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Return to Encyclopedia 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DIL Why we use B.C. and A.D.
The First Use of Chariots in Ancient Egypt
Chariot Construction Locations in Palestine
Ancient Surveying Equipment
Insights into the History of Jewish Coins
The Seer Amenhotep
Jewish Ceremonial Year
Yohanan Aharoni on `The Chalcolothic Period'
Cave Tomb No. 25
Egyptian vs Israelite Law.
The Melqart Stele
The New Ain Dara Temple
Aperlae, Coast of Turkey
Ahhiyawa - Greeks or who?
Greek Iron
The Persian 4th Century BC
Evolutionary "Tree of Life"
When was the Book of Daniel written?
King David's Tomb
Comparing Egyptian Metal Sculptures
Fragment of a Pharaonic Statue
Roads in Palestine
A List of Architectural Terms
Picturesque Places
Where to Find Detail Maps
Cambyses Long Lost Army Found
Old Kingdom Iron
Why we use B.C. and A.D. or its shorter bits form
At CIAS we use BC and AD for its brevity. In the words W.E. Wilson: "The disrespect inherently implicit in C.E. and B.C.E. is that they undeniably refer to Christ anyway, while at the same time blotting him out. They are not really theologically neutral." [BAR, Sep/Oct 1996, p. 11; In the same issue M. Engel states that A.D. (Anno Domini, B.C./before Christ) was first used by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in 525 AD.] Similarly we encourage everyone to use Sabbath rather then a pagan name for the Seventh day of our Lord God and we probably should use numbers for months only.

How Jesus was Born in Bethlehem
For Joseph and Mary, who lived in Nazareth, to be in the prophecied town of Bethelehem for the birth of Christ, took a miracle of God. Augustules, the Roman Emperor at the time of the birth of Christ, wanted to know if all his subjects paid taxes into the coffers of his Empire. He was advised that such a thing could only be known if a census was taken throughout his vast empire. It involved a Decree of Emperor Augustulus of Rome, for the people in all his Roman provinces to go to the town of their father - where the birth records were kept - and be censored anew. ANd so, if you can, imagine all the many people going to the town of their father from the north in Germany, in Spain, Portugal, North-Africa, to the coasts and interior of Italy itself, people had to walk, be carried, or driven to their respective ancestoral town, apparently on the whim of a king - yet it was in reality in the providence of God that this took place. Thus the words were fulfilled where it says, "The king's heart is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water; he turneth it withersoever he will." Proverbs 21:1.

The Calamities Surrounding the Birth of Christ
This calamity the people of Judah had brought upon themselves. If they had been living a life of faithfulness and humility before God, He would in an unmistakable manner have made the wrath of the king harmless to them. But they had separated themselves from God by their sins, and had rejected the Holy Spirit, which was their only shield. They had not studied the Scriptures with a desire to conform to the will of God. They had searched for prophecies which could be interpreted to exalt themselves, and to show how God despised all other nations. It was their proud boast that the Messiah was to come as a king, conquering His enemies, and treading down the heathen in His wrath. Thus they had excited the hatred of their rulers. Through their misrepresentation of Christ's mission, Satan had purposed to compass the destruction of the Saviour; but instead of this, it returned upon their own heads, (DA 65.5). The same national apostasy of the Jewish nation revealed itself, when the leaders cried, "Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children." Matthew 27:25.
What Happened at His First Advent Contains Parallels for the Time of His Second Advent!
God committed these prophecies to the Jewish leaders; they were without excuse if they did not know and declare to the people that the Messiah's coming was at hand. Their ignorance was the result of sinful neglect. The Jews were building monuments for the slain prophets of God, while by their deference to the great men of earth they were paying homage to the servants of Satan. Absorbed in their ambitious strife for place and power among men, they lost sight of the divine honors proffered them by the King of heaven. [GC 313.1].
The experience of the disciples who preached the "gospel of the kingdom" at the first advent of Christ, had its counterpart in the experience of those who proclaimed the message of His second advent. [GC 351.2]
"There shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of His coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation." 2 Peter 3:3, 4.
Many who professed to love the Saviour, declared that they had no opposition to the doctrine of the second advent; they merely objected to the definite time. But God's all-seeing eye read their hearts. They did not wish to hear of Christ's coming to judge the world in righteousness. They had been unfaithful servants, their works would not bear the inspection of the heart-searching God, and they feared to meet their Lord. Like the Jews at the time of Christ's first advent they were not prepared to welcome Jesus. They not only refused to listen to the plain arguments from the Bible, but ridiculed those who were looking for the Lord. Satan and his angels exulted, and flung the taunt in the face of Christ and holy angels that His professed people had so little love for Him that they did not desire His appearing. [GC 370.1]
Parallels Throughout History
The condition of the unbelieving Jews illustrates the condition of the careless and unbelieving among professed Christians, who are willingly ignorant of the work of our merciful High Priest. In the typical service, when the high priest entered the most holy place, all Israel were required to gather about the sanctuary and in the most solemn manner humble their souls before God, that they might receive the pardon of their sins and not be cut off from the congregation. How much more essential in this antitypical Day of Atonement that we understand the work of our High Priest and know what duties are required of us.
Men cannot with impunity reject the warning which God in mercy sends them.
A message was sent from heaven to the world in Noah's day (Genesis 6-9), and their salvation depended upon the manner in which they treated that message. Because they rejected the warning (Genesis 6:5,6; Ps. 18:27; Jer. 18:10), the Spirit of God was withdrawn from the sinful race, and they perished in the waters of the Flood. In the time of Abraham, mercy ceased to plead with the guilty inhabitants of Sodom, who had called evil good, and good evil (Isa. 5:20), and all but Lot with his wife and two daughters were consumed by the fire sent down from heaven. So in the days of Christ. The Son of God declared to the unbelieving Jews of that generation: "Your house is left unto you desolate." Matthew 23:38. Looking down to the last days, the same Infinite Power declares, concerning those who "received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved: `For this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.'" 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12. As they reject the teachings of His word, God withdraws His Spirit and leaves them to the deceptions which they love.
But Christ still intercedes in man's behalf, and light will be given to those who seek it. Though this was not at first understood by Adventists, it was afterward made plain as the Scriptures which define their true position began to open before them. [GC 430.3-431.2].
A Parallel between the Old and the New Churches of Today
There is a striking similarity between the Church of Rome and the Jewish Church at the time of Christ's first advent. While the Jews secretly trampled upon every principle of the law of God, they were outwardly rigorous in the observance of its precepts, loading it down with exactions and traditions that made obedience painful and burdensome. As the Jews professed to revere the law, so do Romanists claim to reverence the cross. They exalt the symbol of Christ's sufferings, while in their lives they deny Him whom it represents. [GC 568.1].
The World's Conversion is A Fable
This disposition to "rage," or "tumultuously to assemble," (margin,) and to imagine the vain thing to resist the Lord and his Christ, and break their bands and cast off their government, was manifested in the days of the first advent, when "both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel were gathered together" against Christ. (Acts 4:25-28). But it will more fully appear, when, at the second advent, in the great day of wrath, "the beast and the kings of the earth, and their armies, are gathered together to make war against him that comes from Heaven and his army", Rev. 19:19. Then, indeed, the angry nations will be tumultuously assembled, and they will imagine the vain thing of fighting against the coming King of kings and Lord of lords. But the descending King, represented as sitting upon a white horse, will despise their power and have them in derision. "He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh." (Psalm 2:4). "And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God." Rev. 19:15. [July 25, 1865 UrSe, ARSH 61.3]

The First Use of Chariots in Ancient Egypt

"During the Second Intermediate Period the chariots, composite bow, and narrow ax-headed battle-ax were invented. Most importantly, during the New Kingdom, the scimitar or sickle sword and body armor was invented." [Charles Lugor Leju, 2002; from "http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/prehistory/Old%20Egypt/military/tech.html";References, Miller, P. (1997) Time-Line of Weapons. Ancient Egypt Sites: Weapons; Deffrates, J. (1991) What do we know about the Egyptians? New York, NY.]

The Second Intermediate Period is usually dated from about 1780 - 1570 BC. [Peter A. Clayton, `Chronicle of the Pharaohs', p. 85, 98]

Does that mean that the biblical account of the Exodus mentioning Pharaohs chariots is based on valid information? For we read:

"The Egyptians - all Pharaoh's horses and chariots, horsemen and troops - pursued the Israelites and overtook them as they camped by the sea near Pi-Hahiroth, opposite Baal-Zephon." Exodus 12:9.

Since Baal-Zephon was opposite compared to the sea side shore where the Israelites camped, and should be located on the Saudi side of the Gulf of Aqaba looking from Nuweiba Beach. A natural submerged land bridge connects the Saudi side with Sinai at that location, the ideal feature for the biblical crossing of the Red Sea.

However, if the Second Intermediate Period Egyptian chariots belong to the time after ca. 1450 BC then all we can say is that chariots were used before the revised date for the 18th Dynasty but we still are not sure exactly when they came into use in Egypt and should keep searching for such evidence. P. Waterson wrote, "The standard excuses of 'unsuitable native woods' are belied by the existence of Egyptian boats made of quite suitable woods, and a rigged boat requires more design skill, craftsmanship, labor (and for that matter wood) than a chariot. Egypt had the manpower, the craftsmanship and the organization to make chariotry possible. It had neighbors who used, or were in contact with, chariot-using cultures. The only possible reason for not adopting the chariot would be military ineffectiveness."

