmel as well as a view around Mt. Tabor.
See also a rare inscription in ancient Georgian characters marking the grave of a Georgian bishop were found in Jerusalem (p. 17).; Also engravings of `Absalom's Pillar' (p. 41) and `David's Conquest of Rabbah' (p. 42), Eretz, Dec 2002.
(18) An image of the Roman fort `Umm el-Dabadib' at the northern Kharga Oasis can be seen in Mark Rose, Caring for the Dead in Archaeology, Mar 2004, p. 30-(34)-35.
(19) Images of potteries: a) From a `Canaanite' grave a red polished Syrian flask, two base-ring juglets said to be imported from Cyprus and two bowls, b) Philistine Bichrome in BAR, Mar 1991, p. 31-34.
(20) Geoffrey Martin, `12th Dynasty private name (and titles) seals from the Alnwick Castle Collection' in MDAI, Band 35, 1979, p. 215-226. Many drawn images.
(21) Information and an image of the `silver mines' at Laurium in Attica, Greece. The image shows a view of part of a 4th century BC industrial complex at Agrileza, including a washery for silver ores. [Oxford University Press, `Greece and the Hellenistic World', 1988, p. 215.]
(22) To see the 62 pound silver hoard of `Eshtemoa' located in the Judean hills and dating to the 8th century BC see BAR, Nov/Dec 1987, p. 38-44 and Mar/Apr 1995, p. 51.
(23) A study by Kenneth A. Kitchen of the price of slaves in the Near East from the conventional 3rd millennium BC to the 1st millennium BC revealed that prices listed in the Bible closely conform to known prices in the Near East at periods in which Biblical events can be dated. This correspondence (using conventional dates) makes it unlikely that the Biblical numbers were invented centuries later by writers who composed the early history. [Source Ibid., No. 22; The range for the Near East charted is about 2250 BC/13 silver shekels (SS), 2000 BC/14 SS, 1750/20 SS, 1500/30 SS, 1250/36 SS, 1000/44 SS, 800/50 SS followed by a sharp upturn because of Assyrian influence to 750/67 SS, 530/118 SS.; The range for the biblical prices: 1700/20 SS (Gen. 39:28), 1500/26 SS, 1450/29 SS (Ex. 21:32), 1250/34 SS, 1000/41 SS, 750/50 SS (2.Kgs 15:20).] It was the apostle Paul who struck at the very foundation of slavery when he declared, echoing the words of Jesus, "... set at liberty them that are bruised ... Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty." Luke 4:18; 2.Corinthians 3:17.
Ancient Societies: In our time people have forgotten what makes this world a good place. Before the time of Christ the ancients were drifting deeper and deeper into a morass of loss of liberties, health, moral fortitude, knowledge, stability and everything good that makes life worth living. If Jesus would not have come life probably would have ceased to exist before now due to diseases and human wickedness. Ancient Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome was populated mostly by slaves. A few, took advantage of the labors of many. It was Christianity that rolled back the drift toward humanities ineviatable course into self destruction.[Greece and the Helenistic World, `Life and Society in Classical Greece', p. 198-227.] Today we see the continuation of wrong living. Entire nations forsook faith in the only true God and invented gods of their own making, thus they never learned about the origins of sin and about the only Savior from sin. This results in increasingly debased living. They know they are wicked themselves and therefore cannot trust anyone else. Only faith in the Creator God of Heaven and earth can solve humanities problems. The reign of sin is over in the not too distant future and judgment of all morally accountable human beings will have to answer for what they did while alive. God gave Satan 6,000 years to try out his type of government without God, four thousand years after creation the cross (A.D. 31) became the symbol for redemption from sin for those who would believe, we are almost at the 6,000 year mark and God will cut things short in righteousness before then.
(24) An image of a computer generated image of the `Temple Mount' of Jerusalem as displayed in the visitors center in the Old City, see BAR, Jul/Aug 2001, p. 16. Includes also an article and images of the Colloseum and Roman Forum.
(25) Pierre de Miroschedji, `Yarmuth- The Dawn of City-States in Southern Canaan' in NEA, Mar 1999, p. 2-19; Featuring B&W images of a site plan, the well preserved ruins, EBIII and IA I pottery from Yarmuth, a side bar account of a `Hoard of Egyptian Bronze' from the same site.
(26) All about thrones and carriages:
A) The painting of the Egyptian god Kheper seated on a decorated throne is presented in Richard Lobban, `A Solution to the Mystery of the Was Scepter' in KMT, Fall 1999, p. 69-(71)-77.
b) The raised relief image of `Perneb' seated on an Egyptian chair and
c) a lightly constructed, 4 spoke, 18th dynasty chariot with a lynch pin
d) and a tomb painting of Nakht seated in a chair, can be seen in Dorothea Arnold, `A New Gateway to Ancient Egypt' in KMT, Summer 2004, p. 22-(30)-35; chariot, p. 42.
B) The grandiorite seated on a throne statue of Thutmose III found at Deir el-Bahari and the 6 spoked hunting chariot to be pulled by two horses of Tutankhamen can be seen in KMT, Fall 2004, p. 22-23.
C) Presented in KMT, Spring 2002: A relief scene of
a) the seated Hetepi, p. 20.
b) the seated Inty (wife Merut), p. 25.
c) a urea, cobra, ivory decorated ebony wood (throne?) chair of Queen Hatshepsut, p. 71-73.
(27) William Houghton, `The Birds of the Assyrian Monuments and Records' in TSBA, Vol. VIII, 1885, p. 42-142.
(28) The first elephant skull found in Israel. For the report see Na'ama Goren-Inbar, Hominid Adaptation Palaeoenvironments at the Site of Gesher Bennot Ya'aqov in BA, Sep 1993, p. 128. The site of the formation (listed as GBY 89 234-124) in which the skull was found is located about 4 km south of the Hula Valley, along the course of the Jordan River and is bordered by the Golan Heights on the east and the `Korazim Saddle' on the west. The exposures are ca. 70 meters above Mean Sea Level and consist of terrestrial and lake sediments which form the shores of the Hula Valley basin fill according to Horowitz, 1973.
(29) Ancient depictions of camels: a) A 65 cm tall orthostat showing a rider atop a dromedar perched on a box like seat from Tell Halaf (ancient Guzana or Gozan of 2.Kings 17:6), Syria. b) Bactrian camels on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. c) A `Double mounted dromedary warriors attack' is shown on an Assyrian relief from Niniveh. [Ilse Köhler-Rollefson, Camels and Camel Pastoralism in Arabia in BA, Dec. 1993, p. 180-188. An old rock etching of a camel from the region around the 4th cataract is shown in Archaeology, Nov/Dec 2006, p. 39.
(30) A List of Ancient or Old Egyptian Fortresses: Aerial images of a) Qasr Sumayra, b) Roman Ayn Gib, c) Muhammed Tuleib, d) Ayn Lebekah, e) Ayn Umm Dabadib, f) El Deir, g) Ayn Tarakwa, h) unfortified Ayn Dabashiya can be seen in Salima Ikram & Corinna Rossi, Surveying the North Kharga Oasis in KMT, Winter 2002/03, p. 72-79.
(31) The Frankish Period: A Unique Medieval Society Emerges (in Palestine)' by Adrian J. Boas in Near Eastern Archaeology, Sept. 1998, p. 138-173. Features B&W images of the five capitals of the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth; a period map of Israel; image of distinctive diagonal tooling on limestone ashlars of the period; city map of 13th century acre; map of Frankish Jerusalem; Tower of David; photo of the city of Acre; the tower of Nebi Samwil near Jerusalem; the cloister of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Church of St. Anne and St. Mary; the cathedral ceiling of the `Cotton Market' hall; the remains of a covered street in Caesarea; a Frankish tombstone from the Mamila Cemetery, Jerusalem; a reconstruction drawing of the Frankish Village; the castle of Montreal (Transjordan); Color Images: The Frankish fortified tower at Seforis; aerial image of the Belvoir and Montfort Castle; the `Pilgrim's Castle' (Chateau Pelerin) on the sea rocks at Atlit and the meager remains of the Chastellet Castle.
What could be added is that societies like the Knight Templars were to look after the temple and churches in Jerusalem. They became the most influential of the societies. They have two doctrines: (a) Johannism (relics of John t. Baptist, Luzifernismus, Anubis, the god of death, skull & bones) and (b) Roman Catholicism. In essence they deceive their own people. [P. Wm. Langler, Western Civilization, N.Y, 1961, pp. 63, 64, 65] Actually there are many more such secret societies and organizations penetrated by them.
(32) Incidental notes on the `Book of the Dead': P. Le Page Renouf, Two Vignettes (Fig. 1 & 2) from the Book of the Dead in PSBA, Nov 1888, p. 26-28.; Papyrus Milbank (a book of the dead) can be seen in its original form in James H. Breastedt, The Oriental Institute, Vol. XII, 1933, p. 41.
(33) The basalt bull stela from Bethsaida, the large basalt lion from Hazor, what is described as an intact Israelite cult stand from Megiddo and a goddess from Rehov can be seen in BAR, Jan/Feb 1998, p. 42, 44, 46, 48.
(34) A large copper/bronze breastplate made for a horse can be seen in Irene J. Winter, `A Decorated Breastplate from Hasanlu, Iran', Vol. I, Philadelphia, 1980 It was found in 1974 in a burned building IVE on the citadel of Hasanlu, Iran, together with a mass of metal objects and measures 42.8 x 20.2 cm (5 mm average thickness). "Most significant is that on one relief of Assurnasirpal from Nimrud, which Barnett has argued represents mounted Iranians in combat with Assyrians, both the Assyrians and the "Iranian" horses are wearing breastplates (fig. 11). [R.D. Barnett, `Assyria and Iran: The Earliest Representation of Persians' in A.U. Pope, ed. Survey of Persian Art, Vol. XIV, London, 1967, p. 2997-3007 (Brit. Museum # 1294559; first published in E.A. Wallis Budge, Assyrian Sculpture in the British Museum, London, 1914, Pl. XXIV, 6.]
Where to Find Images of Wildlife
(01) A Coney (Rock Rabbit) can be seen in BAR, Jan/Feb 1992, p. 27. The same page also shows a family of Wild Pigs.
Closer Places to Visit
01) `Red Sand Stone Pueblos' of the Sunagua Indians at the `Wupatki Nat. Mon.' Highway 89, Sunset Crater in northern Arizona and Little Springs, 15 miles north of the Grand Canyon and 40 miles from the nearest paved road in the Arizona Strip to see `sherd rocks' and the remains of a 900 year old pueblo. Archaeology, Mar 2004, p. 51.
History changed forever when Jesus during his brief walk in this world modeled once more how to know God for mankind. His messengers where messengers of peace and a joyous life. Later undisciplined zealots brought reproach on Christian living. A man who became known as St. Jerome (340-420 AD) may be regarded as to the root cause for many later problems in this world. He was widely traveled from Constantinople, Cyprus, Syria, the deserts of Chalcis to Egypt he became a promoter of travel ventures during his time. His spiritual followers, Paula and Eustochia, opened up a convent in Bethlehem - thus establishing the first hostel for pilgrims in the holy land. Up into the later 5th and 6th centuries pilgrims began to travel throughout the region. This ended when in 614 AD Jerusalem was captured and pillaged by the Sassanide Persians. Heraclius, emperor of Byzantium, barely reconquered Jerusalem, when the fanatic Muslim Saracene hoards took Jerusalem, in 643 they took Alexandria, Egypt, bringing down the alternating, ancient pagan and Coptic Christian civilization.
Coptic, or Egyptian Christianity, strictly followed the old Alexandrian creed. The Alexandrian patriarch ordained the bishops of the Abyssinian Christian Church, which continued to sanctify the 7th day Sabbath until the 20th century.
Later period Maltese cross from Sussita, Galilee. These are pagan, Luciferian symbols.(Map)|
For more than 1700 years, thank God, the Christian church in Ethiopia kept the Sabbath holy. [Ambrose De Moribus, Migne Patrologia Latina, Vol. 17, pp. 1131-1132.]
Not until 718 were the Muslims defeated just outside Byzantium, and in the West in 732 under the walls of Poitiers. But a century had been enough for the Mediterranean to become a Muslim lake. From then on pilgrims were rarely seen in Palestine.|
One notable exception was the Anglo-Saxon, Willibald. Karl der Große (Charlemagne), negotiated with the caliph `Harunal-Rashid' for a `Frankish protectorate' in the holy land. In time basilicas and monasteries were built and `Haceldama (the Field of Blood)' and other sites became Christian islands in Palestine. In later times many made pilgrimages to these locations. That didn't last forever. In 1009 the cruel madman, caliph Hakim, ordered the Christians to be driven out. Destructions and massacres resulted. After 1020 calm returned. But starting in 1064 the Seljuk Turks flooded the lands, destroyed everything Christian and took Jerusalem in 1078. This Muslim offensive was the catalyst which provoked the era of Crusades.
The Tower of Constance;|
The area around Nicaea;
The castle of the crusaders in Jerusalem;
The `Krak des Chevaliers' with its Mill Tower, double walls and site of the round table; the lesser Metropolitan church in Athens;
The site of Mistra and the Castle of Villehardouin;
Mistra: the church of the Fantanassa and the monastery of Brontochion;
The walls and church of St. George in Thessalonika;
The great castle of Klemutsi;
The castle of Rhium, Livadia and Acrocorinth.
The walls of Acre;|
The fortress of Lindos;
The walls and harbor of Rhodes;
Rhodes: the Gate of Koskinu, the House of the Chaplain of France, the Knight's Hospital and the Palace of the Grand Masters.
Examples on Circular Reasoning
Evolutionary geologists use rocks to date the fossils, and use fossils to date the rocks. This is a classic case of circular reasoning.
It is interesting to note how, once an idea gets into the literature, it can become entrenched in conventional scholarly thinking. I remember doing research on the ancient site of Hama in Syria. As I was reading through the excavation reports (published in French), I came across a reference to a figurine from the 2nd millennium which the excavator thought must be a horse, but the strange hump in the middle of its back made one think of a camel. I looked at the photograph and the figurine was obviously that of a camel! This scholar was so influenced by the idea that camels were not used until the 1st millennium, that when he found a figurine of one in the second millennium, he felt compelled to call it a horse! This is a classic example of circular reasoning. [Randall Younker at: http://www.aiias.edu/ict/vol_26B/26Bcc_457-477.htm]
If you assume the very premise you're trying to prove, you are "begging the question." This fallacy is also known as "arguing in a circle," or "circular reasoning." The purpose of deductive reasoning is to get from one point in an argument (the premise) to another (the conclusion) in a logical manner. But a circular argument does not allow this progression. If the premise or beginning of the argument is identical to its conclusion, the argument doubles back on itself and becomes barren. [From:http://home.comcast.net/~dchapman2146/pf_v5n1/Fallacies.htm]
The Charles Ginenthal example:
"Astronomers, in attempting to deal with this evidence respecting Venus, either ignore the data or invent systems to explain it away so that it will conform to their uniformitarian view. By employing a sledge hammer, they smash the tablets of Ammizaduga to bits and then reassemble the fragments to prove that Venus' orbit has never changed. Although Velikovsky does not explain the precise cause for the circularization of Venus' orbit except to invoke electromagnetic forces, the plain evidence of the ancient astronomers shows that Venus' orbit was different, and therefore, more elliptical than its present, almost circular orbit and thus, there must exist a force that circularized it."
Velikovsky's Circular Reasoning
It is true, though, that the pseudoscientist often invents a theory to fit his beliefs, then uses the beliefs to support the theory. This type of circular reasoning is common among those who use ancient myths to support their theories and their theories to explain the ancient myths.
Egyptian chronology was mentioned above as something which has been used as a Global framework, but it was implied that this was not entirely correct. The problem is that Egyptian chronology, per se, simply does not exist. What we call Egyptian chronology is the reconstruction of modern scholars, and incorporates the conclusions of archeology and other disciplines of ancient history, something which is often overlooked. As a result of this, when other disciplines attempt to use Egyptian chronology as a Global framework, they are often engaging unbeknown in circular reasoning. Worse, the elements of their own disciplines which are being fed back into themselves may be ones which have been superseded, but this has not yet had the proper effect on Egyptian chronology.