Even though chariots are not represented in Egyptian art before the New Kingdom we can say, that camels, besides horses, are also not represented in Egyptian art of the conventional Old and Middle Kingdoms. Does that mean the Egyptians did not use camels then? We think it does not mean that. It may have something to do how these animals were regarded at the time.

Concerning the chronological issue, Rohl points to his article posted in JAFC5, "The argument that chariots were not introduced into Egypt until the 15th Dynasty has been used to undermine the proposal for a 13th-Dynasty Exodus. This is because Exodus 14:5-9 describes Egyptian chariots in pursuit of the departing Israelites.

Chariot Construction Locations in Palestine

Three approximate locations in the vicinity between Ephraim and Juda, 1. K-y-na, 2. Ra-bu-bu, 3. Ba-y-ti-Sa--ru. According to the Papyrus Anastasis come excellent chariots from the region of Pa-hu-ira and Ra-hu-bu with spokes from `O-pa' Location of `O-pa' in Palestine. [Papyrus Anastasis 4, 16, 11 quoted in Max Mller, `Asien und Europa nach Altgyptischen Denkmlern', Leipzig, 1893, p. 152-153]

In the Sheshonk city list we also find a Ru-ha-ba-'a' located in the general region.

Therefore it doesn't appear to be just a coincident when the scriptures also locate chariot construction in this region, "... and all the Canaanites that dwell in the land of the valley have chariots of iron, both they who are of Beth-Shean and her towns, and they who are of the valley of Jezreel." Joshua 17:16.

During later 18th dynasty times chariot users had improved the technology to built lighter, more maneuverable, wooden chariots using a minimum of metal parts replacing the probably more cumbersome chariots of iron. One of these perfectly preserved Egyptian chariots, found by I. Rosellini, can be seen in KMT, Vol. 15, Summer 2004, p. 42 as well as in the Archaeology Museum in Florence, Italy. See also the Greek four horse chariot found in Tomb 79 at Salamis of a type and function thought to carry warriors into and out of battles. [J.N. Coldstream, `Geometric Greece', London, 1977, p. 348, 352.]
See Yves Calvet, `The House of Urtenu' in Near Eastern Archaeology, Dec 2000, p. 210-211; Excavations at Ugarit (starting 1986) yielded parts of an ancient chariot and harness fittings not further identified, imported pottery (Mycenean craters, Cypriot vases) metal objects, alabaster jars, and several hundred whole or fragmentary tablets (disc. in 1994). Among the tablets there are numerous orders concerning wine, beer, barley, especially oil, goods for dying, wood from Hatti, copper ingots from Cyprus in exchange for horses. Urtenu is thought to belong to the period of Niqmaddu III (conv. 1210-1200 BC), the last king, attested in 4 letters.

Ancient Surveying Equipment
"The Chimu of pre-Columbian Peru were scientifically unsophisticated by many measures, but their struggle to survive in one of the world's driest coastal deserts spurred them on to prodigious feats of hydraulic engineering.
Some of their knowledge of water management was inherited from their predecessors, the Mochica people, who inhabited Peru's Moche Valley during the 1st millennium AD and built a network of so-called great trenches to irrigate their fields. By the time the Chimu came on the scene around 1100 AD, however, shifts in the earth's crust had permanently separated many of those early canals from the rivers that fed them." [Time Life Book, 1990, p. 58. Used within permissible limits. CIAS comment: These shifts in the earth's crust are the after effects of the upheaval started at Noah's Flood.]
Theodolite "This reconstruction of a Chimu surveying instrument shows how canal building Peruvians may have calculated the slope of the land to achieve the most efficient water flow. The device consisted of a ceramic bowl pierced by a hollow sighting tube passing through a calibrated, cross-shaped opening (inset). An artificial horizon was established by aligning water with the three dots in the bowl, which was leveled in a larger, sand-filled vessel atop a tripod (far left); when the sighting tube was in the center of the cross-shaped opening it was parallel to the artificial horizon. Chimu surveyors marked a rod at the height of the level sighting tube, then moved the rod a known distance along uneven ground and sighted the mark. The ground slope corresponded to the tube angle indicated by the calibrations inside the bowl."

Insights into the History of Jewish Coins

Important Dates and # Coins found

Denomination Description-Events Denomination Quantity Description-Events
Hemi-Obel; inch silver-1/12th of a drachm Persian period - Made in Jerusalem - Obverse: Open lily; Reverse: Eagle &
Spelling: YHD, Yehud - Persian name for the province of Judea from before 333 BC
Tetradrachm (4 drachm coin); 1 inch silver ? Obverse: Image of `Basileus' Ptolemy I; Reverse: eagle stands on thunderbolt; Writing: Ptolemaios - Basileos; Symbols: `P' & `AP'; dates from 305 BC
Prutah; inch bronze Obverse: reads `Yehohanan (John) the High Priest and the council of the Jews';

Insights into the History of Sepphoris

Important Dates and # Coins found

Dates-Events Events Dates-Coins Quantity Coins from time of
--- 284-247 BC 1 Ptolemy II (uncertain provenance)
--- 222-187 BC 1 Antiochus III
ca. 100 BC Ptolemy Lathyrus (88-80 BC) unsuccessfully attacks Sepphoris on a Sabbath during the reign of the Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC). It is interesting to note that the old Arab capital city of Shikhin/Asochis has been determined to be located on a low hill just to the north of Sepphoris. 103-76 BC 1 Alexander Jannaeus
57-55 BC Gabinius the proconsul of Syria, makes Sepphoris the seat of one of the five synedria (or high courts) 37-4 BC 1 Herod I (the Great)
39-38 BC Herod the Great attacks Sepphoris in a snowstorm and takes it from Antigonus. ---
4 BC Judas, son of Ezekias, leads a revolt and invades the royal arsenal at Sepphoris. Varus, the Roman legate of Syria, retaliates by destroying the city and selling its inhabitants into slavery. ---
3 BC Herod Antipas rebuilds the city into "the ornament of all Galilee" and calls it Autokratis. Sepphoris becomes the capital of Galilee and Perea. ---
12 AD There are coins from Antioch in Syria of the date A.U. 765 (A.D. 12), with the head of Tiberius and the inscription, "Kaisar, Sebastos (Augustus)". [`History of the Christian Church', Vol. I, p. 120, footnote] --- These coins from Syria reveal that the 1st year of Tiberius should be counted from 12 AD, "The 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar" would then be 27 AD.
19 AD Herod Antipas moves his capital to Tiberias. ---
ca. 54 AD Under the procurator Felix, Sepphoris once again becomes the capital of Galilee. 50-96 AD 1 Agrippa II
66 AD During the first Roman revolt the residents of Sepphoris are reluctant to fight and eventually take a pro-Roman stance. ---
--- 67-68 AD Sepphoris issues Eirenopolis ["city of peace"] coins.
117-139 AD During Hadrian's reign the city is apparently known as Diocaesarea. A Capitoline temple is functioning at the site. 98-117 AD 2 Trajan
a. 200 AD Rabbi Judah HaNasi moves to Sepphoris where he lives for 17 years and completes the codification of the Mishnah. 198-217 AD 1 Caracalla
--- 218-222 AD 1 Elagabalus
--- 251-253 AD 1 Trebonius Gallus
--- 253-268 AD 1 Salonina, wife of Gallienus
--- 284-305 AD 1 Diocletian
--- 305-306 AD 3 Constantius I
308 AD A martyrdom of Christians may have taken place in Sepphoris. [A Syriac text of Eusebius is not clear on the location.] 308-324 AD 1 Licinius
306-337 AD During Constantine the Great's reign, Josephus of Tiberias receives permission to build a church in Sepphoris. 307-337 AD 14 Constantine I (the Great)
--- 330-346 AD 11 Constantine I [commemorative]
--- 317-326 AD 1 Crispus
--- 317-337 AD 3 Constantine II (Ceasar)
--- 335-337 AD 1 Delmatius
--- 337-340 AD 2 Constantine II
--- 337-350 AD 4 Constans
351-352 AD A revolt, which began in Sepphoris, is crushed by Gallus. 337-361 AD 5 Constantius II
363 AD A major earthquake occurs in the area. ---
374 AD Emperor Valens exiles some Nicean Christians to the Sepphoris area. ---
--- 375-392 AD 1 Valentinian II
--- 4th century AD 46 Late Roman, mainly period around Constantine II.
451 AD A bishop of Sepphoris attends the council of Chalcedon. ---
518 AD Bishop Marcellinus attends a Jerusalem synod and rebuilds a Sepphoris church. ---
570 AD Antony of Piacenza, a pilgrim, visits a Sepphoris church associated with Mary. Growing evidence of substituting Mary worship for worshipping the Lord. ---
--- 7th century AD 1 Arab Byzantine
--- 661-750 AD 1 Umayyad
--- 1250-1517 AD 1 Mameluke
--- --- 1 Arabic, unidentified
--- 1517-1918 AD 4 Turkish-Ottoman Empire
--- --- 19 Cannot be identified
[Arranged by CIAS from data of `Biblical Archaeology', Sepphors "Ornament of All Galilee", by E.M.Meyers, E. Netzer & C.L. Meyers, March 1986, pp. 4-18]

The image of a late 17th century Dutch silver Thaler bearing the inscription, "(M?)ONMOVR(T?)VR16*87CONTIDENS:DNO.", and featuring a raised lion was found at Horvat Raqit on Mount Carmel. Only 20 years before the coin was minted, and halfway around the world, colonists in Maryland named their new, official unit of currency the "dollar", an English transliteration of the German word `Taler'. The first Thalers were large silver coins minted in Holland in 1575. How did the Thaler end up at Horvat Raqit? Archaeologists theorized that its owner may have been threatened by highway robbers and hid it in the heavy undergrowth, intending to return for it later. [BAR, Vol. 29, Spe/Oct 2003, p. 21.]