The Victory Stela And A Basalt Bas-Relief of Naram-Enzu/Naram-Sin|
The `Victory Stela' was found at Susa and is now in the Louvre Museum. The bas-relief was found near Diarbekr, in Kurdistan, and last we read was in the Museum of Constantinopel. [L.A. Waddel, `Egyptian Civilization', London, 1930, pl. IX and X.] Naram-Sin has been described as the son of Sargon of Akkad. [Prof. Theodor G. Pinches, The Early Babylonia King-Lists in PSBA, June 1885, p. 65-71.
The tablet containing part of this legend has it that `paradise' is located in a land called Tilmun upon which the great god Enki pours his blessings including the wish that,
Tell Miqne Discoveries|
What is described as Iron I period kilns produced vast amounts of pottery found in the vicinity of a number of kilns of which one is shown in operation. The cultic focus building 350 in Iron I Ekron (Josh. 13:3; Jer. 25:20; Zech. 9:7) consisted of a square building with the entrance on one side near a corner leading into a room which used up half the space of the building. The central separating wall from the other half had three doors leading into three chambers behind it. Archaeologists found a round hearth made of hundreds of small wadi pebbles imbedded in the floor as found before at Pylos and on Cyprus. Also shown are what is described as 21st dynasty type art of a) 7 pendants depicting the cow headed Hathor, b) ivory and faience ear plugs which may have adorned someone's ear lobe, c) 2 faience rings, one with the goddess Sekhmet incised, d) a speckled stone bowl, e) an ivory human head, f) a painted limestone baboon, g) 3 wheels and a decorative bud of a small version of a four wheeled, eight spoked cast bronze cult stand of the type made by King Hiram of Tyre, 1.Kings 7:27-37, and h) a double headed chariot linch pin. [Trude Dothan & Seymour Gittin, `Ekron of the Philistines' in BAR, Jan/Feb 1990, p. 20-36.]
For info and B&W views on Khirbet el-Meshash see Volkmer Fritz, The Israelite Conquest in BASOR, Winter 1981, p. 61-73.
Found in 1989, 8 miles south of Haifa, a headless ivory scepter decorated with incised designs from a robbed grave, two bronze scepters topped by a pomegranate bud, one of which appeared to have had a silver sheathing which disappeared after exposed to air, a bronze incense burner with hanging pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed buds and two gold earrings shaped like pomegranate blossoms. [Michael Artzy, `Pomegranate Sceptors .. in Priest's Grave', Ibid., p. 48-51.]
Elephantine Excavations of 1908|
At Elephantine M. Clermont-Ganneau, assisted by M. Cledat, is continuing his excavation of the burial-place of the Sacred-Rams, and on the cartonage of one of them found the name of the cemetery. He also found the chamber in which the embalment of the Rams took place, and the granite altar on which they were placed while the prescribed ritual was performed. The granite slab, on which the Ram was given its bath of bitumen, is still smeared with pitch, and, like another granite slab on which the viscera of the animal were extracted, bears the cartouche of Usertesen I, showing that a temple of that king once stood here. Close by he has discovered a fine granite naos of Pepi I, which carries the history of the temple still further back. His last discovery is that of a "cachette" into which the builders of a temple of Ptolemaic or Roman age have thrown broken statuettes of stone and wood, and beautiful specimens of 18th dynasty blue faience, including a hippopotamus, together with other objects. As none of these is later than 18th dyn. times they must have come from the temples of Thutmose I, Amenhetep II, and Amenhetep III, which are shown by numerous sculptured and inscribed blocks of stone to have existed here. [PSBA, Vol. XXX, (No. CCXXIII), 1908, p. 72.
What does `geriots' mean?|
`Geriots' is an African term for passing on cultural aspects of a people group, their knowledge, emotions, music, poetry and skills. As such it is like a built in library, a state of awareness, to be imitated by every new generation.
Many stated chronological assignments in `TSBA' are not valid according to our revision.
TSBA Vol. I
TSBA Vol. II
TSBA Vol III
TSBA Vol. IV
TSBA Vol V
TSBA Vol. VI
Wm. Simpson- The supposed tomb of St. Luke at Ephesus.; J.T. Wood- On the antiquities of Ephesus having relation to Christianity.; Lenormant- Les noms de l'Airain et du Cuivre dans les deux langues des inscriptions cunéiformes de la Chaldée et de l'Assyrie.; Eugene L. Roy- Egyptian funeral tablet in the Soane Museum.; Ernest A. Budge- Assyrian incantations to fire and water.; Prof. Wm Wright- Note on a bilingual inscription, Latin and Aramaic, recently found at South Shields.; Revillout- Le testament du Moine Paham.; Revillout- Un procés plaidé devant les Laocrites sous la régne de Ptolémée Soter.; Houghton- On the hieroglyphic or picture origin of the characters of the Assyrian syllabary.; Pinches- Notes upon Babylonian contract tablets and the Canon of Ptolemy.; P. Le Page Renouf- On the true sense of an important Egyptian word.; E.L. Lushington- The victories of Seti I recorded in the Great Temple at Karnak.; Boscawan- Notes on Assyrian religion and mythology.; R. Cull- A Biographical notice of the late William Henry Fox Talbot.;
TSBA Vol. VII
TSBA Vol. VIII
TSBA Vol. IX
« » - At this point the TSBA magazin was renamed PSBA, but how that all changed and why we have PSBA volumes from before this date may mean that they existed side by side before.
Any stated chronological assignments in `PSBA' are not valid according to our revision.
PSBA Vol I
PSBA Vol. II
PSBA Vol. III - Encyclo.
PSBA Vol. IV
Nov 1881, Rev. Henry George Tomkins on the campaign of Ramses II in his 5th year against Kadesh on the Orontes.; On a newly discoveredcuneiform inscription on the bank of the Dog River.; On cuneiform tablets from Cappadocia. Contains images of the writing.;
Dec 1881, More on Cappadocian tablets.;
Jan 1882, 1 page dido on 4 seal inscriptions (on file).;
Feb 1882, On the birds of the Assyiran records.;
Mar 1882, Egyptian mythology - Mist and Cloud.; Fl. Petrie, On pottery and implements collected at Giseh.; A Christian mosaic of the 5th century at Ravenna.;
May 1882, Notes on glass in ancient Hebrew records.; Rules of life among the ancient Akkadians.; Trip report to Tel el-Yahoudeh.;
Jun 1882, `The epoch of Joseph: Amenhotep IV as the Pharaoh of the famine.; Reply to Assyrian numerals.; The Phoenicians in Egypt.; The Coptic inscriptions of Beni-Hassan and Deir el-Medineh.; Exploring Lake Moeris with charts and map.; Various Notes.;
PSBA Vol. V - Encyclo
PSBA Vol. VI
Mar 1885, On the 29th dynasty in French.; Only partially available.
Jan 1886, A number of communications in English & French.;
Feb 1886, Notes on the cult of Set and on the Hyksos kings.; The monuments of the ancient and of the Middle Empire in the museum of Karlsruhe.
June 1886, Tomb of the 19th Dynasty at Der el-Medinet (Thebes).; A sarcophagus of the Saitic period.;
Nov 1890, On Thutia's dagger , Darmstadt, Germany, Museum item. On Amenemant.
PSBA Vol. XV
Nov 1892, The Book of the Dead, ch. XVIII - XX.; Ya and Yawa in Assyro-Babylonian inscriptions.; Lettres de Tell El-Amarna.; Notes de philologie Egyptienne.; The cuneiform ideogram of `to bear'.; A bilingual hymn.;
Dec 1892, The Book of the Dead, ch. XXI - XXV.; The two captivities. The Habor and the Chebar.; The Raiyan-Moeris and the Ptolemaic maps.;
Jan 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. XXVI - XXXa.; Gisgalla-ki = Babylon, Ki-nu-nir-ki = Borsippa.; The cuneiform ideogram `dubbi-sar'.; Cobalt in ancient Egypt.; Lettres de Tell El-Amarna.; Etude sur Abydos.;
Feb 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. XXXI - XXXVII.; The superlinear punctuation, its origin, the different stages of its development, and its relation to other Semitic systems of punctuation.; An inscription of Khuenaten.;
Mar 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. XXXVIII - XLI.; The tower of Babel.; Ou la lumiere zodiacale.; The constellation Aries.; The 10 patriarchs of Berosus.; Notes de philologie Egyptienne.;
May 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. XLII - LV.; Gish-Dubarra, Gibil-Gamesh, Nimrod.; Notes on Egyptian weights and measures.; Euphratean stellar researches.; The story of the peasant.; Lettres de Tell El-Amarna.;
Jun 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. LVII - LXIIIb.; The gods Akar and Seb.; La lumiere zodiacale et sa representation sur les monuments Egyptiens.; The origin of the Phoenician alphabet.; Notes on pectorals.; A Babylonian decree that a certain rite should be performed.; The name of Pharaoh.; Note on the Pharaoh of the Exodus.; The Achmethas or Ecbatanas of western Asia.; Etude sur Abydos.; Euphratean stellar researches.; Notes on philologie Egyptienne.; El Kab and Gebelen.; Lettres de Tell El-Amarna.;
PSBA Vol. XVI
Nov 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. LXIV.; A supplementary note to Gilgamish.; Stelae from Wadi Halfa.; The Moeris Papyri.;
Dec 1893, Book of the Dead, ch. LXV - LXX.; The Hebrew text of one of the Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs.; A detail of geography in the inscription of Herkhuf.; The royal titles.;
Jan 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. LXXI - LXXVI.; Hat-nub.; The Hebrew text of one of the Testaments of the 12 patriarchs.; The god Set of Ramessu II and an Egyptian deity.;
Feb 1894, Ancient metals from Tell El-Hesy.; Book of the Dead, ch. LXXII - LXXVIII.; Where was Tharshish?.; A semitic loan-word in Egyptian (`to turn away').;
Mar 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. LXXVIII - LXXXII.; Where was Tharshish?.; On the phonetic value of an Eg. sign.; A Minaean inscription of the Ptolemaic period.; Egyptian monuments at Dorpat.; An unknown Hebrew version of the history of Israel (see the apogryphical book of Judith).; Codex Hebrew, Gaster, No. 82.; The Rhind mathematical papyrus.;
May 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. LXXXIII - XCI.; Israel and Babylon.; The Rhind mathematical papyrus.; Assyriological notes.;
Jun 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. XCII - XCVIII.; The most high God of Salem.; The Rhind mathematical papyrus.; Notes de philologie Egyptienne.; On the royal titles.;
Nov 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. XCIX - CVII.; Note on a fragment of the Adapa-legend.; The unknown Aramaic original of Theodotion's additions to the Book of the Dead.;
Dec 1894, Book of the Dead, ch. CVIII - CIX.; An Eg. inscription from Phoenicia.; Tarshish - Phoenicia or Tarsus?.; Names of plants and things made there from Babylonia.; The unknown Aramaic original of Theodotion's additions to the Book of the Dead.;
PSBA Vol. XVII
Jan 1895, Book of the Dead, ch. CXI - CXVI.; Euphratean stellar researches.; The bow in the Egyptian sky.; The Karian and Lydian inscriptions.;
Feb 1895, Book of the Dead, ch. CX.; On the divine name `Shadai' and `Jehovah' (perhaps of some interest on how scholarly work meanders through errors never to get to the truth in a lifetime).; The lament of `the daughter of sin.'.; The unknown Aramaic original of Theodotion's additions to the Book of Daniel.;
Mar 1895, Book of the Dead, ch. 110.; Etude sur Abydos.;
Apr 1895, Book of the Dead, ch. CXVII CXXIII.; On some Babylonian and Assyrian alliterative texts - I. by S.A. Strong.; Inscriptions of the time of Amenophis IV.;
May 1895, The Testament of Jacob, Gen. 49.; Book of the Dead, ch. CXXIV.; Two monuments with a votive formula for a living person.; Assyriological notes.; La caudée royal du musée Egyptien du Louvre.;
Nov 1895, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Sennacherib's letters to his father Sargon. The sender `Sin-ahe-erba' is named but not the receiver. We read: "To the king my lord thy servant, Sennacherib verily peace be to the king my lord peace to Assyria peace to the temples ... The wardens of all the fortresses which are on the border news like this also sent. The letter of Nabu-mudu the majordomo of Mimmu-abi-a from the land of Tabal brought; to the king my lord I have sent (lit. caused to bring)." That the receiver was Sargon seems to be inferred.; The descent of property in the early periods of Eg. history.; Akhuenaten and Queen Tii.; Notes de philologie Egyptienne.;
Dec 1895, A journey east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, 1895.; Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Water rate in ancient Babylonia.; Egyptian chronology according to Prof. Dr. Aug. Eisenlohr, Heidelberg.; Euphratean stellar researches.;
PSBA Vol. XVIII
Jan 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Assyriological notes.; Euphratean stellar researches.;
Feb 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Chaereu to Hermopolis on a bilingual milestone.; The arrangement of the 21st dynasty.; The 11th constellation of the zodiac.; A-mur-ri ou A-har-ri?.; Lettre de Labâ au roi D'Egypte.;
Mar 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Some fragments of the Hebrew Bible with peculiar abbreviations and peculiar signs for vowels and accents.; Some considerations regarding Professor Petrie's Egyptian chronology.; Note on Demotic philology.; Roman inscriptions at Assuan.;
Apr 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXV.; Note on chronology.; The blessing of Moses.; Some remarks on the sepulchral figures usually called ushabti - description of plates.;
May 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXVI - CXXVII.; The nude goddess in Assyrio-Babylonian art.; Bas-reliefs de Tiglat-Pileser III.; Sepulchral figures usually called ushabti.;
Jun 1896, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXVIII.; Assyriological notes, No. 1 by Sayce.; On a hieroglyphic sign (see Budge p. cxli, XXI Wovenwork #5 - `au' wide, broad, spacious.).;
Nov 1896, Stela of Mentuhetep son of Hepy.; A new eponym list.; The unknown Hebrew version of the Tobit legend.; More fragments of the Palestinian Syriac version of the Holy Scriptures.; Notes Assyriologiques.;
Dec 1896, The period of the Judges.; Assyriological gleanings.; Two unknown Hebrew versions of the Tobit legend.; A stele of the 13th dynasty.;
PSBA Vol. XIX.
Jan 1897, Pre-Mosaic Palestine (An example of how erroneous chronology wrecks havoc on history by making later period data supposed causes for earlier period events.).; Two unknown Hebrew versions of the Tobit (supposed) legend (... concluded), Tobit legend II.; More fragments of the Palestinian Syriac version of the Holy Scriptures.;
Feb 1897, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXIX.; Assyriological notes.; The stela of Dua-er-neheh. An unfinished stela discovered by Petrie at Thebes in the temple of Amenhotep II.; The Rollin Papyri and their baking calculations.;
Mar 1897, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXX. - CXXXII; Khiana or Khana.; The Rollin Papyri and their baking calculations.; The lay of the threshers.; (Suposed) Peculiar forms and constructions in the Hebrew text A) of Tobit, some of which are post-biblical.;
Apr 1897, Book of the dead, ch. CXXXIII - CXXXV.; Two archaic and 3 later Babylonian tablets.; Description of a Hypocephalus cow on a round Egyptian disk.; The Rollin Papyri and their baking calculations.;
May 1897, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXXVI - CXXXVIb.; The date of the Siloam inscription.; A Coptic spell of the 2nd century.; Young and Champollion.; A Coptic Palimpsest.;
Jun 1897, Book of the Dead, ch. CXXXVIIb - CXXXVIII.; The Median calendar and the constellation Taurus.; Note sur un linteau de porte découvert an Assyrie par George Smith.; The Rollin Papyri and their baking calculations.; A short vocabulary for the Rollin Papyri.;
Nov 1897, Biographical record of the late Sir Peter le Page Renouf.; Assyriological notes.; Notes by F. Griffith.; Haematite cylinder from Cappadocia.; Source for Pyramid text, English, Deutsch.
Dec 1897, Notes on the Congress of Orientalists, Paris.; Assyriological notes.;
PSBA Vol. XX.
Jan 1898, Babylonian hieroglyphics.; Noli me tangere - a mathematical demonstration of the exactness of biblical chronology by Julius Oppert.; Fragments of the Sahidic version of the Pauline epistles.; Two texts referred to in report of the oriental congress.;
Feb 1898, Roman inscriptions relating to Hadrian's Jewish War.; Abraham and the land of his nativity.; Thotmes III, etait-il le fils de Thotmes I?.; The beginnings of the Eg. monarchy.;
Mar 1898, Observations on the Nagadah period by Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann (starts out with the slate plates etc.).; Notes au jour le jour, - V by Maspero.; A bronze ureaus of unusual form.; Notes on the Coptic spell.; Letter from Hammurabi - translated as "Unto Sin-Idina say: I Hammurabi declared thus: I have chosen (or collected) for thee 360 burden-bearers; 180 burden-bearers with workmen of Larsa, and 180 burden-bearers with workmen of Lahab. May they work. may (thy) will be accomplished.".;
A hymn of Nebuchadnezzar.; Notes D'Assyriologie.; A dictionary of the Egyptian language - An appeal to custodians and owners of inscriptions and papyri.;
May 1898, An oracle of Nahum.; Ushabti-box of Nes-pa-chred, a priest of Mentu.; The Kuthean legend of creation.(Its nothing of the kind as might be supposed.); Roman inscriptions relating to Hadrian's Jewish War (a short note only).; Contributions au Dictionnaire Hiéroglyphique.; Mots Egyptiens dans la Bible.;
Jun 1898, Herodian pottery and the Siloam inscription.; La Déesse.; Une derniére fois, le signe (see Budge p. cxli, XXI Wovenwork #5 - `au' wide, broad, spacious.).; A propos des deux sceaux hétéens.; Biblical chronology.;
Nov 1898, Assyriological notes, No. 4 by Sayce.; Hittite inscriptions.; An ancient Eg. toilet-box with an analysis of its contents(ointments) - (3 pages) ash after ignition - Calc. carbonate & phosphate with Sod. and Pot. carbonates, silica, oron oxide and alumina.; A Coptic letter of orders.; L'exode des Hebrews by J. Lieblein (places it in the time of Ramses II).;
Dec 1898, The Babylonian ideogram for `image' and the slate palette from Hieraconpolis.; Babylonian hieroglyphics.; On the reading of a hieroglyphic (kneeling warrior with a bow and arrows ` m'sha'), Budge I. Men #82.; 1. Purim - 2. Tophet - 3. Zobah - 4. Mispah.; Contributions au dictionnairre hieroglyphique.; Index to Vol. XI - XX, 1888-1898.;
PSBA Vol. XXI.
Jan 1899, The new Babylonian chronological tablet, Contract from the country of Khana, An early Babylonian document relating to the Shuhites.; The tomb of Pepi Ankh (Khua), near Sharona.; Deux fables Assyriennes.; A short letter of Professor Dr. Eisenlohr, University of Heidelberg to Mr. Rylands, Nov. 30th, 1898.;
Feb 1899, L'exode des Hebreux.; Some recent Palmyrene inscriptions.; Notes.;
Mar 1899, Note by the bishop of Salisbury.; The consecration of a church, altar and tank according to the ritual of the Coptic-Jacobite church.; The consecration of the altar.; A new Egyptian king; the predecessor of Kheops.; Some old empire inscriptions from El-Kab.; Assyrological notes by Prof. Hommel.;
May 1989, Notes on scarabs.; A new Babylonian king of the period of the 1st dynasty of Babylon, with incidental references to Immerum and Anmanila.' by Theophilus G. Pinches.; Major Mockler Feeryman's tablet giving the names of temple overseers.; An interesting cylinder seal of Nin-in.; Notes: A cylinder of Pepi 1st. (hieroglyphics), Palmyrene inscriptions.; The official title Lu-su-pa-mes, Ahteroth-karnaim, The biblical account of Sennacherib's murder, Sketch of an engraved shell.; The land of Cabul.;
Jun 1898, Recent discoveries at Abydos and Negadah.; Hittite notes (lengthy dated explanations), Notes on Hittite inscription.; Notes on some Egyptian deities.; The blessings of Asher, Naphthali, and Joseph.;
Nov 1899, The congress of Orientalists of 1899.; Notes on hieroglyphs by F. Ll. Griffith.; Transliteration of Demotic.; Notes on mythology.; The 22nd Egyptian dynasty.; Note on a new Eg. king of the 13th dyn. (Ra-seshes-ka & Amenemhat IV); Notes on Assyriology.; Note on an Egyptian cabinet (lock) bolt made of acacia wood. and the hieroglyphic sign for it;
Dec 1899, On the earliest inscriptions from Chaldea by Henry H. Howorth (What makes him think he knew a.th. about that except being presumptious?); Extracts from my notebooks.; A supposed eclipse of the moon under the 22nd Egyptian dynasty (we might add as it is wrongly dated.), Ancient Eg. (bronze, wood, etc.) models of fish.;
PSBA Vol. XXII.
Jan 1900, Biblical Chronology (on the Books Kings & Judges); A statue of Hapu-Senb: Vizier of Thutmose II.; The relative adjective.;
Feb 1900, Ancient Indian astonomy.; Extracts from my notebooks - On Sennefer, mayor of Thebes under Amenhetep II., treasurer of Hatshepsut and Thotmes III., The vizier Khay, A cylinder of vizier Ankhu.; A Euphratean circle of 360 degrees.; Notes on the Strassburgh gospel fragments.; Notes - on Egypt, Ahura Mazda etc.;
Mar 1900, The monuments of the inscriptions.; The annals of Thutmose III and the location of Megiddo.; The word `kha', a `diwan' or `office'.; Notes dAssyriologie.; Phoenician inscription at Greenock.; Egyptiam models of fish, Egyptian camp stool.; A wooden handle for small cymbals from Egypt.; Notes on the geography of Phoenician inscriptions.; The word Armageddon.;
May 1900, The carved slates from Hieraconpolis and elsewhere - shows all the images.; Note on a carved slate.; Extracts from my notebooks - Newberry.; A mythological - geographical text.; Some ivories from Abydos.; Short notes by Griffith.; Ancient Egyptian models of fish.; On an Assyrian loan word in Hebrew (`thy crowned', Nahum 3:17), and on.' - states the Assyrian `mindidu', means `an official concerned with the measuring of wheat' underlies the heavily punctuated Hebrew word `mnzriq'.(on file).;
Jun 1900, The language of Mitanni by Prof. A. Sayce, gives a vocabulary at the end.; Additional note to memoir on the language of Mitanni.; Hebrew illuminated MSS. of the Bible of the 9th and 10th centuries.; A Samaritan scroll of the Hebrew Pentateuch.; Another carved slate.; The Aberdeen Reshep Stela.; The funeral tablets in the Brighton Museum.; Phoenician inscription at Greendock.; Egyptian scarabs.;
Nov 1900, I. Objects from the tomb of a pre-dynastic Egyptian king, II. Some early Egyptian seal-cylinders.; Hyksos Apepa; Quelques lettres Assyriennes, I) Sirua-itirat a Assur-sarrat, II) Kudur au roi de Ninive, III) Le roi de Ninive a Bel-ibni, IV) Excursus.; A collection of historical scarabs and others, with a few cylinders.; Notes: derivation of 2 Eg. phrases.;
Dec 1900, The wisdom of the Chaldeans: An old Hebrew astrological text.; Le lever heliaque de Sothis le 16 pharmouti.; The temples of ancient Babylonia, I.; Praefecti Aegypti.; Notes in French.; Mr. Ward's collection of scarabs.;
PSBA Vol. XXIII.
Jan 1901, Egyptian notes, - a) on a small, dark alabaster pestle and mortar belonging to a high priest of Ptah named Ptah-mes. b) A hocker statuette of Min-Mes, chief magician of Ramses II. c) a small porcelan naos of Bast.; Notes on demotic philology: The Khamus story.; Mr. Ward's collection of scarabs.; Notes upon a rare figure of Amen-Ra.;
Feb 1901, The names of demons in the magic papyri.; Qelques lettres Assyriennes.; Chronological value of Egyptian words found in the Bible (on file).; contin. Mr Ward's collection of scarabs.;
Mar 1901, Notes by Prof. Sayce on a) the Hyksos, b) the Hittite inscriptions, c) the Arzawa letters, d) Kandaules of Lydia.; Documents Assyriens relatifs a la magie.; Painter's palette.; The `De duabus VIIs'; A new Latin version of the 1st 6 chapters of the didache.; Note on scarab 384. ; Notes on Gen. 6:16, Isaiah 18:1 and Prov. 30:15., Comments: Such comments on Bible texts are frequently negative by unbelieving, chronologically erroneous interpreters.(on file).;
May 1901, Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; A mythological text from Memphis.; Assyriological gleanings.; Greek ostraca from Egypt.; Extracts from notebooks (IV).; Pasht and the Sed festival.; The Wadi Halfa stela of Senwosret I. (on file) by Breastedt; `Varia' (cliff tomb) by Breastedt (on file).; Arza and Aziza, and other archaeological notes.; Egyptian notes.; Contribution to the 2nd tale of Khamuas by Wilhelm Spiegelberg (on file).; A Greek circle of late times showing Euphratean influence.; An inscribed disk of the 22nd dynasty.;
Jun 1901, Bronze circles and purification vessels in Egyptian temples.; On the identity of `Al Mukaukis' of Egypt.; The tomb of Mentuhotep I(?) at Der el-Bahari, Thebes.; A sale of land in the reign of Philopator.;
Nov 1901, Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; Quelques lettres Assyriennes.; The tomb of Pa-shedu at Der el-Medinet, Thebes.;
Dec. 1901, The Chinese calendar, with some remarks with reference to that of the Chaldeans.; Some Egyptian weights in Prof. Petrie's collection.; Inscriptions concerning Diana of the Ephesians.;
PSBA Vol. XXIV.
The Ionians in the El Amarna tablets.; Notes on the comparative value of the 2 recensions of Ezra.; The iconography of Bes, and of Phoenician Bes-hand scarabs.; The fragments of the `Astarte' papyrus of the Amherst collection.; Two heads of small statues found at the temple of Mut at Karnak.;
Feb 1902, The Praefects of Egypt.; Eusebius and the Coptic church.; Ancient Egyptian objects in wood and bone.; Cylinder seals in the possession of J. Offord.;
Mar 1902, The Praefects of Egypt.; Greek transcriptions of Babylonian tablets.; The Greeks in Babylonia: Graeco / cuneiform texts.; Note on the heavenly body Mul/ Mars(?).; The antiquity of the 4 wheeled chariot.; The Book of the Dead, ch. CXL - CXLIII.; Notes on `Greek transcriptions on Babylonian tablets.'; Dwelling houses in Egypt.; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; An Arabic version of the prologue to Ecclesiasticus.; `Ana-pani-ili', illustrated from the Hebrew.; Manuscript portions of three Coptic lectionaries.; Egyptian `foundation deposits' of bronze and wooden model tools.;
Jun 1902, The Book of the Dead.; A monument of Antef V from Coptos.; A mythological text from Memphis: A reply to criticism.; The so-called quinta of 4 kings, 2.Kings 19:26-27 (on file).; Materiaux pour l'etude de la religion Assyro-Babylonienne.; A `Scythian (Ricimer)' in Egypt.; The chronology of Asurbanipals reign.; Semitic analogies for Old Testament names.; Extracts from my notebooks, Newberry.; The sacrifice of Isaac.; Types of ancient Egyptian draughtsmen.;
Nov 1902, The Book of the Dead.; The history of the transliteration of Egyptian.; Some Punic analogues.; The parentage of Queen Aah-hetep.; Fragments of some early Greek Mss. written on papyrus.; Some Assyrian letters.; Hammurabi's code of laws.;
Dec 1902, The Book of the Dead.; Notes on the 19th dynasty.; The hieratic text in Mariettes Karnak.; Inscriptions relating to the Jewish war of Vespasian and Titus.; A bilingual charm.; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; Ancient Egyptian draughts boards and draughts-men.; The transliteration of Egyptian.;
PSBA Vol. XXV
Jan 1903, Book of the Dead, ch. CXLIX.; Some unconventional views on the texts of the Bible. (on Nehemiah and Ezra); Materiaux pour letude de la religion Assyro-Babylonienne.; Inscriptions relating to the Jewish war of Vespasian and Titus.; A pre-Mossoretic biblical papyrus.; The transliteration of Egyptian by Naville.;
Feb 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CXLIX - CL.; Cylinder seals.; Materiaux pour l'etude de la religion Assyro-Babylonienne.; The chronology of Asurbanipals reign.; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; The decalogue and Deuteronomy in Coptic.; A relic of Amenhotep III. (on file).;
Mar 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLI - CLII.; Discovery of the tomb of Thothmes IV at Biban El-Muluk.; Ha-Mhyt - goddess of the Mendesian nome.; Gilgames and the hero of the flood.; The temple inscription of Bod-Astart, king of the Sidonians.; Extracts from my notebooks.; The Greek version of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions.; The Egyptian name of Joseph.; The transliteration of Egyptian.;
May 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLIII.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions.; Gilgames and the hero of the flood.; Some Egyptian Aramaic documents.; The transliteration of Egyptian.; Notes on an inscription at El Kab.; The Sekhemet statues of the temple of Mut at Karnak.; Postumus, perfect of Egypt.; The Jews of the dispersion in Roman Galatia (on file).;
Jun 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLIII & CLIV.; Le proces du vautour et de la chatte devant le soleil.; Note on `The inscription at El Kab', states briefly that his copy is not a hand made copy but are clear rubbings which are just as clear as the photographs, but both are different. He therefore asks, are they the same inscription?.; The Jews of the dispersion in Roman Galatia.; Some Egyptian Aramaic documents.; Ostraka.; Coptic texts relating to Diodorus of Alexandra.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions - Hittite theology (on file).; The transliteration of Egyptian.; (brief) Note on the parentage of Amenhetep III.;
Nov 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLV,CLVI,CLVII,CLVIII,CLIX,CLX,CLXI.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions.; Some Egyptian Aramaic inscriptions.; Note by Prof. Sayce, States, the only document bearing a date mentions Xerxes and references a coin khalluru (not shown here).; Sahidic biblical fragments.; The year names of Samsu-iluna.; Upon a set of 7 unguent or perfume vases.; The transliteration of Egyptian.; On the meaning of the preposition ... . by A. Gardiner (1879-1963).;
Dec 1903, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLXII - CLXIV.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions.; Extracts from notebooks. VII. by Percy E. Newberry., Shows the Stele of prince Amenhetep. Images of text: Canopic jar of princess Nebt-nehat & princess Thaa. A label of Amenemapet, daughter of Thotmes IV. in hieratic type characters.; The transliteration of Egyptian.;Extract from a letter of M.Victor Loret (in French).; Notes - Prehistoric drawings at El Kab.; Comment: Such chronological remarks of `pre-historic' are mostly thought to be so old because to these men they appeared to be simple drawings and with their believe in evolutionary millions of years they bring these relics far back in time. However, people in more recent times were just as capable to produce simple drawings or scratchings in rock simply depending on their education (practice) or lack thereof .;
PSBA Vol. XXVI
Jan 1904, The Book of the Dead, chapt. CLXV - CLXXI.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible - The genealogies of Nehemiah; Notes on Semitic inscriptions, Shows the Egyptian Stela of Saltiana with Aramaic lettering of 4 letters (on file).; Notes on the XIX and XXthe dynasties.;
Feb 1904, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLXXII - CLXXIII.; Sapattu, the Babylonian Sabbath (on file).; The Coptic version of the `canons of S. Basil'.; Some unconventional views on the Bible.; The Egyptian doctrine of the transformation of funeral offerings.; Notes on Semitic inscriptions - Nabatean graffiti from Wady Gadammeh, ca. 30 miles NE of Keneh., reading, `Hail, son of Ausu.', `Blessed be Amirat son of Ausu.'; The name of king Sankhkere.;
Mar 1904, The Book of the Dead.; ch. CLXXIV - CLXXIX.; Greek inscriptions from Egypt.; The Egyptian king Sharu, or Soris of Manetho(?).; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; The De Duabus VIIs chapters of the teaching of the 12 months or Didache.; Notes on Semitic inscriptions.; Animal worship in Egypt.;
May 1904, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLXXX - CLXXXII.; The kings of Abydos.; A Latin deed of Manumission (A.D. 221).; The subject of Easter at the councils of Nice and of Antioch.; Sapattu, the Babylonian Sabbath.; Notes on Semitic inscriptions.; The origin of the alphabet.; Two Coptic papyri from Antinoe.;
Jun 1904, The Book of the Dead, ch. CLXXXIII - CLXXXVI.; A Latin deed of Manumission (AD 321).; The subject of easter at the Councils of Nice and of Antioch.; Aramaic inscriptions from Egypt.; A panel from an ivory diptych in the British Museum.; Sahidic biblical fragments in the Bodleian library.; Notes on Semitic inscriptions.;
Nov 1904, Une hypothese au sujet de la vocalisation Egyptienne.; The decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions.; A mention of a flood in the Book of the Dead.; Tiles from Mycenae, with the cartouche of Amenhetep III.; An overlooked fragment of an Eponym list.; A new carved slate.; An Arab stamp, with a view of the Beit Ullah at Mecca.;
Dec 1904, Une hypothese au sujet de la vocalisation Egyptienne.; The god Asshur and the epic of `Marduk and Tiamat'.; Notes on the later Egyptian dynasties.; A mention of a Flood in the BoD., by Naville; A Roman terra-cotta figure of an Apis bull from Memphis.; The Horus title of the kings of Egypt.;
PSBA Vol. XXVII.