The Seer Amenhotep

D. Wildung gives the typical biography of Amenhotep the seer as follows: See also here

"Amenhotep was born about 1450 BC* in the time of Thutmosis III at Athribis near the modern town of Benha, about forty kilometers north of Cairo. His father was a nobleman named Hapu, his mother the lady Itu. Amenhotep spent fifty years of his life in his native town where he held the titles of "king's scribe and chief of the priests of Horus-Khentikheti", the local god of Athribis.

The reigning king, Amenhotep III, called Amenhotep to the royal court at Thebes, when he was in his early fifties. Amenhotep immediately became active as an architect and achieved the rank of the king's chief architect. From his inscriptions we can deduce that he also was a scribe and achieved the rank of "real first scribe of the king", a rank which we can describe as "minister for culture" for education, science, and cult, as well as being responsible for mining and building. Amenhotep also served as the steward for the king's daughter Sat-Amun and was the organizer of the king's jubilees - duties normally performed by the eldest son of the king. His rise was rapid, and Amenhotep's inscriptions indicate that the appointments were extraordinary." [D. Wilding, `Egyptian Saints. Deification in Pharaohnic Egypt', N.Y. UP, 1977]

*) In revised view Amenhotep III reigned during the El Amarna age, between about 880-830 BC.

Comparing the months in a Year The Jewish months did/do not coincide with our start of month counting. Their 1st month, Nisan, was from about the middle of March to the middle of April. Each month had 30 days, so they had to introduce a leap year about every 19 years with a 13th month added.
Jewish Ceremonial Year / Jahr Jdischer Zeremonien 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Jewish Months / Monate Abib/ Nisan Iyyar/Zif Sivan Tammuz Ab Elul Ethanim/Tishri Heshvan/Bul Kislev Tebeth Shebat Adar
Our Year / Unser Jahr

Judah used autumn New Year - Tishri

Israel used a spring New Year - Nisan.


Two yearly sabbath days of Passover (Lev. 23:4-8), a ceremonial sabbath.

May June

One yearly sabbath, 50 ds after Passover, Lev. 23:51,21.

July Aug Sept Oct

Two yearly sabbaths on day of atonement, first blowing of trumpets, Lev, 23:24,25; next on the 10th day of 7th month, Lev. 23:26-32.

Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Our Year / Unser Jahr

Christi Pascher

14th day of 1st month was the Passover, Ex. 12.
14. Tag im 1. Monat war das Passahfest, 2.Mose 12.
6th day of the 3rd month was Pentecost. Levit. 23:25 >
Levit. 23:27 >

3.Mo. 23:25 >
3.Mo. 23:27 >
The 1st day of the 7th month was the Day of Trumpets;
10th day of the 7th month was the Day of Atonement;
15th-21st day of the 7th month was the Feast of Tabernacles; this feast had two yearly sabbaths, Lev. 23:34-39.
Altogether 7 yearly sabbaths.
Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
These "seven yearly ceremonal days" were called "sabbaths" because about each of them it was said, "Ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein." Lev. 23:7, 8, 32.
From this listing of the `seven annual ceremonial days' it can be seen that they came not on amy regular day of the week, but on a certain day of a month (like birthdays). The day of the week, thus, was different every year, unlike the way we are to keep holy the seventh day Sabbath, memorial day of Creation.

Month of Abib in the year of the giving of the Law on Mt. Sinai
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Sabbath
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Month of Zif in the year of the giving of the Law on Mt. Sina
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29
Month of Sivan in the year of the giving of the Law on Mt. Sinai
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30
Correlating some events to days of the week. 14th of Abib - - Passover day: Exodus 12:2; 13:4;
3rd of Sivan - - Sinai Encampment: Exodus 19:1;
5th of Sivan - - Law Given: Exodus 19:10,11,1; 20:7;
12th of Sivan - - Moses called into cloud after six days preparation: Exodus 24:12-18.

Jubilee Years
A jubilee year fell on the 7th sabbatical year and occurred every 49 years. In Leviticus 25:8-10 it says that the Jubilee then was in the 50th year. Also a Jubilee and sabbatical year started in the authumn, Lev. 25:9. - The 1st Jubilee was celebrated in the land of Canaan in the 50th year.
Egyptian Calendar and Numbers Information of the Pharaohnic Age
Hieroglyphic sign for first month Sign for 1st month; Hieroglyphic sign for remaining months Sign for remaining months; Hieroglyphics for `regnal year' Signs for `regnal year';
Egyptian months: Mekhir, 11th=Apit, 2=Paophi, Pharmuthi, Mesori, Khoiakh, Peret, ??1=Ththy, 2=Paopy, 3=Hathys, 4=Choiach or Shemu, 8=Shaban
Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 1; Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 10; Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 100; Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 1,000; Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 10,000; Hieroglyphic sign for the digit 100,000;

Yohanan Aharoni on `The Chalcolithic Period'

The earliest cultures in the history of the Holy Land are known to us only from archaeological research. Most recent discoveries in the Jordan Valley prove that man appeared in Palestine in the Lower Pleistocene Age, estimated to be at least half a million years ago. This early man lived in Palestine before the final depression of the Jordan Valley to its present depth. In several cases caves in Mount Carmel (Wadi Mugharah) and in Galilee, skeletons of Paleolithic man have been uncovered. These are of the more advanced type of Neanderthal man discovered in Europe. The scientific name of this type is Palaeanthropus Palaestinensis - "Early Palestinian Man." The last phase of the cave dwellers, in the Mesolithic Age (about 10,000 to 8,000 BC), parallels the end of the last Ice Age in Europe. At this time began the first true settlement in Palestine; no major climatic changes have taken place since then. The earliest culture has been termed Natufian/(var. Natoufian), after caves in Wadi en-Natuf on the western slopes of the central hill-country. This was a transitional phase of man, from hunting and gathering of food to crude agricultural and animal husbandry. In addition there is a culture named `Zarzian' and `Kabarian'. Many today think of these as very old, sort of connecting almost to what they call very ancient man. But we defend the view that these cultures could have existed side by side with more highly developed cultures and that they represent a people who chose to live that way or else their educational/economic heritage placed them in that position just like today we find a wide variety of living conditions among people.

The revolutionary transition of man in Palestine, from cave dwellers to founder of villages and towns, is best seen at Jericho, the one city of this period known to show such extensive accomplishments in construction and technology. This is in contrast to the usual open sites scattered here and there near readily arable land.

The progress of early civilizations was not always smooth and peaceful. Declines and retrogressions followed peaks of achievement. New conquering people dislodged inhabitants from their settlements, or settled in their midst. In the Chalcolothic period (the fourth millennium BC) many settlements were founded, mainly in the fertile valleys and on the edge of the desert. It was at this time that copper first came into use alongside stone implements. The later phase of this age is called the Ghassulian culture, after a group of small mounds in the southeastern part of the Jordan Valley, where the culture was first discovered (Teleilat Ghassul); it later became well known from several sites near Bear-sheba. These settlements spread over wide areas and were not fortified; the inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, herding, and household industries, including copper working. Their technical and artistic achievements are quite remarkable. A cache of copper utensils found in the "Cave of the Treasure" in the Judean Desert surpasses in both quality and beauty all other such objects known from the East from the same period. Among the lands of the early civilizations, Palestine held a respectable position till the end of the fourth millennium BC. [Y. Aharoni, `Bible Atlas', New York, 1977, p. 22-23; For an image of the caves see BA, 1962, p. 31]

Comments: Reading the above as it is written it reads like the story of the Patriarchs after the Noachian Flood. Of course historians try to connect civilizations to Neanderthals and even earlier types in order to make their evolutionary theory plausible. But these ages are mere constructions of their imaginations and live only in their books for the Bible states in several places that people were buried in caves and that well within historical times, Genesis 19:30.

Cave Tomb No. 25

Excavations at Ketef Hinnom uncovered a burial cave with a rich assemblage of artifacts. Of particular importance were two damaged, scroll rolled, silver amulets inscribed with paleo looking Hebrew and dated to the end of the First Temple period. The texts were deciphered by Ada Yardeni and are strikingly similar to the priestly benediction of Numbers 6:24-26, forms of which are also found in Psalms 4:7 and 67:2, as well as in an inscription on a pithos jar from Kuntillet Ajrud. [For text and images see L.R. Bailey, `Gehenna, the topography of Hell', in BA, Sep 1986, p. 190.] For an enlarged small siltstone inlaid with ostrich eggshell beads necklace mulet from predynastic(?) Egypt see BAR, Jul 1996, p. 13.

Egyptian vs Israelite Law: Contacts of Israel with Egypt from the time of King Saul to Solomon.