Jan 1905, The god Asshur and the epic of `Marduk and Tiamat'; Greek mummy labels in the British Museum.; The discovery of archaic Hittite inscriptions in Asia Minor.; New officials of the 4th to 6th dynasties.; On some lists of aromatic woods and spices.; Note on an Egyptian gold signet ring. What does it say? "The nomarch(?) of the Hermonthite nome, Divine Father of Amonre, king's son(?), prophet, Opener to the Holder of the hep(?), the abh, Yerhararau."; The title (left blue dot, rabbit, wavy line and arm) is very common, they other one (lamb, twisted rope) they had by 1905 not encountered.
Feb 1905, The discovery of the archaic Hittite inscriptions in Asia Minor.; Greek mummy labels in the British Museum.; Sahidic biblical fragments.; The order of the letters of the alphabet.; Nina and Nineveh.; Mr. Harding Smith's tablet from Tell-Loh.;
Mar 1905, Greek mummy labels in the British Museum.; Chronology of Asurbanipals reign.; The Ptolemaic temple of Erment as it was in 1850.; Extracts from my notebooks by Newberry.; The king Samou or Seshemou and the enclosures of El-Kab.; The Assyrian god `Au'.;
May 1905, Greek mummy labels in the British Museum.; Lydian and Karian inscriptions in Egypt, Shows hieroglyphics translated as, "To the great god Atum, giver of life and health, Sharkeb-yam.", The source: Daressy, Recueil de Travaux relatifs à la Philologie at à l'Archaéologie égyptiennes at assyriennesII, 3,4, p. 120. The image shows a (dated) corrected spelling which comes from the base of a bronze figure of an ichneumon, Cairo Museum.; Inscriptions from Gebel Abou Gorab.; The magic ivories of the middle empire.; A rock-cut Himyaritic inscription on Jabal Jehaf, in the Aden Hinterland.(detailed map included); Nina and Nineveh.;
Jun 1905, Greek mummy labels in the British Museum.; 1- A Coptic recipe for the preparation of parchment, 2- A use of the term `Catholic Church.' at Thebes; The XIth dynasty temple at Deir el-Bahari.; Himyaritic objects from the lower Yafi Valley located in Aden.; The hero of the papyrus D'orbiney.; Note on the Aramaic papyrus from Elephantine.;
Nov 1905, The Hittite inscriptions translated and annotated, p. 191-233, Corrections and additions to the list of characters., On the Hittite sources this article references Dr. L. Messerschmidt, Corpus inscriptionum Hettiticarum, 1 & 2, Peiser, Berlin, 1900-1902.; Description of the (Hittite) plate.; The Hodes Ha'abib in which the Exodus took place; and its identification with the `Epiphi' of the Egyptian nature year.;
Dec 1905, Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; The early monarchy of Egypt.; An unpublished scene from the tomb of `Thy' at Sakkara, representing the manufacture of seals.; Note on the word `Khetemy', a seal maker.; Chronology of Asurbanipals seal.; The magic ivories of the middle empire.;
PSBA Vol. XXVIII
Jan 1906, The `Star of Stars' and `Dilgan'.; The early monarchy of Egypt.; The inscriptions in the quarries of El Hosh.; Note on a Hittite inscription.; Observations on the ancient history of Egypt.; The astrological character of the Egyptian magical wands.;
Feb 1906, The `Star of Stars' and `Dilgan'.; The Zouche Sahidic Exodus fragment - document pages shown.; To what race did the founders of Sais belong.; The folklore of Mosul.; A new carved slate.;
Mar 1906, Unpublished Hittite inscriptions in the museum at Constantinople.; Discovery of the tomb of Septah in the Biban El Moluk, Thebes.; The folklore of Mossoul.; Kabalistic planetary charms. Kabalistic doctrine may speak of Yahweh, but their Yahweh is God in reverse. They mean Satan (Lucifer) when they speak like that. (Blavakosky, `Secret Doctrine'); Note on 2 figures found near the south temple at Wady Halfa.;
May 1906, Le dieu Seth et le roi Sethosis.; The Ivriz texts. The Ardistama inscriptions. Some Hittite seals.; Some Munic Coptic fragments.; The Himyaritic inscription from Jabal Jehaf.; The throne of Nimrod., Image: The column inscription at Edessa.; Inscribed slab with portrait of Khuenaten (Akhnaton)(on file).;
Jun 1906, The magic ivories of the middle empire (on file).; An inscription of Sankh-ka-ra. Karian and other inscriptions.; The Burgh papyrus.; A Hebrew amulet against disease.; The position of Tausert in the XIXthe dynasty.; Note on the boss of Tarkutimme.; Le nom du pschent.;
Nov 1906, The Chedor-Laomer tablets. (on file); Two statuettes of the goddess Buto.; The Babylonian gods of war and their legends.; An Assyrian incantation against ghosts.; A bronze figure from Rakka.; Some Munich Coptic fragments.;
Dec 1906, The Chedor-Laomer tablets (on file).; The tablets of Negadah and Abydos.; Pre- Sargonic times, A study on chronology.; Note on a peculiar pendant shown on 3 statues of Usertasen III. (on file); The Babylonian gods of war and their legends.; A leaden charm made under the influence of Saturn. - Even today `Satur' from `Saturn', (Chaldean #'s: S=60, A=0, T=400, U=6, R=200, N=0; = 666), is being worshiped. Outwardly that may be indicated by wearing a finely made wide rimmed red hat. It goes back to Alics A. Bailey who in 1922 founded the `Lucifer Publishing Company,' later renemed to `Lucis Trust.' Over the years this company became the leader in occultic books, and most influential in printing instructions for leading masons. In her book `Esoteric Astrology' she states that Saturn will rule men during the age of Aquarius, and that "we stand at the gateway of the new world." Saturn or Saturn's day (Saturday), is the seventh day of the week, God's Sabbath, which the evil powers hate. Saturn represents Satan. They should remember what Revelation 11:18,19 says, which is a reminder that God will destroy those who reject Him, the Creator, Sustainer and Saviour of the whole world.;
PSBA Vol. XXIX.
Jan 1907, The Chedor-Laomer tablets (on file).; The tablets of Negadah and Abydos.; St.. Menas of Alexandria.; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; Some notes on the 18th dynasty temple at Wady Halfa (on file).;
Feb 1907, St. Menas of Alexandria; Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible.; The tablets of Negadah and Abydos.; The chronology of Asurbanipal's reign.; E.R. Ayrton, `The tomb of Thyi' (on file).; P. Scott-Moncrief, `Note on the name Zaphnath Paaneah' (on file).;
Mar 1907, A Hittite cuneiform tablet from northern Syria.; The tablets of Negadah and Abydos.; The Babylonian chronicle of the 1st dynasty of Babylon. [We could not find any magazine publications by Daniel David Luckenbill (1881-1927) in those we cite here.]; St. Menas of Alexandria.; The Himyaritic script derived from the Greek.;
May 1907, Barsauma the naked (Arabic text).; The tablets of Negadah and Abydos.; A Hammurabi text from Ashurbanipal's library.; The folklore of Mossoul.; Notes on some Egyptian antiquities.; A marriage contract from the chabour.;
Jun 1907, Barsauma the naked.; Hittite inscriptions.; The Exodus of the Hebrews.; Coptic bone figures.; Nabu-shum-libur, king of Babylon.; A Hammurabi text from Ashshurbanipal's library.; Egyptean writings in foundation walls, and the age of the Book of Deuteronomy.;
Nov 1907, Hittite inscriptions: The method, verification, and results of my decipherment of them.; An Aramaic papyrus of the Ptolemaic Age from Egypt.; Paleographical notes.; A `Kassite' text, and a 1st dynasty tablet.; E.R. Ayrton, `The tomb of Thyi' (on file).; The folklore of Mossoui.; Hagiographica from Leipzig manuscripts.; Notes on some Egyptian antiquities.;
Dec 1907, Hagiographica from Leipzig manuscripts.; Note on the chronicle of the 1st dynasty of Babylon.; Some Egyptian antiquities in the Soane museum.; Some Munich Coptic fragments, Pt. III.; The folklore of Mossoul.;
PSBA Vol. XXX
Jan 1908, The Di-Hetep-Suten Formula, A funerary stela of a man from Gebelen, and other notes, Notes on Assyrian and Egyptian History - An Aramaic Ostracon, The coffin of Ta-aath, A monument from Tshok-Göz-Köprüköe, Karian, Aramaic, and Greek graffiti from Heshan, The folklore of Mossul;
Feb 1908, An Aramaic ostracon from Elephantine, Two new Hittite monuments in the Cappadocian Taurus, Coin of Gaza, and the vision of Ezekiel, The legend of Merodach, The first year of Samsu-iluna, Recent discoveries in Egypt;
Mar 1908, The legend of Merodach, The titles of the Thinite kings, The ancient year and the Sothic cycle by Rev. F.A. Jones, The lost ten tribes of Israel, Recent discoveries in the Biban El Moluk;
May 1908, Titles of the Thinite Kings, Place Names in Deubner's Kosmas and Damian, The lost 10 tribes of Israel, Greek inscriptions from Upper Egypt, Notes on some Eg. antiquities, The Hyksos and the 12th dynasty;
Jun 1908, The titles of the Thinite kings, Cuneiform Surru - shoulder & Asaru - assemble, The Hittite inscriptions of Emir Ghazi and Aleppo, The ruined sites at Masawwarat es-Sufra and Naga, A coptic ostracon, The origin of the name of the island of Elephantine;
Nov, 1908, Hittite inscriptions from Gurun and Emir Ghazi, On the length of the month in Babylonia, Coptic saints and sinners, Sargon I, king of Kish and Shar-Gani-Sharri, king of Akkad, A Phoenician inscription of 1500 BC;
Dec 1908, A Greek diptych of the 7th century, Lexicographical studies, A contract of the 5th year of Amenhotp IV, Coptic saints and sinners, Notes on some new Samaritan inscriptions;
Images of Vol. XXX: Stela of the goldsmith Penamitur, Greek mummy ticket; Rock sculptures near Tachdjl, gold wig-pendant with the names of Seti II, Tablet of Den, Inscriptions of Setui, Merbapen, Hu, Qa, Hotep and Neteren.;
PSBA Vol. XXXI
Jan 1909, A late Egyptian hieratic letter, transcribed into hieroglyphics,; Some further notes on the Babylonian Chronicle of the first dynasty.; The goddess Ishtar in Assyro-Babylonian literature, The scribings at Sinai', Griffith's, `The length of the reign of Amenhotep II.';
Feb 1909, A demotic marriage contract of the earlier Ptolemaic type, The goddess Istar in Assyro-Babylonian literature, Sidelights on Sumerian, Lexicographical studies, The Sissiktu;
Mar 1909, The Hittite inscriptions discovered by Sir W. Ramsey and Miss Bell on the Kara Dagh; Thumb-prints in Babylonia, Some unconventional views on the text of the Bible, Papyrus Dodgson, Lexicographical studies, The Samaritan book of Joshua and the Septuagint; Was Khasekhmui called Mena?;
May 1909, The discoveries in Crete and their relation to the history of Egypt and Palestine - Illustration: "The Great Men of Keftiu and the Isles" wall painting from the tomb of Senmut, Thebes. [Actually Keftiu were Sidon and Tyre, not Crete.]; The Samaritan Book of Joshua and the Septuagint, An Aramaic Ostracon from Elephantine, The Prayer of Manasses and the Book of Esther. States the Book of Esther connects to the Book of Daniel in that it resembles or differs with Daniel linguistically by the fact that the Hebrew or Masoretic text does not contain several passages found in the Greek.  According to Dr. Swete, of the 270 verses in the Greek text, 107 are missing in the Hebrew text.; A late Babylonian letter, "While in Constantinopel last year, I was enabled, through the courtesy of His Excellency Hamdi Bey, the Director of the Imperial Ottoman Museum, to copy several tablets preserved in his charge. ..." p. 169.; The ancient Egyptian methods of working hard stones: `In 1869 a block of granite 8 feet long and 4 feet deep took 16 months of 10 hour days to saw with soft steel and sand.;
Jun 1909, A Greek inscription of a king of Axum found at Meroe, Unpublished inscription of Ra-Khnum-Ab.; The decipherment of the Meroitic hieroglyphs, The temple of Basa, The age of the Meroitic inscriptions, Table of offerings of Usertesen I.; The carved slates and this season's discoveries, The earliest Eg. marriage contracts, The discoveries in Crete and their relation to the history of Egypt and Palestine (Includes the famous photo of the Persian captive we show here at CIAS), Sidelights on Sumerian, Notes on some inscriptions in the Etbai district (behind El Kab), Notes on some Eg. antiquities;
Nov 1909, The Hittite inscriptions - Progress in decipherment - The first person verb (a boot or foot) - The mention of Melid in the new inscription from Mer'ash - The name of Aram; The royal feud in the Wadi Halfa temple; The discoveries in Crete and their relation to the history of Eg and Palestine; A new brick stamp of Naram-Sin, king of Akkad. From Tello; Additional notes on the papyrus Dodgson, The kindom of Hana;
Dec 1909, The carved slates and this season's discoveries,; The discoveries in Crete and their relation to the history of Eg and Palestine, Notes on some inscriptions in the Etbai district - Plates include Greek inscriptions in Wadi Semna, Babylonian miscellaneous texts, The Hittite inscriptions, The royal feud in the Wadi Halfa temple, An early mention of cotton: the cultivation of Gossypium arboreum, or Tree-cotton in Assyria in the 7th cent. BC.;
PSBA Vol. XXXII
Jan 1910, An early contract papyrus in the Vatican, The Accadian calendar; The third tablet of the series - Ludlul Bel Nimeki; The figure of an Amazon at the east gate of the Hittite Capital at Boghaz-Keui, Epiphanes or the Encyclopaedia Coptica - a fragmentary text which treats with
1) an island in the Red Sea which Nero or Domitian watered with oil -
"Now we will speak of the position of the mountain which Nero or Domitian caused to be watered with oil. It is in the sea which is called Red on the way towards the land of India. And this mountain, which is called the Emerald [hill] belongs to the Romans. And it is a little island by itself, opposite Berenike, the place where the ships of India which come to Egypt, anchor. It is distant from the shore ... a days journey of a ship with a good wind behind it, that is to say 35 stadia. And Berenike is near to it in the neighborhood of Elephantine and Talmas ..."
2) of the original division of the Indian tribes and subsequent changes in them -
"There is a lot of differrence in the Indians as people say. They are at first nine kingdoms, which are these: The Arbastros, Adoulites, Sabenoi, Amerites, Bougaioi, Dibenoi, Axomites, Daianoi and Sirindibenoi. But now they are increased, for they have separated and ceased to be connected with one another. The Dibenoi have separated from the Fish-eaters; the Sirindibenoi have separated from the Hole-dwellers; the Lentibenoi have separated from the Eueilaioi. Of these I have spoken when I treated of history."
3) of the home of the carbuncle and the "leek-colored" stone.