Purpose: Showing the Egyptian background to some affairs and events in the life of King Saul and David: [See also Here]

1. Saul achieved victory over the Amalekites at the River of Egypt (1.Sam. 15).
2. The Hebrew prophets (Samuel, Achijah and Shemaiah) fullfilled the function of state lawyers, experts, who could foresee legal consequences, or judges who knew what the courts would do and gave their advice on the basis of their professional know-how. (Exodus 18:13-26; 1.Sam. 7:15-17; See E. Metzler at `http://moziani.tripod.com/dynasty/ammm_2_1.htm')
3. Chief judges were called in Hebrew `Elohim' who `judged/shaphat' the people. `Elohim' in this legal usage does not mean `God'. The King James Version translates `Elohim' in Exodus 22:8 with `Dayanim' (English: judges). So the witch of Endor (1.Sam. 28:11ff) describes the `Elohim' judge as an old man with a mantle (Samuel).
[Exodus 22:8; "... he shall be brought unto the `judges'", `elohim' is gods in the ordinary sense, but specifically used of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to `magistrates'; and sometimes as a superlative to angels, judges, mighty, great, exceeding.]
4. Ancient 18th Dynasty Egypt permitted marriages between brothers and sisters in conjunction with matrilineal succession based on historical facts.
5. The Kingdom of Egypt was inherited by the eldest daughter of pharaoh, who had to marry her own brother in order to continue the dynasty.
6. In the Hebrew society marriage between brother and sister was unlawful and a sin. (Gen. 12:13, 19; 20:2; Lev. 20:17; Deut. 27:22)
7. Egypt is surrounded on every side by desert and relatively poor desert dwellers. Only in the east-to-northerly direction was an industrious people of considerable economical interest to Egypt. [Click here for a discussion on Punt.]
8. It was of paramount importance for Israel and native Egyptians to overcome their Amalekite/Hyksos occupiers if they wanted once again be masters of their own destiny.
9. According to history books, Ahhotep (II) was the daughter of Ahmose I and his wife Ahmose-Nefertari. Amenophis I was her brother and husband.
10. Amenhotep I died without an heir but a baby mummy was found with insignia identifying the body as a child of Amenhotep I. [See: http://www.touregypt.net/who/Ahhotep2.htm]
11. The name of the wife of King Saul was Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz (1.Sam. 14:50), and one of the places they lived in was a fortress at Beth-Shan. Their palace fortress was at Gibeah (Tel el Ful), just north of Jerusalem.
***Assumption: Ahinoam was an Egyptian woman.
12. Ahinoam (means `pleasant brother') could be read according to Egyptian thought as `Ahhotep' were `hotep' means `pleasant' [See #8]. She had a son with the Egyptian name `Amnon', David's eldest son (2.Sam. 3:2). When trying to marry Tamar, his sister, Amnon acted according to Egyptian customs. Amnon could also be read as Amon-On, referring to the Egyptian god Amon in the city of On (Genesis 41:45, 50; 46:20).
***Assumption: Ahimaaz [#11] is an Egyptian name and could stand for Ahmose on the following basis: The first syllable of Ahmosis (`A-h-mes') contains the `Alef' and `Chet (h)' of Achimaaz as well as its Yod (i) "hand" which corresponds to the hieroglyphic `Ayin' "forearm with grasping hand", See Gardiner (N18) pp. 454 D 36, and 486 N12). The correspondence between `maaz' and `mosis/mes' is easily seen.

Question: If Ahimaaz was Pharaoh Ahmosis, why does the Bible never call Ahimaaz/Ahmose, father of Ahinoam, a pharaoh? Two reasons may perhaps explain this question:
1. A weaker reason may be this, 2.Chronicles 35:20 introduces Necho as "Necho, King of Egypt...". In Vers 22 we read simply, "... hearkened not unto the words of Necho from ...".
Of course we still know from Vers 20 that this Necho is a king, but not writing the title again does occur here in the Book of Chronicles.
2. Today we think of Ahmose as a Pharaoh, but according to our revision, he did not become king until within the last 2 years of King Saul's reign. We may not be far off in suggesting that it took some unknown time span for Ahmose to ascertain his kingship over his own people, much more so, to become known as king to other people like the Israelites.

13. Samuel ordered a ban not to take spoils from the Amalekites.
Assumption: This order implied a ban on intermarriage of men from Israel with women of the Hyksos or Egyptians.
14. Saul's breach of promise to David precipitated his ruin since his prospective son-in-law David had already been selected and anointed as king over Israel. (1.Sam. 16:13)
15. Although Saul had 3 sons and 2 daughters by Ahinoam (1.Sam. 14:49), conflict between Egyptian and Israelite laws prevented him from establishing his own dynasty.
16. Under the law of matrilineal succession, whoever married his firstborn daughter Merab would become Saul's successor according to Egyptian practices.
a) If Saul wanted one of his sons to succeed him, the son (Jonathan) would have to marry his sister or even his mother in an incestuous marriage which was not acceptable according to Israelite standards.
b) At first Saul promised to give his eldest daughter to David (1.Sam. 18:17).
c) When Saul realized that the prophets slated David to be the next king, he gave Merab to one named Phalti (1.Sam. 18:19).
d) Consequently instead of marrying Merab, David married Saul's younger daughter Michal (1.Sam. 18:17-27).
e) This breach of promise became a reason for the downfall of Saul's reign, since David had already been selected as the prospective son-in-law and had been anointed to be the next king (1.Sam. 16:13) to succeed Saul after he died (1.Sam. 26:10).
f) By marrying Michal, David had no claim to the throne according to Egyptian standards which, however, would not have affected the opinion of faithful Israelite prophets.
g) Saul continued to try and kill David (1.Sam. 20:31) since he wanted Jonathan to be king - (who probably could speak Egyptian since he was the son of an Egyptian mother, and who probably understood Egyptian and Israelite laws better than his father and therefore knew that according to Israelite law he could not be king, (1.Sam. 23:17; Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 17:14-17) but be only David's closest friend, 1.Sam. 18:3; 20:16-42).
h) David's wife Michal loved him and her brother Jonathan, and helped David to escape out of a window of Saul's fortress palace to flee to the Philistines, 1.Sam. 19:12.
i) Although David could have killed Saul, he instead took his wife Achinoam away from Jezreel (located at Beth-Shan, at the junction of the Jordan and Jezreel valley), where the Israelites stayed (1.Sam. 29:1; 25:43).
*Assumption The Achinoam which David married was Achinoam, wife of Saul.
j) This was a give and take: If Saul gave away David's wife, David had reason to retaliate by taking Saul's wife.
k) After Saul's death, David got Michal back from her brother Ish-Boshet (2.Sam. 3:14-16) and kept Achinoam.
l) Saul was angry towards Jonathan because Saul realized that David would end up marrying his Egyptian wife Achinoam. He realized that the promiscuity of a matrilineal (Egyptian) society would make this possible and that David would not be beyond doing this for later he would not hesitate to take the life of a woman's husband to make her his own wife (2.Sam. 11:2-27).
m) These serious legal problems of international marriages between an Israelite with an Egyptian princess were foreseeable to the Hebrew prophets.
n) Saul had also 2 sons by his concubine Rizpah, a daughter of Aiah, who, *we assume, was the Amalekite/Hyksos king Agag/Apophis (`Aiah' being a Hebrew corruption of saying Agog). Their names were Armoni and Mephibosheth (2.Sam. 21:6-10 Egyptian sounding names). At some point in time all the sons of Rizpah and Michal (Saul's daughters) were hanged.
o) According to Israelite law, since David had married the widow of Saul, he could be king. This is demonstrated in the case of Adonijah, who was executed for treason by Solomon, because he had tried to marry David's widow Abishag of Shunem (1.Kings 2:22-25). Similarly, Saul's son Ish-Boshet, who reigned as king for 2 years (2.Sam. 2:10), felt challenged by Abner's affair with his father's concubine Rizpah (2.Sam. 3:7-10), possibly a daughter of Agag (misspelled Aiah), the last Amalekite king defeated by Saul and executed by Samuel (1.Sam. 15:32, 33).
p) The clash between Egyptian and Israelite law became evident in the lives of Saul and David because of their own actions and that of their children.
q) On what basis prophesied Samuel that the kingdom would be taken away from Saul? (1.Sam. 15:28; 28:17) On the same basis that the prophet Achijah the Shilonite predicted that Solomon's kingdom would be taken away from him, and Jeroboam would rule over 10 tribes. Samuel and Achijah were both talking about laws governing inheritance. [Judges 21:17] Saul and Solomon had married into a matrilineal society. In doing so they followed the example of Abraham who also had marital relations with an Egyptian woman, Hagar. (Genesis 16:1) However, these actions occurred as a consequence to lack of faith in Yehova's instructions and the later consequences bore out the severity disobedience brought about when he (Abraham) acted on his own impulses. Peoples behavior toward each other and faith or lack of it toward the Great I Am were, and still are, inseparable from God's claim on humanity. As King David later freely admitted it, "Only a fool says there is no God." (Psalm 14:1)

The Melqart Stele

English: The Melquart Stele of Ben-Hadad, found at Aleppo, calls Hezion, Hadyan and Ben-Hadad, Bar-Hadad.
Deutsch: Die Melqartstele von Ben-Hadad, bei Aleppo gefunden, nennt Hesion, Hadian, und Ben-Hadad, Bar-Hadad.