The Nubian god Arsenuphis as Osiris, Notes on some Eg. antiquities;
Feb 1910, The discoveries by the German expedition on the site of Assur, The Accadian Calendar, The Ass in Semitic mythology, Epiphanicus or the Encyclopaedia Coptica?;
Mar 1910, A legal episode in ancient Babylonian family life, The Jewish royal pottery stamps, An entrance into the lower-world at Thebes, A reconstruction of a part of the Sumerian text of the seventh tablet of creation, with the aid of Assyrian commentaries; Notes on some Eg. antiquities;
May 1910, A legal episode in ancient Babylonian family life, The Jewish royal pottery stamps, The Black Obelisk and the Moabite Stone, A note on a `Hebrew Amulet', A reconstruction of a part of the Sumerian text of the 7th tablet of creation with the aid of Assyrian commentaries, Hittite monuments of Cappadocia;
Jun 1910, A seal-cylinder from Kara Eyuk, Fragment of an alabaster jar inscribed with the name of Nebuchadnezzar (p. 180, Plate XVIII), A journey by some unmapped routes in the western Hittite country between Angora and Eregli, On some Hittite clay tablets from Asia Minor, Notes on some Eg. antiquities, Coptic saints and sinners, The Egyptian name of Joseph (Based against the background of the 20th and 21st dynasty, is hopeless.);
Nov 1910, The origin of the Phoenician alphabet, The first Egyptian dynasty and recent discoveries, Another note on the Hebrew amulet, A journey by some unmapped routes in the western Hittite country between Angora and Eregli; A new example of Sumerian line-engraving upon shell, Coptic saints and sinners, The Hittite communion table at Mar'ash, A Babylonian Naru;
Dec 1910, Karian, Egyptian and Nubian-Greek inscriptions from the Sudan - Meroitic inscription from Amara - Graeco-Nubian inscriptions; A Syrian seal-cylinder in the Ashmolean Museum, Further notes on the Chronicle of the first dynasty of Babylon, Coptic saints and sinners, A journey by some unmapped routes in the western Hittite country between Angora and Eregli;
PSBA Vol. XXXIII
Jan 1911, The earliest mention of Borsippa (Bur-zip-ki ba-tug), Journey in unmapped routes between Angora and Eregli, Hittite country, King Semti, The tombs of the kings at Jerusalem;
Feb 1911, Hittite Notes: The name of Gurgum, King Mita or Midas, the king of the Aleppo inscription, "For the chapel of my Sun-god Attys I, Katudimatu king of the land of Sanda-...mi, a tree (have planted)." .. or ... "... the temple of the (sacred tree) I have given to the city of Kas(pat?)."; The Book of Judges and the date of the Exodus; The cuneiform signs for `mouth', `meal' and `prayer', `to worship'.;
Mar 1911, Enlil and Ninlil, the older Bel and Beltis; Enlil, the lord of the wind; Ninlil, the lady of the wind, where the prefix `en' is male gender and `nin', female; The iron workers of the Sudan, The Manana-Iapium dynasty at Kish (SE of Babylon), Notes on some Egyptian Antiquities - A much damaged genealogical stela mentioning a son named Hora., Also shown and discussed 2 circular hypocephalus (plates) with topics of the Book of the Dead judged to be of 27th and 30th dyn. times.;
May 1911, Coptic Saints and Sinners, The Babylonian Zuharu (youth, maiden, agent) - rare term known from 2 Cappadocian and 2 Amarna Letters (EA#1&3 Mercer) (Knudtzon). Also textual discussion on C.T. XXIX, Pl. 30 (in this issue of May 1911), BM 29655;, The question of king Semti, the Suten-biti name of King Den or Udimu according to the opinion of H.R. Hall, as opposed to Mr. Legge.; Three Hematite or Ironstone Cylinder Seals, #1) described as representing Addu or Rammanu - Hadad or (his father Tab-)Rimmon; #2) Gilgames on the right and En-bani on the left - or - Samas on the left and Nergal on the right; #3) possibly a Syro-Hittite seal showing "a deity standing upon a lion (?) couchant, holding in the right hand an emblem resembling the `Caduceus' of Dr. Hayes Ward (`The Seal-Cylinders of Western Asia', p. 408), but this is probably a variant of the sun-god's scepter as shown in Figs. 265-267 of the same work. From the same hand descends a cord or chain holding the animal upon which the deity stands - a parallel to Ward's No. 265, where, however, the quadruped is possibly the goat, and is shown with the head fronting the spectator. In his left hand the god holds a long straight weapon. He looks to the left, and wears a horned hat and long robe open in front, his right leg being shown advanced, and resting on the head of the lion. On the left is a design engraved (`maxida') horizontally. This consists of two "bull-men" their bodies confronted, their faces looking at the spectator. They are naked or `tight-clad', and wear horned head dresses. Between they old a horizontal stand the upper and lower surfaces which are connected by means of vertical bars. From the center of the stand a rod extends upwards, upon it is shown the usual conventional sun disc."; Notes on some Egyptian antiquities,;
Jun 1911, The legend of Osiris, Babylonian inscriptions - The gateways of the shrines of the gods at Sippar, Notes on some Eg. antiquities, Notes on an unexplored district of northern Syria - See map.;
Nov 1911, An Aramaic ostracon from Elephantine, Tablets from Kis - Sale of land in the reign of Sumuditana - Rent of a field whose produce must be delivered to the owner. Reign of Manana, in the 13. year of Sumu-Abu.; Rent of a house, Purchase of land in the reign of Japium (several sources), Contract for rent in the 25. year of Sumu-la-ilu.; Loan of money without interest for 7 years; Loan of roasted grain in the reign of Manana,; Notes on some Eg. monuments - See the unusual offering table,; ; The reign of `Aradsin' king of Larsa, An interesting cylinder seal; A letter of Rim-Sin, king of Larsa;
Dec 1911, The Hittite inscription of Aleppo - "This is my Sun-god Attys of Kataonia Katu king of the land of Sanda-... mit, of the god ... the chief swordsman, the priest, has dedicated, being lord from the city of Kuspat(?) Yakhanian." p. 227. The royal names on the lion of Mer'ash - "I (am) the Sanda..mitian of the land of Nugas, the Halys-Cicilian priest king of the land of Mer'ash, ...ymis, the priest, son of Sanda...mitian ... the priest of Mer'ash city - land, of Gurgum the priest, a Mer'ashian by race; son of a Sanda...mitian, of the land of Nugas priest, son of the land of the swordsmen a priestly land, a Mer'ashian, ...ymis, priest of this country." p. 231. ; Tablets from Kis - continuation.; A study in Biblical philology; Two Coptic acknowledgments of loans; Three seal-cylinders from Memphis.;
PSBA Vol. XXXIV
PSBA Vol. XXXV
Sources for Images of Famous People Involved in Historical Studies|
Where can I see what they looked like?
Biblical Archaeology Review
BAR Jan 2009, Gold-Plated Building Stone Found near the Temple Mount; According to this communication "examples of gold-plated building stones were discovered in the excavations at the southern wall of the Temple Mount conducted in the 1960s and 1970s under the overall direction of Prof. Benjamin Mazar and field director Meir Ben-Dov, but they were never published. - BAR has obtained this picture of a gold-coated building stone discovered and photographed by Ben-Dov. This is its first publication. This extraordinary find surfaced for a second time in connection with the ongoing forgery trial in a Jerusalem court (trial is about the `James Ossuary' and the `Ivory Pomegranate Inscription'). . . . The stone excavated near the Temple Mt. is clear evidence that there were gold-covered stones closely associated with the Temple complex.
." [See p. 14.]- - CIAS: What do we learn from this discovery? You cannot always depend on archaeologists when it comes to present data objectively and truthfully. They may withhold critical material and the account here is probably not the only one. Therefore, for all those interested in the archaeology of the Bible Lands, do not make your views on Bible information depended on archaeological reports. At CIAS we show that written data correlate well with biblical accounts and that strata and metal ages are suspect of being misinterpreted and leading to false conclusions. In our opinion, the reason is that strata, pottery and the history of Palestine was so tumultuous that it is next to impossible to assume we know how to interpret in situ pottery and strata evidence correctly. It is an oxymoron to say that the period of King David and Solomon belongs in the time of the 21st Dynasty.
BAR, Jan/Feb 2010, Shows gemstone with face of Alexander the Great from Tel Dor, p. 39.; Shows a Roman 2 denarius 3cm diameter coin of emperor Titus, reading, "N or M(?) . . . . . . / RVAGAESAVG ... PMIK . . O . . . . . ." and on the reverse, "FISCI IVDAICI ... CALVMNIA SVBLATA" ... "SC Senatus Consulto". This means that the repeal of the Fiscus Judaicus was done with the consent of the Senate. The Roman military placed their massive forces into Judea. According to Josephus, they consisted of the 5th, 10th and 15th legions plus 23 annexed cohorts, as well as auxiliaries furnished by local kings such as Agrippa and the Arab Malchus. They numbered mor than 600,000 soldiers.[Josephus, The Jewish War, Bk. 3, Ch. iv, Sec. 2, p. 504.]
Just because CIAS posts articles from Archaeology magazines does not mean we agree with their world view. At CIAS we believe and defend the literal six day creation of the world in which we live.
-------------------------------------------------- Current End of BAR --------------------------------
Mar/Apr 2003, Info and painted image of the mausoleum of the 4th century BC ruler Maussolos of Caria (a small Anatolian kingdom dependent on Persia) built on Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in Turkey.; Discoveries in Athens during constructions for the 2004 Olympic Games.; Info on Seti I.; A Roman-British water wheel.; Stone Age(?) death masks.; Villa mosaics.; Rosetta Stone.; Sardinias Bronze Age Nuraghi.; Section of Ramses III sea battles showing horned helmets of 2 Greek soldiers.; Info on Petra.; Ancient Greek bronze gears from a 1st cent. Roman ship wreck off Antikythera, an island NW of Crete; Shows the Nora Stone Phoenician inscription from Sardinia, p. 55; Little Petra, Jordan, p. 60.
Beware of Evolutionistic Presuppositions.
Archaeology Jan/Feb 1995, - Easter Island Megaliths: How they were moved.; Image of emperor Galerius (305-306) who defeated King Narseus of Persia in AD 297-298; Monuments of Pericles, Propylaia, Parthenon, Athena Temple; Alison Frantz photos of Athens; Archaeologists at Crow Canyon, Cortez, Colorado;
Archaeology, Current World Arch., Vol. 3, Aug/Sep 2008.; Images on Copán in Mesoamerica, reconstructed by Tartiana Proskouriakoff, p. 18.; Discusses the city of Sweyhat, northern Syria by M.D. Damti & Wm. B. Hafford.;
Oct/Nov 2004 -- Info on Tutankhamun: Tutankhamun archive being complete; Stele of Senusret, p. 11, 52-53; The Canopic shrine of Tut, made especially for him; Obelisks in Exile; Gilf Kebir & Gebel Uweinat located 50 km from Dakhla Oasis; Sudan: ancient treasures; Statue of Amenhotep II from Kumma, p. 50;
Feb/Mar 2005 -- Shows King Siptah inside front; Dr. El Daly, Egyptology, Ancient Arabic writings; Isis temple Aswan; Work around tomb of Seti I, his astronomical ceiling; Gayer, Anderson house Cairo; Capital, Hypostyle Hall Ramesseum; Papyrus Baldwin work; Scene of river boats, tomb of Paheri, El Kab; Papyrus Greg; Royal mummies: Siptah (mummy), Painting in tomb of Tutm IV, king and Tia; golden coffin of Ahotep; mummy of Ahmose Nefertiry; Iset, mother of Thutm III; Khaemwaset, son and daughter Maeritamun of Ramses II; Col. A. Fortescu Duguid (1912); Neferirtenef; Abu Simbel, 1906; Crowning of Hathshepsut, Red Chapel - plus other images; musician from Luxor; Coffin of Thuya and likeness, her canopic jars; Weigal, Davis; Size of Yuya coffin; gilded Anubis on Yuya's coffin; funeral gifts of Amenhotep III to Yuya - 2 chests, dummy vase, alabaster vessel, pair of red sandals, Yuya's chariot, gilded chair; name of Sitamun chair; a bed; gilded collar; Thuya's mummy face; old pix of Karnak; Akhnaton, ducks and plants, enemies of Amenhotep III and his head found in Karnak cachette; Gold mask of Psusennes / Psussenes I from Tanis and his gold ring; Wooden coffin of Ahmose, founder 18th Dynasty; Colossal statue of Tutankhamun, usurped by Horemheb, Harmhab, p. 50; 12th dyn tomb painting; Corridor of Ramses VI with astronomical ceiling. Books
Manolis Andronicos in `The Adventure of Archaeology', p. 317.
KMT Summer 1996, (1) `German Egyptian Splendors,' p. 12-18.; (2) `The 2nd Mysterious Dynasty,' p. 19-31.; (3) `Tomb of Qar at Abusir South,' p. 32-39.; (4) `Yuya's Mummy Mask,' p. 40-45.; (5) `Relief Fragments from the Temple of Thut. III at Deir el-Bahari,' p. 46-51. (6) `19th Cent. Thebes Tomb Dwelling,'; Archaeology of Reisner,' p. 60-75; Sir John Garner Wilkinson, Robert Hay, George Andrew Reisner, Hans Martin Hendrick, Francis Allen, Nicholas Melnikoff, Mohammed Said Ahmed, Horatio Herbert Lord Kitchener, Gaston Maspero, Georg Steindorff, David George Hogarth, Ernesto Schiaparelli.; Images: Thutmose I, Hildesheim painted limestone relief, 2nd dynasty section of the Palermo Stone (p. 23), tomb of Peribsen, painted relief of a 6th dynasty judge named Qar and his tomb, Yuyas gold mummy mask, relief fragments from the temple of Thutmose III at Deir el Bahari, the Mycerinus pair statue exposed in Jan. 19, 1910, head of Menkaure.;
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR)
[No authors named to save on time and space. Late period topics not noted.]
Feb 1920, No. 2; The Jewish inscription from Ain-Duk; Map of Bethany;
II) Waqah'il Nabat (held Dedan) .... ca 200 BC
III) Yith'i'il Sidqu
[No authors named to save on time and space. Late period topics not noted.]