Melqart Stele Language:
Approximate Date:
Place of Discovery:
Date of Discovery:
Current Location:
Inscription Number:

basalt stele
4 lines
9th-8th century BCE; See here for a source.
Bredge, a village north of Allepo, Syria
ca. 1939
National Museum Allepo, Syria
KAI 201
The Text

Transliteration Albright 1942: 23-29.
Translation adapted from `Black' 1958:239.

Line 1: The monument which Bar-Hadad, son of Tab-Rimmon
Line 2: son of Hadyan, king of Aram, set up for
Line 3: his lord, Melqart. He (vowed) this to him
Line 4: and he listened to his voice.

Deutsch: "Das Denkmal das Bar-Hadad, Sohn des Tab-Rimmon, Sohn des Hadyan, Knig von Aram, aufrichtete fr seinen Herrn Melkart. Er (schwor) ihm dies und er hrte seine Stimme."

The Relationships are presented in the following Scripture:

"Then Asa took all the silver and the gold that were left in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house, and delivered them into the hand of his servants: and king Asa sent them to Benhadad, the son of Tabrimon, the son of Hezion, king of Syria, that dwelt at Damascus, saying, There is a league between me and thee, and between my father and thy father: behold, I have sent unto thee a present of silver and gold; come and break thy league with Baasha king of Israel, that he may depart from me." 1.Kings 15:18,19. "Da nahm Asa alles Silber und Gold, das brig war im Schatz des Hauses des Herrn und im Schatz des Hauses des Knigs, und gab's in seiner Knechte Hnde and sandte sie zu Benhadad, dem Sohn Tabrimmons, des Sohnes Hesjons, dem Knig von Syrien, der zu Damaskus wohnte, und lie ihm sagen: Es ist ein Bund zwischen mir und dir und zwischen meinem Vater und deinem Vater; darum schicke ich dir ein Geschenk, Silber und Gold, da du fahren lassest den Bund, den du mit Baesa, dem Knig Israels, hast, da er von die abziehe." 1.Knig 15:18,19.

Conclusion: Hezion of 1.Kings 15:18 is another name of `Hadyan'.

Schlufolgerung: Hesjon/Hesion ist ein anderer Name fr Hadyan.

The New Ain Dara Temple - Closest Parallel to Solomon's Temple

Archaeologists have found a temple at Ain Dara's Upper City, just north-west of the Syrian city of Aleppo, thought to have close architectural layout parallels to the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem a color drawing of which is shown in BAR, Vol. Mar, Apr 2002, p. 20. In about 1936 another Syrian temple was discovered on a hill called `Tell Ta`yinat' which then was regarded by few as a close example to Solomon's temple. The 3 phases of its constructions were dated by the excavator, Ali Abu Assaf, to the 550 year period between 1300-740 BC. [John Monson, `The New Ain Dara Temple', BAR May/June 2000, pp. 20-35; features numerous images. The original article appeared in German by A. Assaf in `Der Temple von `Ain Dara', Damaszener Forschungen 3, Mainz: Phillip von Zabern, 1990.]

According to the report, the Ain Dara temple "... has beautifully preserved structural features, including limestone foundations and blocks of basalt. The original building had a mudbrick superstructure - now lost - which may have been covered with wood paneling The facade and interior walls are enlivened by hundreds of finely carved reliefs depicting lions, cherubim and other mythical creatures, mountain gods, palmettes and ornate geometric designs. Phase I (conv. dated to 1300-1000 BC): oriented toward the southeast it is 65 feet wide by 98 feet long. Built on a raised platform, the temple consists essentially of three rooms, a niche-like portico, or porch; an antechamber (pronaos); a main hall (cella or naos), which housed the innermost shrine (debir), or holy of holies. Phase II (conv. dated to 100-900 BC): essentially the same except for the addition of basalt piers on the front of the facade building, immediately behind the columns, and in the entrances leading from the portico to the antechamber and from the antechamber to the shrine at the back of the main hall. Phase III: an ambulatory, or hall, consisting of a series of side chambers was added on three sides of the building. The chambers were laid on the pre-existing temple platform, which extended beyond this new construction. The foundations of these chambers are not connected to the main part of the temple, indicating they are later additions. The dating of the two earlier phases was determined not by levels (stratigraphy) or by pottery (the excavation report does not record the stratigraphy and pottery of the temple), but by a comparison of the sculpture with that from other excavated sites."

Short from presenting the whole article, the Ain Dara temple also seems to betray features known from Assyrian times. Therefore, the dates for the structure ought to be taken as the personal views of the excavators. While there may be some overall similarities, there are also dissimilarities in distribution of size in particular. Ain Dara would have been in the territory of Yamkhad. It may be premature to draw too many conclusions.

Aperlae, Coast of Turkey
Archaeologists are trying to figure out why the little southern Turkish seacoast town of Aperlae, today under 5-6 feet of water, had some 5-6 churches. Was it a town catering to pilgrims? [BAR, `Another Church Located at Underwater Site', Nov/Dec 2000, p. 17]

Ahhiyawa - Greeks or who?

The tombs full of Mycenaean pottery in the cemetery at Ialysos on the island of Rhodes led some scholars to characterize Rhodes as one of the most important Mycenaean centers outside of Greece. As such, Rhodes was equated by some with the land of Ahhiyawa, mentioned in Hittite cuneiform texts of the 15th-14th centuries BC. Emil Forrer (1924), a Swiss scholar who studied these texts in the 1920s and 1930s, maintained that although linguistically problematic, Ahhiyawa was the Hittite way of writing Greek Achaiwa, which is equated with the Achaean Greeks of the Homeric epics.

Ferdinand Sommer (1932), a German scholar, strongly contested Forrer's equation, he felt that the resemblance in terms was entirely superficial, and that Ahhiyawa most likely referred to a western Anatolian state. The debate continues to this day.

Greek Iron

Between the early 7th century and the mid-4th century B.C the Ancient Greeks adopted a form of warfare which set them apart from the other contemporary civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean. This involved the use of heavily-armed infantrymen called hoplites, supported by more lightly armed slingers and archers. They were distinguished by their round shield ('hoplon') of wood and leather faced with bronze, their long thrusting-spear, and their protective armor of bronze, usually a helmet, a corselet and leg-guards. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, can gleam like gold when new, and the close ranks of hoplites with striking and often terrifying blazons on their shields, must have been an impressive and startling sight. In the East, on the other hand, the custom was to wear padded armor of linen and leather, which was lighter and more comfortable than that of the Greek 'bronze men'. The actual weapons employed by the Greeks by this time were usually made of iron and wood and, therefore, have generally perished through the ages, unlike the bronze which tends to remain stable once a patina has formed on the surface. Personal items were seldom buried with a dead warrior after about 700 B.C., and so finds from such contexts are rare. On the other hand, arms and armor were often dedicated to the gods at a sanctuary after a battle, and modern excavation, as for example at Olympia, brings these to light.

The hoplite on display in the Shefton Museum reflects these differences between warfare in the Bronze Age and that of the Archaic and Classical periods. They were used by citizen-soldiers in a specific form of warfare developed only by the Greek city-states. This organization was, of course, not adopted by each at one and the same time. It developed slowly over many years, until the phalanx or formation of heavily-armed infantrymen in close ranks dominated the Greek battlefield. Victory depended on the unity and strength of one's own ranks and the ability to break the enemy's line. For, once the line was broken, the hoplite was poorly equipped to stand and fight alone.

A citizen was not admitted into the hoplite army unless he was able to provide his own equipment. The city-state of Athens, however, certainly after about 335 B.C., presented each young man, on completion of his training, with a spear and a shield. Moreover, if the father had died in battle, other items were supplied as well. An idea of the cost for second-hand items can be gained from the prices recorded at Athens in 415 B.C.: a javelin, 2 drachmai; a spear without a butt, 1 drachma 4 obols. By comparison, the rate of hoplite pay about that time was a drachma a day plus an allowance for food. [http://www.ncl.ac.uk/shefton-museum/arms/armies.html]

Sikh religion in India
The Punjab region is also the home of many who are part of the "Sikh (means `disciple')" faith. They have several believes in common with Bible believing Christians,

  1. They believe in one God,
  2. They adopted a healthful living life style: they neither smoke nor drink,
  3. They live a disciplined life, having personal devotions at least twice a day,
  4. They encourage generosity and help in programs defending fellow human beings and those in need,
  5. They may participate in continuous devotion for 48 hours a week, Friday through Sunday; they may spend time reading their holy book called `Guru Granth Sahib' and sing songs written by the gurus, and
  6. They usually keep for themselves but are interested in a mutual understanding with their neighbors and may not be offended when invited.

The Persian 4th Century BC - Silver Coins of Johanan the High Priest

The contribution of numismatics to ancient history is especially important for the Persian period of ancient history. In the mid 1930's Eleazar L. Sukenik published his important article on the oldest coins of Judea1) The importance of these coins is in establishing a chronology of who is who in Judea (`Yehud') during Persian times. Certain coins minted during the period "bear the official Aramaic name of the province of Judea under Persian rule" and "were issued in the 4th century BC before the conquest of Alexander the Great."