Feb 1920, No. 2; The Jewish inscription from Ain-Duk; Map of Bethany;
II) Waqah'il Nabat (held Dedan) .... ca 200 BC
III) Yith'i'il Sidqu
(Please note date variations between Thiele and Courville.
|Dec 1971, - The 8th campaign at Shechem (Balatah); A new Ta'anek tablet; Shechem Field XIII; A stele dedicated to Melcarth by Ben-Hadad of Damascus, "The stele which Bir-Hadad, son of Ezer (`Idr), the Damascene, son of the king of Aram, set up to his lord Milqart to whom he made a vow and who heard his voice."; A seal from Amman; The 14th campaign at Sardis (71); Menahem and Tiglath-Pileser: A new synchronism, states the list of names on the stele represents the ruling monarchs in Palestine in 737 BC: They are: Kushtashpi of Kummuh, Rezin/Resin of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, Tubail of Tyre, Sibitbail/Shibitbaal of Byblos, Urik of Que, Sulumal of Melid, Uassurme of Tabal, Ushhiti of Atuna, Urballa of Tuhan, Tuhame of Ishtundi, Uirimi of Hushemma, Dadi-il of Kaska, Pisiris of Carchemish, Panammu of Samal, Tarhulara of Gurgum, Zabibe, queen of Arabia.; Johns Hopkins Uni expedition to the Arab Iranian Gulf, Failaka Island off Kuwait; Early Bronze Age citadel at Ai; William Foxwell Albright (1891-71); Albrecht Goetze (1897-71); Roland Guerin de Vaux (1903-71);|
BASOR Feb 1972, - In memoriam W.F. Albright (5-24-1891 to 9-19-1971); Joe D. Seger, Shechem Field XIII, 1969.; The stele dedicated to Melcarth by Ben-Hadad of Damascus; A seal from Amman;|
Apr 1972, - In memoriam Albrecht Goetze (1897-1971); The 14th campaign at Sardis '71; Menahem and Tiglath-Pileser: A new synchronism; A Syro-Palestinian (?) city on a 9th century BC Assyrian relief;
Oct 1972, - The Johns Hopkins University reconnaissance expedition to the Arab-Iranian Gulf (Images from Failaka & Bahrein Island); The early Bronze Age citadel at Ai (Et-Tell); `Mskn' "temple" in inscriptions from Hatra;
Dec 1972, - An Israelite royal seal; Reflections on the identification of the deity at the EBII and EB III temples at Ai; An interpretation of the Nora Stone; Tell Beit Mirsim G-F .. The MBIIA setlement; An ivory bulls head from `Ay';
BASOR Feb 1973, - Minutes of meetings; The 2nd amuletic plaque from Arslan Tash; Dating a chariot ivory from Nimrud;
Apr 1973, - Early Bronze IV tomb from Bab Edh-Dhra; EB IV period in northern Palestine and its cultural and chronological setting; The EB IV horizon in Transjordan and southern Palestine; More about the Vounous Jar - Some EB IV antecedents;
Oct 1973, - Reports and minutes of meetings; The 15th campaign at Sardis (72); The Asiatic campaigns of Horemheb; Dual personal pronouns in western peripheral Akkadian;
Dec 1973, - The Tell Siran inscription; The spatula inscription from Byblos; The Tell Beit Mirsim G-F alleged fortifications;
BASOR Feb 1974, - Hippodrome at Caesarea; Inscribed jar handle from El-Jib; A statuette of princess Sobeknefru at Tell Gezer; A 2nd ivory bulls head from Ai;
Apr 1974, - Excavations at Meiron;
Oct 1974, - Grapevines in Ashurbanipal's garden; The Meiron cistern pottery; The 16th campaign at Sardis ('73);
Dec 1974, - `Yaw', son of Omri, a philological note on Israelite chronology; Remarks on 2 east Aramaic inscriptions, the blingual Dura-Europos inscr., "The good memorial (is) for Malk(i)on, son of Shomeshu, the harbor master (or: the townsman), who offered (as a part) of this construction to the god Shamash 100 denarii, for his life, forever." p. 10; J.B. Segal on the Tripod Mosaic: "Whoever despises the expectation (a) of his last (days) (b) and mourns (a) (his) first (days) (b) - - he shall have a goodly latter end." Another reading is this, "Whoever removes the sorrow of the (living) progenies and mourns the (deceased) forefathers, he shall have a good end." p. 10.; The pillars of Hercules revisited, the southern near the coast at a river by Lixus in Morocco, the central near a small Mediterranean bay at Tingis Morocco, the northern at a peninsula jutting into the Atlantic at Gades, Spain, none point to Gibraltar.; A 2nd relief of Sekhemkhet in Sinai; Toward a chronology of the Hasmonean coins; A new royal Sidonian inscription; The MBIIC stratification in the NW gate area at Shechem; The Kition tariffs and the Phoenician cursive series; Alphabets and elements;
BASOR Feb 1975, - Egyptian relations with Palestine in the Middle Kingdom by James Weinstein; Two cylinder seal inscriptions from northern Transjordan; MBA IIA cemeteries at Ain es-Samiyeh and Sinjil, Images: dagger, socket spears, fenestrated crescentic ax head, pottery; Ashlar (surface) quarries of the IA in the hill country of Israel, Images: one near Jerusalem, the Nuri outcrops near Samaria, at the western slope of Ramat Rahel, at the eastern slope of Megiddo; A date of a new papyrus from Elephantine; The American archaeological heritage in the Near East (`bowed down to bankrupt evolutionistic thinking'.);
Apr 1975, - A summary of the 1974 excavations in the Caesarea Hippodrome; The pottery from the 1st session of excavation in the Caesarea Hippodrome;
Oct 1975, - Homo Faber: The pot and the potter at Taanach; A tripartite sundial from Tell Er Ras on Mt. Gerizim by Robert Bull; Late Hellenistic and Herodian ossuary tombs at French Hill, Jerusalem; Skeletal remains of an ancient Jewish population from French Hill, Jerusalem; A thrice repeated ossuary inscription from French Hill;
Dec 1975, - Memoriam George Ernest Wright, 9-5-1909 to 8-29-74; Prophecy and warfare in early Israel: A study of the Deborah-Barak story by James Ackerman; Wisdom motifs in Psalm 14=53 - `nabal' and `esah'; History and myth in Daniel 10-12 by Richard J. Clifford (on file); Jewish apocalyptic against its Hellenistic near eastern environment; A cemetery from the Persian period at Tell el-Hesi; The Kition bowl; The construct chain `nahalat YHWH/ 'elohim'; The Khirbet el-Kom bilingual ostracon; The seal of Elijah (on file); Biblical geography in Pseudo-Philo's `Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum'; God as warrior and Lord: A conversation with G.E. Wright (on file); Psalm 72: Some observations on structure;
BASOR Feb 1976, - The `yelîdê harapa' - A cultic association of warriors, (The 4 of 2.Sam 21:15-22/ 1.Chr. 20:4-8 killed by David. Suggests Isr. fought the Philistines in the Valley of Rephaim which is mentioned 8 x in the Bible, 5x in connection with the Phil encamped there even though the geographical indications in the report are different from 2.Sam. 21:15-22.); Obadiah and the fall of Edom; Galilean regionalism as a factor in historical reconstruction; Triangular Jewelry plaques; Martin Noth's `A History of Pentateuchal Traditions' (illustrates the dilemma of erroneous chronology); The paleography of the Samaritan inscription from Thessalonica; Origins of prophecy; The religio-political setting of Psalm 47; Reflections on the gold hoard from Gezer; David' lament; Farming in the Judean desert during the IA; The sovereign's day of conquest (illustrates the dilemma of erroneous chronology.);
Apr 1976, - Beer Sheba: The high place destroyed by king Josiah by Ygael Yadin (image on file); An additional chronological note on `Yaw, son of Omri' by Edwin Thiele (on file); A note on Yahwistic personal names in the Murasu texts; The lion statue and the libation tray from Tell Beit Mirsim; The east Jordan Valley survey, '75; New proto-aeolic capitals found in Israel (at Megiddo, Samaria, Ramat Rahel); Instructions for contributors to BASOR;
Oct 1976, - Royal Judean storage jars and private seal impressions; Two new Aramaic incantation bowls; Casemate walls in Palestine and the late IA II casemate at Tell el-Ful (Gibeah); The niche and the ark in ancient synagogues; Short notes: An Ammonite lyric poem; The stratification at Tell Balatah (Shechem); A broken construct chain in Ugaritic; Adon's letter and the Babylonian Chronicle; An Egyptian motif in an Assyrian text;
Dec 1976, - Akko: Interim excav. report 1st season '73/4; Landscape bas-reliefs in the Bit-Hilani of Ashurbanipal, Images: The drawing of the palace art layout and close up photos; The stratification of Judahite sites in the 8th and 7th cent. BC;
BASOR Feb 1977, - `Radiocarbon Dating of Palestine in the EB Age', Consideration: If Isotopes used for radiometric dating are calibrated on dates derived from erroneous chronologies, all calculated dates would be in error.; `Landscape Bas-Reliefs in the Bit-Hilani of Ashurnasirpal'; `The Stratigraphy at Beer-Sheba and the Location of the Sanctuary'(2.Kngs 23:8), states: "Yadin dated -- It is interesting to note that a vessel with a butterfly-shaped potter's mark from Lachish comprises one of Yadin's main stratigraphical arguments; another vessel with this same mark was found in a clear stratum III context (at Lachish). When E. Oren discussed the presence of such a vessel together with Corinthian imports at Tell Sera ... he stipulated that the "butterfly-vessel" was found on a lower floor than the Corinthian imports and that it was accompanied by Assyrian palace ware. N. Naaman, who analyzed the stratigraphical significance of this Assyrian Palace Ware, insists that it should be dated to the end of the 8th century BC. This dating agrees with historical data concerning the role of the Assyrians in this area." (p. 50).; `A Kassite Cylinder Seal from the Arabian Gulf';
Apr 1977, - `A Reevaluation of Tell Beit Mirsim Stratum J', located just SSE of Lachish; `A date for the recently discovered eastern canal of Egypt'; `Inscriptions of Sahure and Sesostris I from Wadi Kharig';
Oct 1977, - `En el-Ghuweir on the Dead Sea'; `A Corinthian Lamp at Tell Halif';
Dec 1977, - `18th Campaign at Sardis';
BASOR Feb 1978, - See Here; `The Sardis Campaign of 1976';
Apr 1978, - `Archaeological Survey in Galilee';
Oct 1978, - `Akko, a city of many names';
BASOR Winter 1979, `The Sardis Campaign of 1977'; `A Review of Gezer II';
Spring 1979, `Archaeological Survey of Central Moab';
Summer 1979, `The Goliath Family in Jericho';
Fall 1979, `EB Age structures/pottery at Tell el-Hesi';
BASOR Winter 1980, Toward a consensus of opinion on the end of the EBA in Palestine-Transjordan; New vistas on the EBIV (MBI) horizon in Syro-Palestine; A reassessment of the beginning of the MBA in Syria-Palestine; Ethnicity in ancient western Asia during the early 2nd millennium BC: Archaeological assessments and ethnoarchaeological prospectives;
Spring 1980, Newly found inscriptions in old Canaanite and early Phoenician scripts; The formal scripts of IA Transjordan; Helenistic pottery from Caesarea Maritima: A preliminary study; Was Tell Abu-Hawam a 19th cent. Egyptian Naval base?; The earthquake of (Monday) May 19, 363 AD; New evidence for the 4th cent. AD destruction of Petra; The utilitarian Persian storejar handles; A relief of a bull from the EBA;
Summer 1980, Was the Solomonic city gate at Megiddo built by king Solomon? by D. Ussishkin; A rejoinder - Y. Yadin corrects Ussishkin (on file); The population of IA Palestine in light of a sample analysis of urban plans, areas, and population density; The design of the ancient synagogues in Judea: Masada and Herodium; Supplementary remarks on the Ugaritic funerary text RS 34.126; El, the creator of earth; A brief note on Mesad Hashavyahu ostracon, 1.12:w'ml'; The Balaam texts from Deir Alla: The 1st combination; A Qumran biblical fragment Hosea 4QXII (Hosea 1:7-2:5); Paleography and the identification of seal owners; Review article: The Aramaic texts from Deir Alla;
Fall 1980, Late Acheulian artifacts from Ain el Assad (`Lion Spring'), near Azraq, Eastern Jordan; Prelim report of the 1979 expedition to the Dead Sea Plain, Bab Edh-Dhra, Wadi Kerak, Jordan; The '79 season at Pella of the decapolis (on file); Nabatean piriform unguentaria; The Tell Siran bottle inscription;
BASOR Winter 1981, James M. Weinstein, `The Egyptian Empire in Palestine - A Reassessment'; Rudolph Dornemann, `The Late Bronze Age Pottery Tradition at Tell Hadidi, Syria'; Barry Gittlen, `The Cultural and Chronological Implications of the Cypro-Palestinian Trade During the Late Bronze Age'; Volkmer Fritz, `The Israelite `Conquest' in the Light of Recent Excavations at Khirbet el-Meshash'; Benjamin Mazar, `The Early Israelite Settlement in the Hill Country'; Albert Leonard, `Considerations of Morphological Variation in the Mycenaean Pottery from the SE Mediterranean', Shows that Sesame seed oil quantities produced anciently were of low quantity and therefore must have been more of a specialty oil as opposed to large productions of olive oil. Texts seem to mention `porokowa' = outpouring, i. e. pourable liquids vs. `wearepe' = "for smearing on" oils used as unguent based on the Linear B texts, p. 97.; Jeremy A. Sabloff, `Intellectual Trends in American Archaeology', (Shows how evolutionary trained archaeologist pressure archaeologists to present their world view by concentrating on cultural changes instead of homogeneity. The gist of many such articles seems to be that they really believe their own data (Dever). We read in the conclusion: "... they emphasize how the archaeological record cannot be converted to historical facts. Giving meaning to the archaeological record is a difficult task and one that American archaeology is beginning to tackle in a more productive manner than in the past." Oh, yeah? With a false chronology unchanged?); Stephen Dyson, `A Classical Archaeologist's Response to the New Archaeology', states that, "Preservation in dry, alkaline soil of the Mediterranean is often extraordinarily good.";
Spring 1981: When the rhetoric fades: A brief appraisal of intellectual trends in American archaeology during the past two decades; A classical archaeologist's response to the `New Archaeology'; The impact of the `New Archaeology' on Syro-Palestinian archaeology; A paleosubsistence model for early Neolithic occupation of the western Negev desert; Adaptive strategies in the archaeology of the Negev;
Summer 1981: The 1980 season at Pella of the Decapolis; A pattern of settlement in southern Sinai and southern Canaan in the 3rd millennium BC; Preliminary report of the 3rd and final season of the `Central Negev Highlands Project' (Be'er Resisim); Excavations at Tel Yin'am: The '76 & '77 seasons: Prelim. report; Production and commerce in temple courtyards: An olive press in the sacred precinct of Tel Dan;
Fall 1981: Prelim. report on the '80 excavations at en-Nabratein, Israel; The joint expedition to Caesarea Maritime: 8th season, '79; The Umm el-Jimal project, '72-77;
Winter 1982: Crawford H. Greenwalt, `The Sardis Campaign of 1978'; Joseph Zias, `A rock-cut tomb from Jerusalem'; Patricia Smith, `The Physical an Biological Affinities of the MB I Skeletal Remains from Jebel Qa'aqir'; A. Moore, `A four-stage sequence for the Levantine Neolithic, ca. 8500-3750 BC' (evolutionistic); N. Avigad, `A Hebrew Seal Depicting a Sailing Ship';
BASOR Summer 1982: S.T. Parker, `1980 Season of Central Limes Arabicus'; Amihai Mazar, `The Bull Site'; D. Roller, `The Northern Plain of Sharon in the Helenistic Period';
Fall 1982: G. Kelm, `Three Seasons of Excavations at Tel Batash - Biblical Timnah'; T. Levy, `The Chalcolithic Mortuary Site near Mezad Aluf', or was it just a poor peoples site?; Shulamit Geva, `Archaeological Evidence for the Trade between Israel and Tyre';
BASOR Winter 1983: `The Sardis campaign of 1979-80', Shows a B&W image of the grave chamber facade of the tomb of Alyattes, Bin Tepe and the forecourt in front of the grave chamber.; Shows a view of the Gediz River plain, villages of Sart Mustafa, Sart Mahmut and Bin Tepe with description of the land use: annual crop area, alluvial fans, lower slopes of the acropolis, gentler and steeper slopes.; `The 1981 Season at Pella of the Decapolis'; `Tabular Scraper Trade: A model of material culture dispersion';
Spring 1983: `History of Israelite personal names'; `Technical aspects of fine Nabatean pottery'; `Enclosed settlements in the Negeb and the wilderness of Beer-sheba'; `Arethusa of the Tin Ingot'; `The enthroned king Ahasuerus at Dura in light of the iconography of kingship in Iran'; Shows a sandstone seated statue of king Vima Kadhises (3rd cent. AD), a coin of the Parthian king Ordose II (57-38 BC) and of king Artabanus II (12-38 AD).; Parthian rock relief of Hung-i Nauruzi (2nd - 3rd cent. AD), the Sasanian rock relief at Naqsh-i Rajab, Iran, of Ardashir I (22?-240 AD).;
Summer 1983: `The biblical Shephelah of Judah'; `Archaeology and literal stratigraphy in Joshua 7-8'; `The Proto-Urban/EBI utilization of the Kataret es-Samra Plateau'; `Sefirah at Qumran: Aspects of the counting formulas for the first-fruits festivals in the temple scroll';
Fall 1983: `Investigations at Tell Halif, 1976-80'; `Two seasons of excav. at Ain el-Assad near Azraq, eastern Jordan, 1980-81'; `Testamentary succession at Elephantine'; `Of seasons and soldiers: A topological appraisal of the pre-monarchic tribes of Galilee'; `The problem of the location of Straton's tower';
BASOR Winter 1984: A pottery group of the Persian period from Qadum in Samaria, En-dhadud: An EB I farming community in the Jezreel Vally, The settlements and population of Palestine during the EBA II-III, MB I tombs at Tel-Artal (Image #253), Urban Canaan in the LB period;
Spring 1984: The Israelite fortress at Arad, Preliminary report of the 1981 expedition to the Dead Sea plain, Jordan, Preliminary report of the 1981-82 seasons of the expedition to Khirbet Iskander and its vicinity;
Summer 1984: Ain Ghazal: An early Neolithic community in highland Jordan, Near Amman; The architecture of PPNB Ain Ghazal, Jordan; Prelim. report of the Tell el-Hayyat Project, Numeira, Dead Sea plain, Jordan 1981;
Fall 1984: Migdol: A new fortress on the edge of the eastern Nile delta, To dip or sprinkle? The Qumran cisterns in perspective (Bryant Wood), The significance of Tell Areini for Egyptian - Palestinian relations at the beginning of the Bronze Age;
BASOR Winter 1985: `Elements of the Ceramic Culture of Early Syrian Ebla in Comparison with Syro-Palestinian EBIV'; `The Stratum V Pottery from Shechem'; `Archaeological and Faunal Evidence from Natufian and Timnian Sites in So. Jordan', Shows 1000x pollen images of (1)Vitex agnus castus, (2)Ephedra, type fragilis, (3)Asphodelus, (4)Geranium and (5)Malvaceae.; `Revising Tell Abu Hawam';
Spring 1985: `Early Christian Church, Mosaics, Inscriptions, Pottery, Glass and Coins from Magen' (west of Beer-sheba); `Two Aramaic Contracts without dates'; `Laden Animal Figurines from the Chalcolithic Period'; `Khirbet Hamam, Wadi el Hasa, Jordan'; `On the Israelite Fortress at Arad';
Summer 1985: `Nelson Glueck 1938-40 excav. at T. el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal'; `Palaeoclimates in Israel: Evidence from weathering patterns on stones', Images includes: Jigsaw puzzle like grooves on sandstone caused by endolithic lichens; Pinhead holes caused by the fruiting bodies of same type lichen; Honeycomb round hole patterns caused by land snails that obtained calcium carbonate for building their shells.; A fine rough walled or spongy floor in a pit caused by coccoid cyanobacteria and microscopic cyanophilus lichens.; Funnel shaped microscopic pits caused by the activity of fungi,; `Notes on some problems in the Aramaic text of the Hadd-Yith i bilingual'; `The Dolmens: Construction and Dating reconsidered'; `Lithic artifacts from Umm Ad-Dananir in the Baqah Valley';
Fall 1985: `The Archaeology of the family in ancient Israel'; `The earthquake of Palestine and NW Arabia from the 2nd to the 8th cent. AD'; `Stratigraphic and Ceramic Observations from Medieval Strata of Khirbet Shema, Isr: Assessment of the value of Scientific Analysis';
BASOR Feb 1986: `Hezekia's Fortified Cities and the LMLK Stamps'; `Peasants, Pastoralists and Pax Romana'; `White Objects from Ain Ghazal, Near Amman'; `Comparative Chronology and the Ancient Near East: Case for Symbiosis'; `T. El-Ful Jar Inscription and the Netinim'(reads, `Hananiah, the son of Hagab'); `MB II Palestine: Settlements & Populations';
May 1986: `Late Bronze Age and Solomonic Defenses at Gezer: New Evidence'; `Saracenes and Limes'; `Water Supply at Huymayma'; `Pseudo-Nabataean Ware and Pottery of Jerusalem'; `New Type of Chalcolothic Ritual Vessel and Some Implications for the Nahal Mishmar Hoard';
Aug 1986: `Transjordan in the Bronze and Iron Age: A Critique of Glueck's Synthesis'; `Two Cultures in Southern Sinai'; `Environmental Change and Settlement at Lachish'; `Ptolemaic and Roman Kilns in the Western Nile Delta'; `Inscription from the Atargatis Temple at Petra and Palmyra';
Nov 1986: On the origin of pottery from Tel Miqne-Ekron; Animal use at Tel Miqne-Ekron in the BA and IA; Elephants, ivory, and charcoal: An ecological perspective; Ammonite and Aramaic inscriptions from Tell El-Mazar in Jordan; Three unpublished ostraca from Gezer; The intermediate EB - MB Age sequences at Jericho and Tell Iktanu reviewed; Is the area of Apum-Damascus mentioned in the Mari-archives? (on file); On the trade of shells and fish from the Nile river;
BASOR Feb 1987: Late bronze II ivory work in Palestine: Evidence of a cultural highpoint; First identification of authentic `tekelet' (Marine sea shell snails for coloring of wool); Peasants, pastoralists, and Pax Romana: A different view; De Bello Paceque: A reply to Parker; New light on the Early IA at Tell Beit Mirsim; Yaua, son of Omri, yet again;
May 1987: Pots, PIXE, and data processing at Pella in Jordan; A population estimate of ancient Ugarit; Demographic trends in the Negev highlands: Prelim. results from the emergency survey; Late Hellenistic baths in Palestine; On boats and Sea Peoples (on file); The Ammonite language from the IA;
Aug 1987: On the transmission of the alphabet to the Aegean before 1400 BC; Phoenician and Greek ashlar construction techniques at Tel Dor, Israel; `Egalitarian' or `stratified' society? Some notes on mortuary practices and social structure at Jericho in EBIV; The market street at Apollonia-Arsuf (Medit. coast, Isr.);
Nov 1987: The casemate wall, the 4 room house, and early planning in the Israelite city; Daniel manuscripts from Qumran. Part 1: A prelim. edition of 4QDan; Herodotus and the chronology of the Kings of Sidon; Shechem and the road network of central Samaria; The city walls of Stratton's tower: Some new arch. data;
BASOR Feb 1988: Merneptah's campaign to Canaan and the Egyptian occupation of the southern coastal plain of Palestine in the Rameside period; Settlement and demographic processes in Israel's coastal plain from the chalcolithic to the MBA; A life estate of Usufruct: A new interpretation of Kraeling 6; A 2nd Nabatean inscription from Tell esh-Shuqafiya, Egypt (just eat of Bubastis on way to Serapeum); An IA figurine frm Tel Halif; Justinian's novel 103 and the reorganization of Palestine; The Ammonite Phoneme /T/;
May 1988: Ancient Syria; The prehistory of Syria; Tell Hadidi: One BA site among many in the Tabqa dam salvage area; The kingdom and period of Khana; Dialogues between ancient near eastern texts and the arch. record: Test cases from BA Syria;
Aug 1988: The gateway and portal stone reliefs from Arslan Tash; Ceramics and commerce: Amphorae from Caesarea Maritima; Khirbet al-Mafjar reconsidered: The ceramic evidence;
Nov 1988: The identity of the Bir-Hadad of the Melquart Stela (says its biblical Ben-Hadad); Southern Ghors and NE Araba arch. survey '85 and '86 prel. report; Tripartite pillared buildings and the market place in IA Palestine; Toward a precise date for the Samaria ostraca; The design of the EB age temples at Megiddo; The LBA in Galilee: A reassessment;
BASOR Feb 1989: Cylinder seals and impressions of the 3rd millen. BC from the Dead Sea plain, An EBIV pottery repertoire at Amman, Jordan; A comparison of two contemporaneous lifestyles of the late 2nd millen. BC (Israelites & Canaanites) (heavily conventionally flavored) Images: large pithos jar reused as a planter in Nicosia and an oven in Kornos, A search for Mahanaim (Gen. 32:22, Ex. 16:13, 19:16-17) (in the Gilead district?, Zerka River valley) Images: Tell edh-Dhahab esh-Sherqiyeh with Wadi Hajjaj, Tell edh-Dhahab el-Gharbi with the Zerqa surrounding it; Iron age pits and the Lahav (T. Halif) grain storage project, Short notes, The intermediate Bronze period: A reply to G. Palumbo by Talia Shay (on file);
May 1989: Daniel manuscripts from Qumran. Part 2: Preliminary editions of 4QDanb and 4QDanc, The botanical remains from Masada: Identification of the plant species and the possible origin of the remnants (short article, no images), Archaeological remains from the medieval occupation of the NW Negev desert, The Solubba: Nonpastoral nomads in Arabia, Saracens and Romans: Micro-macro relationships;
Aug 1989: Petrographic analysis of 4th millen. BC pottery and stone vessels from the northern Negev, Sedentism in the EBIV: A faunal perspective, Lust and Leprosy: confusion or correlation?, On Cassid Lips and Helmet Shells, A new reading of the Petra temple inscriptions, Isaiah 57:5-6: Tombs in the rocks (on file), The Buzz: A simple toy from antiquity, Short notes;
Nov 1989: A chalcolithic `fine ware' from Kataret Es-Samra in the Jordan Valley, A new light on the biblical Millo ("filling") from Hatran inscriptions, Image: B&W reconstruction drawing of the north gate of Hatra (on file), Six Khirbet el-Medeinehs in the region east of the Dead Sea (map on file), Notes on the fortifications of the MBII period at Jericho and Shechem, The Levitical cities of Reuben and Moabite toponomy, The flint industry of Nahal Zehora I, a Wadi Raba site in the Menashe Hills; The wedge-shaped decorated bowl and the origin of the Samaritans;
BASOR Feb 1990: The myth of Solomon - Explains low and revised chronoly, Red slip, burnish, and the Solomonic gateway at Gezer, Red slip, burnish at Gezer, Notes on Megiddo, Gezer, Ashdod, and Tel Batash in the 10th to 9th cent. BC, Shemer's Estate, On archaeological methods and historical considerations: IA II Gezer and Samaria, Of myths and methods;
Aug 1990: The geopolitics of the Phoenician littoral in the early IA, The emergence of Phoenician art, New evidences from Dor for the 1st appearance of the Phoenicians along the northern coast of Israel, The beginning of Pheonician pottery: vessel shape, style, and ceramic technology in the early phases of the Phoen. IA, Phoenician religion, Processes of sedentarization and nomadization in the history of Sinai and Negev, William Dever: Archaeology and Israelite origins: Review article;
Nov 1990: Corner-thinned blades: A new obsidian tool type from a pottery Neolithic mound in the Khabur Basin, Syria (from Tell Kashkashok II, Pit 9), Early pottery contexts from Ain Ghazal, Jordan; Early pastoral nomadism and the settlement of lower Mesopotamia, Cultural and environmental implications of Hippopotamus bone remains in archaeological contexts in the Levant (found in IA Tel Qasile and at least 14 additional sites), The bull figurine from Dhahrat et-Tawileh (north of Bethulia, south of Jenin and east of Tell Dothan and west of the southern Gilboa mountains, west of Beth Shan), Aramaic eban gelal (Ezra 5:8, 6:4) again, Short notes;
BASOR Feb 1992: A helmet of the 6th cent. BC from Sardis, A new edition of the (cuneiform) `Rapi-uma' texts: KTU 1.20-22, An Aramaic incantation bowl from Khafaje, A Neolithic game board from Ain Ghazal Jordan (Looks like finger or small brush paint mixing wells to me), A late Neolithic seal from Herzliya, A `neo-Babylonian' seal from Tell Taanach, Ugarit: The urban habitat the present state of the archaeological picture, Two readings in the caravan inscription (Greek and Palmyran Aramaic) Dunant, Baalshamin No. 45, reading "... and also Publicius Marcelus the governor, our lord, by let[ters] and by a de[cr]ee testified of him ..."; Some oil presses from western Galilee, Archaeological evidence for the fall of Byzantine Caesarea, Short notes;
Aug 1992: The island of Iotabe in the Byzantine sources: A reprise; Tell el-Hibr: A rock shelter occupation of the 4th millen. BC in the Jordanian Badiya, Cain burials and cairn fields in the Negev, The population of Palestine in IAII, The 2 winged `lmlk' stamp, A reexamination of the archaeological evidence for the Sasanian Persian destruction of the Tyropoeon valley, Nomads in archaeology: A response to Finkelstein and Perevolotsky, Exportation of plant products from Canaan to Egypt in the EBI: A rejoinder to Wm A. Ward;
Nov 1992: The chronology of Syria-Palestine in the 2nd millen. BC: A review of current issues, The chronology of Palestine in the early 2nd millen. BC, The absolute chronology of the BA in Cyprus; A revision, The present status of Egyptian chronology, An Aramaic joint venture agreement: A new interpretation of the Bauer-Meissner papyrus;
BASOR Feb 1993: I. Finkelstein & Ram Gophna, `Settlement, Demographics, and Economic Patterns IN EB Periods and the Beginning of Urbanism'; Gaetano Palumbo & Glen Peterman, `EBA IV Ceramic Regionalism in Central Jordan'; Wm. Dever, `Further Evidence on the Date of the Outer Wall at Gezer'; Deirdre Dempsey, `An Ostracon from Tell Nimrin'; James R. Davila & Bruce Zuckerman, `The Throne of Ashtart Inscription'; Gary N. Knoppers, `Treaty, Tribute List, or Diplomatic Letter: KTU3.1 Reexamined';
May 1993: McGovern, Fleming & Swann, `The LB Eg. Garrison at Beth Shan: Glass and Faience Prod. & Import. in the LK'; Christine Lilyquist, `Granulation & Glass: Chron. & Stylistic Investig. at Selected Sites, 2500-1400 BC'; R. Hohlfielder, `An Experiment in controlled Excavation beneath Caesarea Maritime Sea, 1990'; G. Barkay, `A Bulla of Ishmael, the King's son'; P. Kyle McCarter, `An Inscribed Phoenician Funerary Situla at Princeton'; Eliot Braun, `Some Observations & Iconography of a Cylinder Seal from Bab edh-Dhra'; W. Dever, `Syro-Palest. Archaeology `Comes of Age'';
Nov 1993: David W. Rupp, `Aspects of Social Complexity in Cyprus'; Edgar Peltenburg, `Settlement Discontinuity & Resistance to Complexity in Cyprus'(4500-2500 BC); Steve O. Held, `Insularity as a Modifier of Cult. Change, The Case of Prehist. Cyprus'; Stuart W. Manning,`Prestige, Dist. & Competition'; David Frankel, `Inter & Intrinsic Variability and Social Interaction in BA Cyprus'; Priscilla Schuster Keswani, `Models of Local Exchange in LBA of Cyprus'; A.B. Knapp, `Social Complexity';
BASOR Feb 1994: J.N. Postgate: `In Search of the First Empire'; Lorenzo Nigro, `The Nordburg of Megiddo: A new reconstruction of Schumacher's plan'; Wayne T. Pitard, `The reading of KTU 1.19:iii:41: The burial of Aqhat'; Susan Heuck Allen, `Trojan Grey Ware at Tel Miqne-Ekron'; Early Greek contacts with the southern Levant, ca. 1000-600 BC, eastern perspective'; Ada Yardeni, `Maritime trade & royal accountancy in an erased customs account from 475 BC on the Ahiqar scroll from Elephantine';
May 1994: Daphne Ben-Tor, `The historical implications of MK scarabs in Palestine bearing private names & titles of officials'; Egon H.E. Lass, `Quantitative studies in flotation at Ashkelon, 1986 to 1988'; Zeev Meshel, `The Aharoni Fortress near Quseima and the Israelite Fortress in the Negev'; Charles R. Krahmalkov, `When he drove out Yirachan', A Phoenician (Punic) poem, ca. 350 AD'; Gideon Avni, `Early Mosques in the Negev highlands: Rome rose to power in 538 A.D. You can trace that connection, among many other evidences, by considering the symbols on one of their grand mosques. It also evidences itself by their leaders paying homage to each other over the course of numerous meetings, especially since WWII.