Certain coins reveal the following:

1. The image of a falcon appearing to take flight appears on a 4th century BC coin with the Hebrew letters for `Yehud', the Hebrew name for Judea/Israel during the Persian period. [BAR, Sep/Oct 1993 p. 68; Robert W. Funk, The 1957 campaign at Beth-Zur, BASOR, Apr 1959, p. 8-20; Khirbet et-Tubeiqah; Shows images of supposed Hyksos walls.]
2. a) A minute silver coin from the excavations at Beth Zur (Tel Masos?) on which an owl and the paleo-Hebrew inscription of the name `Yehezqiyah' (Hezekiah) is preserved. This coin is attributed to the high priest `Hezekiah' who, according to Josephus, was a friend of Ptolemy I and settled in Alexandria around 312 BC. 2) That would make this high priest Hezekiah a contemporary of the high priest Onias (c. 320-290 BC). The date 320 for Onias may then have to be lowered to closer to 310 BC since it may be unlikely that two high priests officiated at the same time.2)
b) For the Plan of excavations of Beth-Zur in 1958/1931 see BA, Vol. XXI, Sep 1958, p. 73. Also shown is an ivory sphinx inlay found in Iron I context; and a cone seal from the same period showing 3 cows(?) and a minute scorpion.
c) At Beth-Zur 3 2nd century BC burial sites were found and not one showed a trace of any mortuary equipment. The lack of such was not due to hurry; for the graves were carefully dug. These geaves show a respect for the dead, but no trust in material objects to help in the hereafter. [BA, Vol. VIII, Feb 1945, p. 16.]
3. Coins with the head of Ptolemy I (305-286 BC) on the obverse and the eagle of Zeus standing on the fulmen (lightening bolt) and the legend `Yehudah' in paleo-Hebrew on the reverse or ...
4. ...with the head of Ptolemy I on the obverse and the head of his spouse Berenice I and `Yehudah' on the reverse. Many of these coins were found between Bethlehem and modern Kefar Ezyon. These coins show that the province of Judea enjoyed a degree of autonomy during the end of the Persian period which enabled it to mint small silver coins bearing its name and that this state of affairs continued during the early days of Ptolemaic rule.
These coins further show that, judging solely by the monumental data from Egypt itself on the `new' era Pharaoh Ptolemy I, one could not guess about such affairs in other parts of the Middle East. This observation we should keep in mind when studying the reign of Pharaoh Ramses III/Nectanebo I.
5. Two Beth Zur like coins from a hoard of silver coins from Tel Gamma [Tell Jemmeh], located southeast of Gaza. The inscription on this type of coin reads, `Yehzqiyah [or `Yehezqiyo'] ha-peha', meaning `Yehezqiyah, the governor' which casts serious doubt in identifying him with the high priest Hezekiah.3)
6. A silver coin with `careless (blundered) lettering' bearing the name `Yehezqiyah, the governor'. When D.P.Barag examined the coin he discovered, "... one can clearly read `Johan[an]' and the word `ha-kohen' (or priest) appears to the right of the owl from the top downward.4) A mask, perhaps a feminine face with a stylized hairdo, was struck on the reverse of the coin. Except for the legend this coin is exactly similar to one of the types struck by Yehezqiyah, the governor. This demonstrates that Johann was not merely an ordinary priest but was the high priest for he maintained a very important position - his status being equal to that of the governor nominated by the Persians."
The author then intends to identify this high priest Johanan. Nehemiah 12:22 records four high priests: 1. Eliashib, 2. Joiada, 3. Johanan, 4. Jaddua. Josephus mentions the same succession of high priests, describing in detail Jaddua's political struggle during the conquest of Alexander the Great in 333/2 BC.5) Jaddua's predecessor and father, Johanan, had a turbulent succession to the high priesthood. According to Josephus, Bagoas, the general of King Artaxerxes, supported Johanan's brother, Jeshua, and promised to obtain the high priesthood for him. With this assurance, Jeshua quarreled with Johanan in the temple and provoked his brother so far that Johanan killed him. Bagoas punished the Jews for this crime by fining them fifty drachmas from the public treasury for every lamb offered during the daily sacrifices.6)
7. Persian gold `Darics' were frequently quite small in size and had on one side the stamped image of the king, with bow and spear, kneeling on one knee in the archers position. The other side could have merely a rude stamp.

The high priest Johanan is also mentioned in a letter dating to 408 BC sent by the Jews of Elephantine Island in Upper Egypt to Bagoas, governor of Yehud, asking for support in their attempts to rebuild their temple on that island. In the letter they refer to a previous letter dispatched to Bagoas and `Johanan the high priest and his colleagues the priests who are in Jerusalem'. This letter raises a major difficulty. It suggests Johanan was already high priest in 410 BC and since we know that his son Jaddua died around 323 BC,7) the father and son would have functioned as high priests for some 87 years during this period of time? A further difficulty is that Josephus refers to Bagoas as `strategos' [general] and not `satrap' [governor] of Judea in contrast to the letter from Elephantine. These were also the years toward the end of the Persian satrap Arsames whose fleezing of Egypt apparently did not affect Judea.
In 1962 documents were discovered in a cave at `Wadi ed Daliyeh' which were said to belong to fugitives from Samaria during the time of about 332 BC. From these documents it became clear that three satraps named Sanbalat were governors of Samaria during the period between Nehemiah (ca. 445 BC) and Alexander the Great. This is significant because Josephus notes Jaddua's brother Manassas, married the daughter of Sanbalat.8) Since Josephus mentions only one Sanbalat, his list of governors of Samaria is incomplete. Scholars like Frank M. Cross, Richard J. Saley, Hugh Godfrey M. Williamson and others have similarly concluded that the list of high priests as recorded by Josephus is incomplete and that there is no evidence that Jaddua of Nehemiah 12:22 is identical with the high priest Jaddua who held office during Alexander's conquest. These scholars assume that Josephus' account of the high priest Johanan and Bagoas referred to an incident in the reign of Artaxerxes III, perhaps during the Tennes rebellion (ca. 347-345 BC). Significantly enough, the author repeats what we also caution about on the matter of the names from the workmen's village of Deir el Medinah supposedly linking the 19th with the 20th Dynasty when he writes:

"The custom of naming a grandchild after his grandfather was quite common in families of the high priests and noblemen of Judea and Samaria. For example, the names Onias and Simon appear several times among the high priests during the Helenistic period before the Hasmonean revolt."

This custom of naming children was also popular inside Egypt and we ought to keep this in mind when reading Egyptologists claims for chronological connections referred to as sure `beyond doubt'.

A mask appears on the reverse of Johanan's coin and on the parallel coin-type of Yehezqiyah the governor. It was borrowed from Greek coinage where masks and faces were struck on coins of various cities from the late fifth century BC and onwards and occurred occasionally on the local "Philisto-Arabian" issues of coinage just like today, many countries still follow this custom. Yehezqiyah also struck coins with a winged animal and his name (without the title `governor') on one side and on the other side a head in a style which can hardly antedate the mid-fourth century BC. This, therefore, seems to be the date of the coins of Johanan as well. Is it possible that the Johanan who held the office of high priest in 410 BC, was the same Johanan who struck coins some 50-70 years later? Although this is not impossible it is rather improbable. It is more likely that our coin serves as further evidence that in the generation before Alexander the office of the high priest was held by a Johanan who was the grandson of the high priest Johanan, the addressee of the letter sent from Elephantine in 410 BC. The coin of Johanan the high priest raises many interesting questions and problems. One may assume that the issue of coins by the high priest occurred at a time when he also controlled the secular government. Was this the case during the involvement of Judea in the Tennes rebellion? How is one to understand the fact that the high priest struck such images on his coins? Even if one accepts that the owl, copied from the coins of Athens, was by that time a conventional representation imitated by numerous oriental mints, the meaning of the mask (also borrowed directly or indirectly from Greek coins) is unclear. We may assume that to Johanan and his men these images did not violate the Mosaic commandment against making graven images perhaps because this was no more than mundane currency.


This paper is not entirely quoted word by word from a translation of an article published in Ephraim Stern's Qadmoniot 17, numbers 2 and 3 (66-67), 1984, and is included here to illustrate Egyptian connections which are not addressed in the original article.

1) Sukenik, E.L., `Paralipomena Palaestinensia': I. `The Oldest Coins of Judea' in `The Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society' 14, 1934, pp. 178-82; and as `More about the Oldest Coins of Judea' in Ibid. 15, 1935, pp. 341-43.
2) Ibid.
3) Rahmani, L.Y., `Silver Coins of the Fourth Century BC' from Tel Gamma. Israel Exploration Journal 21: pp. 158-160.
4) Mildenberg, L., `Yehud: A Preliminary Study of the Provincial Coinage of Judea', pp. 183-196 in Greek Numismatics and Archaeology Essays in Honor of Margaret Thompson, edited by Otto Mrkhlm and Nancy M. Waggoner. Wetteren: NR.
5) Marcus, R., translator 1966, `Josephus VI. Jewish Antiquities, Books IX-XI. Series: The Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, MA.
6) Ibid., XI, pp. 302-309; 457-461.
7) Ibid., p. 483.
8) Ibid., p. 461.
9) Based on the article in `Biblical Archaeology', Sept. 1985, pp. 166-168.

Evolutionary "Tree of Life" Rejected, Part 2 - For human specimen found in coal bearing layers click Here offline (Possibly defunct now).