Aug 1994: Alan H. Simmons, `Early Neolithic Settlement in Western Cyprus, Test excav. at Kholetria Ortos'; Jeffrey R. Zorn, `Estimating population size of ancient settlements'; F.W. Dobbs-Allsopp, `The genre of the Mesad Hashavyahu ostracon'; Christopher P. Kelley, `Who did the iconoclasm in the Dura synagogue'; M. Daviau & Albert Pietersma, `Inscribed artifacts at Tell Jawa, Jordan, Naoumas' jug'; Anson Rainey, `Remarks on Donald Redford's: Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in ancient times', p. 81-84 (believes Hebr. alphabet was borrowed from Canaanite dialect); Nancy Lapp, `Pots, People, and other things';
Nov 1994: Isaac Gilead, `A history of the Chalcolithic settlement in the Nahal Beer Sheva area: The radiocarbon aspect'; James F. Ross, `The Vounous Jars revisited'; Patrick E. McGovern, `The Archaeological Origin & Signific. of the Dolphin Vase as determined by Neutron Activation Analysis'; Michael G. Hasel, `Israel in the Merneptah Stele'; Baruch Halpern, `The Stela from Dan: Epigraphic & Histor. Considerations';
BASOR Feb 1995: The inscriptions from Failaka and the lapidary Aramaic script; Archaeology and the villages of upper Galilee: A dialogue with archaeologists; An archaeological response to a New Testament scholar; Response: Richard A. Horsley; Agricultural and nomad - state relations in the Negev desert in the Byzantine period; The Asphaltus (Camel's thorn plant, Alhagi pseudoalhagi) caper (Capparis spinosa); Will the real Israel please stand up? Archaeology and Israelite historiography: Part I;
May 1995: The Philistines and acculturation: Culture change and ethnic continuity in the Iron Age; A note on Iotabe and several other islands in the Red Sea; Will the real Israelite please stand up? Part II: Archaeology and the religions of ancient Israel; Did the dead ever die in biblical Judah?; W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem: Project descriptions of Albright appointees '94-95; Research projects at CAARI;
Aug/ Nov 1995: The archaeology of empire in ancient Anatolia; The archaeology of empires: A view from south Asia; Prehistoric interregional interaction in Anatolia and the Balkans: An overview; Urban development at mid-late EBA Titris Höyük in SE Anatolia; Transcaucasia at the end of the EBA; Hittite imperialism and anti-imperial resistance as viewed from Alicar Höyük; The IA background to the formation of the Phrygian state; Urartian material culture as state assemblage: An anamoly in the archaeology of empire; The archaeology of empire in Anatolia: Comments;
BASOR Feb 1996: A 3rd millennium Levantine pottery production center: Typology, petrography, and provenance of the metallic ware of northern Israel and adjacent regions; Highlands and lowlands: Problems and survey frameworks for rural archaeology in the Near East; The emergence of orientalizing in Greek art: Some observations on the interchange between Greeks and Phoenicians in the 8th and 7th centuries BC; Sibilants and sibbolet (Judges 12:6); Commentary: A response to Anson Rainey's `Remarks on D. Redford's Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in ancient times'; Archaeology and the religions of Israel (Dever);
May 1996: Hartuv, an aspect of the EB I culture of southern Israel; The chipped stone assemblage from Hartuv; The central east Jordan Valley in the LBA and EIA; Tel Dan Stela: New light on Aramaic and Jehu's revolt;
Aug 1996: EBA IV sttlement pattern of the Negev and Sinai deserts: View from small marginal temporary sites; The southern Levant in the EBA IV: The petrographic perspective; Ostraca and a seal impression from Tell Nimrin, Jordan; WF Albright Institute of Arch. Research, Jerusalem: Project descriptions of appointees '95-96;
Nov 1996: Who is a Canaanite? A review of the textual evidence; The contribution of the Amarna Letters to the debate on Jerusalem's political position in the 10th century BC; New readings of Hezekian official seal impressions; A wolf in sheep's clothing: How the high chronology became the middle chronology; Back to square one;
BASOR Feb 1997: Jane C. Waldbaum, `Greeks in the East or Greeks and the East? - Problems in the Definition and Recognition of Presence' (Important Article), On the 1994 `Roman Aqaba Project';
BASOR Feb 1998: The Aegean pottery at Megiddo: Appraisal and re-analysis, Distinctions among Canaanite, Philistine, and Israelite lyres, Geopolitical history of Philistine Gath;
May 1998: Ain Ghazal `monumental' figures, Greater Canaan: The implications of a correct reading of EA 151:46-67.; The use of ivory as interpreters of political history, Achish-Ikausu in the light of the Ekron dedication, A grammar of Amarna Canaanite;
Aug 1998: Hotepibre, a supposed Asiatic king in Egypt with relations to Ebla, Trends in the local pottery development of the late IA and Persian period in Syria and Lebanon, ca. 700 to 300 BC., The Mispe Yamim Bronzes (5 situlas showing: 1. worshipper & offering table, 2. Amon, 3. Isis & Nephtys, 4. Re & Montu, 5. Nefertem & Sekhmet.) ; Three 7th cent. BC hoards of silver jewelry from Tel Miqne-Ekron (2 unread finger rings: one showing 9 glyphs, the other 2: frontal part of crouching lion and sun disk reminiscent of signs used by 26th dyn. Psamtek [conv. 664-610, rev. 445 BC] on scarabs). They were found in building complex Field IV which is dated to the 7th cent BC based on a pendant medallion. We read: "The incised depiction on this pendant is a crude version of a well known Neo-Assyrian cultic scene, all known examples which are dated to the 7th cent. BC. The crude rendition may be the product of a local craftsman familiar with the motif yet far removed from the original source. 4th cent. examples of this pendant form from the Phoenician necropolis of Atlit indicate that this pendant type was also in use during the Persian period." p. 72.;
A Mandaic gold amulet in the British Museum;
Nov 1998: Abu Salem" A pre-pottery Neolithic B camp in the central Negev highlands, Israel., The necropolises of Khirbet Qumran and Ain el-Ghuweir and the Essene belief in afterlife, Two notes on the archaeology of Qumran, The paleography of west Semitic stamp seals;
BASOR Feb 1999: Chocolate on white ware: Typology, chronology, and provenance: The evidence from Tell Abu al-Kharaz, Jordan Valley, Four notes on the size of LB age Canaan, Hieratic fragments from Tell el-Farah (south), Paleographic dating of Judean Seals and its significance for biblical research, Palestine and Israel, Reading the sites: Prehistoric BA settlements on Cyprus;
May 1999: Copper objects from Arad - their composition and provenance, Pots and politics: Material remains of LIA Judah in relation to its political borders (Tel en Nasbeh=143, Jericho=4, Gibeon=27, Vered Jericho=3, Tell -el-Ful=4, Ramot=13, Moza=6, Jerusalem=405, Ramat Rahel=11, Beth Shemesh=30, Azekah=4, Tel Goded=5, Lachish=29, Kh. Geresh=3, Tell Beit Mirsim=37, Tel Halif=2, Arad=23, Tel Beer Sheba=43+4, Tel Ira=7, Tel Masos=5, Malhata=4, Aroer=3; Total=819; may indicate degree of pagan/ sexual involvement in apostate Israel.), Finkelstein: Hazor and the north in the IA: A low chronology perspective, The state of near eastern archaeology;
Aug 1999: Radiometric dates from 8th millen. B.P. Israel, Where they met: Separations in the rock mass near the Siloam tunnel's meeting point, The archaeology of ritual: The sanctuary of Pan at Banias/ Caesarea Philippi, Review articles: Seals and kings;
Nov 1999: The dynamics of Phoenician bichrome pottery: A view from Tel Dor, Prastio - Agios Savvas tis Karonis monastery (Cyprus), Histories and nonhistories of ancient Israel;
BASOR Feb 2000: Trojan Grey Ware from Lachish, Hazor and Chronology, Rural Community in IA II, Anastasius I, Incised Glass Vessels - post 600 AD;
May 2000: Burnt house at Arpachiyah, Site Reports;
Aug 2000: Perforated rods, Prelim Survey Tel Zayit, Seeing through walls;
Nov 2000: Moabite sanctuary at al-Mudayna;
BASOR Feb 2001: Neolithic Community in Central Jordan, Anatolian and Egyptian Imports from Late EB I at Ain Assawir, Israel, Herodotus' Description of the East Medit. Coast, Pottery of Qumran;
May 2001: Chron. Separation, Geogr. Segregation, Archaic Greeks in the Orient, Aspects of Colonization, Where is Herod's Tomb in the Herodium?, Late Ottoman Cemetery at Tell Hisban;
Aug 2001: Survey of Wadi Araba, So. Jordan, A new framework for Late IA, Two engraved Tridacna Shells from Ekron, Repres. of Neo-Assyr. landscapes;
Nov. 2001: Nabatean Petra;
BASOR Feb 2002: The Dynamics of Death - Ancestors, Pastoralism, and the Origins of a 3rd Millennium City in Syria; Excavations at Rekhes Nafha 396 - Negev Highlands;
May 2002: The Relative and Absolute Chronology of the Cypriote White Painted Pendent Line Style; Southwestern Judah in the Late 8th Century BC; The Abasid Amphorae of Istabl Antar-Fustat (Egypt);
Aug 2002: Zahrat Adh-Dhra 2 - A New Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Site on the Dead Sea Plain in Jordan; From Flint Mine to Fan Scraper - The Late Prehistoric Jafr Industrial Complex, A site of very large flint nodules; Reconciling Tow Maps - Evidence for the Kingdoms of David and Solomon (based on the evidence of tri-partite pillared buildings (Tel Hadar (Galilee), Tel Abu Hawam (near Haifa), Tel Qasile, Tell el-Hesi, Tel Malhata, Tel Masos); The Bible Unearthed - A Rejoinder (by Finkelstein);
Nov 2002: On the Structure and Composition of Copper and Tin Ingots from the Shipwreck of Uluburun; Economy Related Finds from Khirbat al-Mudayna (Jordan); A Late IA Fortress North of Jerusalem; Schloen's Patrimonial Pyramid - Explaining Bronze Age Society;
BASOR Feb 2003: `The Expansion of the Kingdom of Amurru According to the Petrographic Investigation of the Amarna Tablets'; `Excavations at Kedesh', includes B&W images of the location, pottery and seals; `Inscribed Sealings from Kedesh', the Tanit sealing, double dated sealings, a sealing with numerals, the Baal (of Tyre) sealing, the beautiful Kedesh sealing showing what appears to be a bundle of grapes and an ear of wheat on a stalk, the dated Tyche sealing, and the sealing of the Sidonians;
May 2003: `The Early Neolithic Site of Ayn Abu Nukhayla, Southern Jordan' and its geoarchaeological exploration; Spatial and Statistical Inferences of Late Bronze Age Politics in the Southern Levant; Trade & Politics-Ashkelon's Balancing Act in the 7th cent., Mesillot on the Arnon - An Iron Age Road in Moab;
Aug 2003: Neolithic Plastered Skulls; Early Assyrian Contacts with Arabs and the Impact on Levantine Vassal Tribute; An Iron Age Hermaphrodite Centaur from Tel Beer Sheba; The Stratigraphic Relationship between Palaces 1369 and 1052 (Stratum III) at Megiddo;
Nov 2003: An Archaeological Contribution to the Early IA Chronological Debate - Alternative Chronol. fro Phoenicia and Their Effects of the Levant, Cyprus and Greece;
BASOR Feb 2005, - Urbanism on LBA Cyprus: LCII in retrospect; Sea Peoples and Phoenicians along the southern Phoenician Coast - A reconciliation: An interpretation of Sikila material culture; Attic imported pottery at Tel Dor, Israel: An overview;
May 2005, - Archives of Alalah IV in archaeological context; Judah, Philistia, and the Mediterranean world: Reconstructing the economic System of the 7th cent. BC;
Aug 2005, - Burial practices at the submerged pre-pottery Neolithic C site of Atlit-Yam, northern coast of Israel; EBA chamber tomb complexes at Gre Virike (just north of Carchemish) (Period IIA) on the (wide, sumpy) middle Euphrates; Anthropology of a frontier zone: Hittite-Kaska relations in LBA north-central Anatolia; The northern Jordan survey 2003 - Agriculture in late Malka and Hubras villages: A preliminary report of the 1st season;
Nov 2005, - `En-Yahav' - A copper smelting site in the `Arava; Landscape and settlement in the Neo-Assyrian empire; Bir Madhkur project (near Petra): A prelim. report on recent fieldwork. Images: The lay of the town, The characteristic appearance of an ancient, hard packed threshing floor with few remains of a nearby wall are still seen, A possible roundish milestone discovered near an ancient roadway, The remains of an ancient tower, caravan station and a field house in the alluvial wash of Wadi Musa, west of Bir Madhkur.;
Miscellaneous, partial records of articles
The Biblical Archaeologist
Vol. XXI, No. 4, 1958. A. Malamat, `The kingdom of David & Solomon in its contact with Egypt and Aram Naharaim,' p. 96-102; The Solomonic city gate at Gezer, p. 103-.;
Vol. XXII, No. 1, Feb 1959. Front picture, the lion guarding the entrance to the temple at Hazor.; Vol. 36, No. 2, 1973. William F. Albright, `From the Patriarchs to Moses,' p. 48-
1911: `Megalithic Monuments of Rabbath Ammon at Amman'; Excavations at Ain Shems (Beth Shemesh); The Khazneh at Petra;
Oct-Dec, 2009, Vol. 4, No. 4. -- Titles: `Much ado about Ida'; `At a snail's pace'; `Will this idea survive?', recent doubts that an asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs.; `Genome in scramble'; `Is everyone a creationist?' researchers questionaire; `A creationist uncovers the truth' about earlier, erroneous medical instrument results.; `Fallible research'; `Teaching modesty in an immodest world'; `Seeing God underground', on caves and their displays.; On witnessing to various people.; `Proclaiming the Creator in Japan' featuring M. Mizumura.; `Night Stalker' article on sensory systems in owls.; `Why people leave the church'; Human body `Wired for extremes'; `The search for alien life'; `Skin, our living armor'; `Heart, constantly beating death'; `Brain, shaped by experiences'; `One leg up on architects' on dependence of the Tour Effel on human bone structure.; `What would Jesus eat?'; `Handling stress'; `Bones, God's living girders'; `Radiometric dating - Problems with the assumptions.'; `Making science to be fun'; `Who am I anyway?' on identity crisis.; `Saving the world begins at home'; `Who's number one in the universe?'; `Lost';
Das Wiedererstehende Babylon
Inhaltsübersicht und einige Bilderbeschreibungen:
Kapitel 01: Die äußere Stadtmauer
Immanuel Velikovsky, Damien Mackey, Lisa Lee and Alter-Egos|
Quoting Lisa Lee:
"As mentioned above, Velikovsky did not relate to the Global level at all. Whether this was a result of his realization that no such level existed which did not rule out most of his revision or was simply an oversight is uncertain.
Of course we also know from real history that ancient rulers were definitely known by various names, any of which could or did not resemble the name they popularly became known to us today.
Continuing, Lisa Lee rambles:
"In doing so, he left a legacy which has wasted a good deal of productive energy in the area of revision hypotheses. This is because he did so uncritically. For example, his equation of the neo-Babylonian dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar with the Hittite dynasty of Hattusilis III was predicated on different names being used in different types of sources. In Babylon, he claimed, this dynasty called itself by Babylonian names, while in Asia Minor, it used Hittite ones. The Egyptians knew them as the Hittites and used their Hittite names. It is, however, a very different thing to claim, as he did, that two kings of Egypt, each with his own titulary, were the same, without providing any reasonable explanation for the two sets of names."
Amazingly, Lisa Lee can't think of any examples that alter-egos in ancient times were the rule rather then the exception.
Not really, Lisa, the discovery of the tomb of the chief of staff of Ramses II has been given as `Necharomes', Necho-Ramses. Why would one expect a `Necho..' in the 13th century BC rather than the 7th/6th century BC?
Of course, Damien Mackey may top them all when it comes to Lisa's `plague'. But such is history, archaeologists, of which historians often feed, have been blinded to such connections because they had a first hand, naive starting theory to simplify things, thus not recognizing the compound nature of true history. The linear approach was best for the text book writers, but life is seldom as simple as that. If some can't comprehend the multi-personalities of individuals and/or ruling by proxy, that is their problem and true history shall remain a closed book for them.
Granted, multi-identifications can cause problems if not all evidence is carefully balanced. Thus the attempt of those who try to explain away the multitude of Ramses II, Pharaoh Necho, connections and the Ramses III period, Pereset/Persians connections as distinctly provided by the primary source of the Canopus Dekret, in favour of mere other types of similarities, can lead to erroneous conclusions. At CIAS we listen and weigh, realizing that not all of the pieces of the puzzle have been found. But we work with what we have and must admit that all the attempts to provide a running story of all the kings and queens, are working theories at this time, albeit, we believe, of much better substance than convention can provide.
Questions one may ask|
01) Why all this old stuff? Answer: Because its there, however, we do not post it because it is all valuable or good reading, no. We post it because many people are searching for items and if we do not post it, they go to pagan sites and find it there and no link to Christian themes as they can find such here.
02) Where people capable within the last 3000 years, lets say 1498 or 1798 AD, to produce chipped flint stones as tools and bury their dead in the various orientations and positions archaeologists find them in today? --- Hmmmmmmm.
Notes & References
 The Masoretic Hebrew text or writing contains subscripts and dots to help in which vowel to pronunciate. They distinguished between what was written (katib) and what was read (gere). [BAR, May 2008, p. 48.]
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