The Mungo Lady

Last month, I reported that evolutionists are abandoning their "tree of life," which theorizes that humans and apes branched out from a common evolutionary ancestor. This "tree" is based on cladistics, which uses computer programs to compare fossils and fossils fragments in order to determine the identity and evolutionary history of a species.

Cladistics has clashed with the more accurate genetic mappings of the human species. Moreover, cladistics and "tree-building" have failed because, as it turns out, visible differences between the remains of two alleged evolutionary cousins do not prove that each represents a "branch" on an evolutionary tree that sprang from a common ancestor. Instead, these differences result from the fact that every living organism, human and otherwise, has a pre-programmed genetic ability to alter its physiology in response to its surroundings.

Thus, the differences among supposed pre-human ancestors like Homo erectus, Neanderthals, Lucy, Java Man, etc., are really just differences that stem from the plasticity of the human genetic code. All these "branches" on the evolutionary tree are not different species of pre-human or ape-man, but human beings who exhibited the astounding changeability pre-programmed into our genes.

A prominent advocate of this new thinking (not new to Creationists, however) is Alan Thorne, former lecturer in the Department of Anatomy, University of Sydney. He had a major hand in the excavation of Mungo Lady, a skeleton found near Lake Mungo in Australia in 1968. Working to extricate the bones from petrified soil, Thorne realized that they belonged to Homo sapiens - modern humans. According to Discover magazine, this discovery "would rock the world of anthropology" (D'Agnese 2002: 53). The magazine explained why:

"In 1968 most anthropologists thought they had a grip on human evolution: Big-browed, thick-skulled humanoids had descended from walking apes. These hulking creatures were eventually replaced by the more advanced, fine-boned humans of our species Homo sapiens. Throughout Australia, anthropologists had found only big-browed, thick-skulled fossils. That made Mungo Lady a puzzle" (ibid., 53-54).

This "puzzle" is the fact that Mungo Lady was found to be OLDER than the hulking, big-browed, thick-skulled types. This cast doubt on the theory that, around 2 million years ago, Homo erectus and other species spread out from Africa and evolved into several species at different spots on the earth. Later, Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and, 120,000 to 100,000 years ago, fanned out across the globe, driving the earlier species into extinction. Discover reported that Thorne "believes that the species his opponents insist on calling Homo erectus was in fact Homo sapiens.As he sees it, there was no later migration and replacement: "'Only one species of human has ever left Africa, and that is us'" (ibid., 54). The magazine went on to report that:

...if Thorne and his camp are right, much of what we think we know about human evolution is wrong. In the world according to Thorne, the human family tree is not divided into discrete species such as Homo erectus, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, and Homo neanderthalensis. They are all Homo sapiens. Yes, Thorne agrees, from the outside all these hominids look different from each other, but so do humans today a Korean, a Nigerian, and a Dane hardly resemble each other. Our ancestors displayed great variety, but they were similar in the only way that mattered: They were the same species, which meant they could have sex with each other and produce fertile offspring (ibid.).

That is what Creationists have always said. Differences in appearance among supposed evolutionary cousins do not stem from their having a common ancestor, but are the result of variety within a single species, even if that variety is enormous, such as the difference between a great Dane and a Chihuahua within the dog species. It is good to see evolutionists catching up.

D'Agnese, J. 2002. "Not out of Africa." Discover 23, no. 8.
Stephen Caesar holds his master's degree in anthropology and archaeology from Harvard University. He is the author of the e-book The Bible Encounters Modern Science, available at http://www.1stbooks.com.

When was the Book of Daniel written?
Just a few considerations underscoring the antiquity of the Book of Daniel.

1. If the book of Daniel was a forgery, how did it get into the Old Testament Canon? References from the books of the Maccabees (about 165BC) indicate that Daniel was then a part of the canon of Scripture. [Maccabees 2:51-60; cf. Daniel 1:7; 3:26; 6:23]
2. If the book of Daniel was not written until about 165 BC how did it get into the Septuagint? This great translation has been assigned by some to the 3rd century BC, several decades before 165 BC.
3. Who was the man of genius who penned this book foretelling a) the year the Messiah would begin his ministry, b) the scattering of the Jews by the Romans, c) the apostasy of a great anti-Christ centered power of later centuries?
4. How could such a mystery penman in 165 BC know, after 4 world empires had come on the scene, that no other world power would ever arise? Hold it, hold it! Isn't America such a world power? Answer: Was the USSR such a world power? Soviet communism covered a large land mass but was it a world power? Had it conquered lands like the ancient world powers did? Not really, did it? Isn't America such a world power? Well, we lost the war in Vietnam and the story of todays war has still to be written. At any rate, we in America do not seem to be masters of our own destiny.
Schematics of Prophetic Time in Daniel chapter 9

King David's Tomb
Has the tomb of King David ever been found? Though we can't be sure T1 (tomb 1) located in the old City of David, Jerusalem, may be so far the best candidate for having been the tomb of King David. [BAR, Jan/Feb 1995, `Is this King David's Tomb?', p. 63]

Convention will state: "Kenherkhepshef is known from many documents, official and ephemeral, which have survived from Deir el Medina. He first appears in Year 33 of Ramses II, becomes scribe of the tomb in Year 40 and retains that office until the end of the reign of Seti II - a period of over 40 years." [Reeves, p. 175]

Comparing Egyptian Metal Sculptures
A Discussion after the outline of Cyril Aldred

The Transition from the 18th Dynasty, the reign of the 22nd in Egypt, the 19th and 21st Dynasty by Representative Items

(This section may be revised from time to time.)

How to distinguish ancient statuary

Sculpture art forms were more a characteristic of a family clan rather than the kings themselves but the king's wishes inspired artists to excel in their skills. Overall we observe a gradual shift from the aesthetic, refined look and slim forms to the more plump and heavier forms of later periods developed over a period from about 1000-350 BC.

Early 18th Dynasty Iconography characterized by:

Representative Items: The Ackworth statuette of Thutmose IV., Figurines of Tutankhamen on top of gold and silver ceremonial staves and a kneeling bronze statuette in Philadelphia, a colossal statue of king Tut and also a bronze statuette of him with gold inlay in KMT, Winter 1999-2000. 18th Dynasty iconography of Amun embraced the wearing of plumes on the cap. The plume from the statuette of the god Amun-Re is missing.




Earlier part of Dynasty, medium to slim waist.
Many representations of Tutankhamen show no nipples.
Wearing of plums on the cap.
Wearing of a corselet with an imbricated pattern and shoulder straps.
(Sometimes the corselet may be discarded but the broad collar is faithfully retained.)
Wearing a broad collar.
Wearing a knee-length kilt (usual for deities).
(Occasionally the kilt is upheld by a belt with a tyet-buckle.)
Kilt has 2 pleated flaps that meet in front but do not overlap.
Hold scepter in one hand and an ankh in the other.
Toward the end of the 18th Dynasty Amun appears with the addition of bracelets and holding in place of the usual scepter a tyet-amulet also slim waist.
Statues made in the reign of Tutankhamen, Ay and Harmhab show that the corselet and collar are worn with wristlets and armlets.
Pierced ear lobes possible.
War-god Mont from Thutmose IV. holds scimitar, so does Thutankhamen instead of the more usual ax or club. Also seen in hand of Seti the Great. Additionally he is seen with a ceremonial looking scimitar.
22nd Dynasty, TIP period:

Representative Items: The Lanzone Osorken I, the Louvre (Paris) group of Osorken II, the Gulbenkian torso of Pedubast, the Mariemont Smendes, the Louvre Karomama, and the Usimare kings at Baltimore and London.

Torso is elongated with slim waist and slender limbs.
Belt tapers very little if at all. Belt rests horizontally well below the waist showing navel.
Absence of collar, corselet, anklets is not uncharacteristic.
Sculptures often made with prominent, raised nipples.
(Raised nipples frequently not found in New Kingdom and Saite periods.)
The Three Brothers Period - Harmhab - poorly represented:

Harmhab as military official statue (Metropolitan Museum); Tomb paintings.
Prominent, raised nipples.
Belt worn usually tapered.
Kilt appears to be overlapping.

25th Dynasty, Kushite Period

Representative Items: Compromise between earlier and later times:

Several statuettes of Tirhaka at Paris, Copenhagen, Cairo, and elsewhere.

Dress of the god occasionally reduced to a kilt like a `shendyt' apron.
(Hard to tell now if some of these details were added in paint rather than in sunk relief carvings.)
More massive proportions.
Belt is worn lower but not horizontally rather in an ecliptic tilt toward the front.
Midriff region is joined to thorax by a muscular nexus, possible adaptation of Assyrian forms.
Navel not an isolated depression but frequently appears to be an enlargement to the lower part of a vertical channel descending from the sternum.
19th Dynasty period:

Representative Items: Kneeling figure of Necho at Philadelphia, statuette of Amasis at New York.

`Wisp' scepter is often replaced by the `khepesh' scimitar.
Hold ceremonial type scimitars.
(Blade can be a straight cleaver, a curved-sickle shape, one case surmounted with ram's head and disk.)
(Scimitars conventionally thought to have been introduced in Egypt during SIP.)
Wearing of anklets.
Wearing of delicate shirt with flaring sleeves (Ramses II statue at Turin).
20th Dynasty - Ramesside Period - Dynasty 21st - poorly represented.

Representative Items: Michailidis collection.
Stocky build with heavy limbs and moderate thick waist.
Thorax passes abruptly into the abdomen.
Belt is broad at the back and sides and tapers to the front buckle - follows pelvic outline. Unidentified and unpublished statuettes of post-Saite (19th D) are at Kansas City, London, and elsewhere.

Significance: Art, sculpture and metallurgy support revised chronology but the evidence is not conclusive as to statuary some forms of which may overlap and revert at times.

Fragment of a Pharaonic Statue from Hazor

The fragment of a pharaonic stone statue from Hazor consists only of a slender mid-section portion from just above the naval to just below the short kilt. Using Cyril Aldred's criteria the design is consistent with a 22nd Dynasty specimen because the belt is worn horizontally below the naval, it has no buckle and is overlapping. [Source with image: Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June (1999), p. 38; See also Jan/Feb 1992, p. 52ff.] The same magazine also shows and compares palace cores of Hazor and Alalakh.


The Italian cuneiform specialist, Professor Mirjo Salvini, translated the cuneiform text of an 8 inch tall square prism of unknown provenance but judged to be authentic. On the bottom is a colophon, which describes the prisms contents: a list of 438 workers who served king Tunip-Teup of the kingdom of Tikunani probably located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The king's name is Hurrian. The name of the month used to date the baked clay document is Babylonian. Many names are Hurrian as well as Semitic. [`Biblical Archaeology Review', Nov/Dec (1996), p. 22]

The Roads in Palestine according to Ramses II Lists copied by Ramses III for Medinet Habu
[Charles Krahmalkov, `Exodus Itinerary..' BAR Sep/Oct (1994), pp. 54-62; adopted from Simon's `Handbook', List XXVII, pp. 164-169]

Arabah to the Jordan Arabah to the Jordan Arabah-Plains of Moab Road Hebron District
ThutIII Numbers 33 Ramses II Numbers 33 LB Egyptian Name Bibl. Name Modern Name Ramses II Joshua 15







Yam ha-Melach
Tell Iktanu
Tell Hammam
Jordan River


According to scholars as reported by Charles R. Krahmalkov, relief carvings at Medinet Habu present a short list of location names which parallel the biblical record as found in Joshua 15:52-54. According to K.A. Kitchen, a Ramesside reading on the walls of the Ramesside Court of Luxor is interpreted to read ".... `Ti-bw-iniw', syllabically Tabunu or Tibunu - surely none other then Dibon or Daibon (modern Dhiban), a famous Moabite town mentioned on the Moabite Stone... . This name has not hitherto been attested with certainty in any Egyptian text. The Tpn (syllabic Tipunu), No. 98 of the great Asiatic list of Thutmosis III, has sometimes been identified with Dibon, but also (perhaps more plausibly) with a Judean Dibon (Nehemiah 11:25) of uncertain location in W. Palestine."[K.Kitchen in JEA, Vol. 50, 1964, p. 55; For images from around `Dibon' see BAR, May/Jun 1986, p. 58.]

According to scripture, however, the order of the locations is: 1. Dumah (Drbn?), 2. Janum, 3. Aphekha, 4. Hebron.
For John Wilkinson's drawing of the modern vs ancient road from Jerusalem to Jericho see BA, Mar 1975, p. 11. Also shown are the stream beds of the Jerusalem/Jericho region, the Wadi Tala'at, Wadi Qilt and Wadi es Sidr with the Castle at Tala'at ed Damm and Iraq Saida (SWW of Jerusalem), a distance of ca. 5 km.
For the B&W image of a map of the Roman road system in Israel see BA, Vol. XXI, Sep 1958, p. 59.

A Growing List of Architectural Terms

apse [18][18b]
Archaic columns
Doric columns
hypostyle hall
Ionic columns

pilasters, Herodian, See BAR, May/Jun 1985, p. 31.
sima, See BASOR, Oct 74, p. 56.

[06] For the appearance of a Jerusalem palace window balustrade and the excavations in the ancient `City of David' see Yagel Shiloh, BAR, Vol. XIV, Mar/Apr 1988, p. 14-(21)-27.
[18] See BA, Vol. 51, Dec. 1988, Bert de Vries in `Jordan's Churches', p. 222ff; Showing images and architectural features of ancient churches.
[18b] Such an apsidal structure was found at Ashdod in stratum XII (considered to be mid-12th cent.) along with impressive quantities of Philistine jewelry, metal objects and ivory. One discovery from this area is a stamp seal bearing signs related to an old Cypro-Minoan script. For a picture of the apsidal structure see Trude Dothan, The Philistines in BAR, Vol. VIII, Jul/Aug 1982, p. 20-(32)-44.

Two obelisks were built in Karnak as a pair, only one of them remains, the second was removed in 1831 and stands now in the center of the `Place de la Concorde' in Paris, France.
For images of the `Colossi of Memnon' at Luxor, a map and information on Amenhotep III see the article entitled, `Digging Kom el Hettan' by Hourig Sourouzian in KMT, Spring 2003, Vol. 14, p. 35ff. The `Colossi of Memnon' are located opposite the Nile from Luxor. See also map in Pater Clayton, `Chronicle of the Pharaohs', 1994, p. 8. Ancient visitors reported hearing sounds come from these impressively giant seated figures. According to investigators a very thin tube like connection from the base to the mouth region would result into a hissing sound when air is pushed in abruptly. Perhaps the statues had at some point in time such a thin pipe, but we don't know for sure.

Picturesque Places
On the norther border with Lebanon is kibbutz Manara in the area of the Hula Valley and the Manara Cliff, a steep rocky outcropping with a gorgeous view. [`Eretz', Aug 2002, p. 58.] See also images of Nahal Mishmar, Tze-elim and Mt. Gilboa, Eretz, Dec 2002, p. 60-66.

A List of Where to Find Detail Maps (and other items of interest?) of Various Locations (in Egypt)
A new, in progress project - Not listed in any order at this time.
1. On the subject of the serekhs of Horus and Set Khasekhemwy see `The Mysteries 2nd Dynasty' in KMT, Vol. 7, Summer 1996, p. 19-(29)-31; Map of fort and funerary enclosure of Khasekhemway at Hierakonpolis/Abydos - KMT, Spring 2001, Vol. 12, p. 64.
2. The serekhs of Peribsen & Khasekhemwy, Ibid., p. 67.
3. Detail map of Unas, Djoser pyramids, Coptic structures at Sakhara - KMT, Summer 2001, Vol. 12, p. 34f.
4. Detail map of Kom el Hettan, location of `Colossi of Memnon' near Luxor - KMT, Spring 2003, Vol. 14, p. 36.
5. Detail map of 5th Dynasty Sun Temples and pyramids (Userkaf, Nekhenre, Sahure, Niuserre) at Abusir. Also includes h.glyphic name of Setibre, Hetepre,Shesepibre, Akhetre) - Ibid., p. 44ff.
6. Detail map of the Nubian pyramid tombs of Tanutamen, Shabako, Qalhata, Piye - KMT, Summer 2003, Vol. 14, p. 54.
7. Detail map(s) of the pyramid complex of Lahun of Senwosret II, Sithathoriunet - KMT, Spring 2000, Vol. 11, p. 41ff.
8. Detail drawing of the temple of Nebheptre Montuhotep - KMT, Fall 2001, Vol. 12, p. 41.
9. Map of Palestinian Archaeological Sites, `Biblical Archaeologist' (BA), `Archaeology Review', Sep. 1987, p. 153. Among them you find: Dan (This `Dan' north of the Sea of Galilee is not the Dan of our revision), Hazor, Achzib, Nahariyeh, Acco, Kabri, Tell Kisan, Tell Kittan, Taanach, Mevorakh, Rehob, Pella, Tell el-Hayyat, Tel Poleg (fish shaped vessel, BA Sep87), Tell Zeror, Dothan, Tell el-Farah, Shechem, Aphek, Tell el Jerisheh, Shiloh, Tell Safut, Bethel, Tel Mor, Beth-Shemesh, Beth-zur, Tell en-Nagileh, Tell el-Ajjul, Tell Beit Mirsim (biblical Debir), Tel Malhata, Survey of Tel Zayit (Khirbet Zeitah el-Kharab) 7 km N and 2 km W of Lachish, 30 km E of Ashkelon (Ron E. Tappy, BASOR, Aug 2000, p. 7-36).
"In the 1950 campaign at Tell Beit Mirsim it [MB1] was found to be characteristic of Strata I-H, especially of H, where it had freed itself from typically Early Bronze influence; it lay stratigraphically between Stratum J (Early Bronze IV) and G-F (Middle Bronze II A). Subsequently both phases I and H [MB1] were found in numerous other sites and burials, always in the same stratigraphic or typological relationship." [W. F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine, (Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1960, p. 82.; J.M. Sasson, `Albright as an Orientalist' in BA, Mar 1993, p. 3-7.]
More Tells: Nabatean Tell Rekhmeh/ Yeruham, 28 km SE of Beer Sheba.[BASOR, Apr. 1955, p. 7.]
10. Detail plans of MB installations at Shechem's NW Gate. BA, Sep. 1987, p. 155.
11. Detail plans of MB installations at Gezer's South Gate. BA, Sep. 1987, p. 157.
12. Map of the Middle East, BA, Sep. 1985, p. 140. Features: Ain Dara, Til Barsip, Arslan Tash, Tell Halaf, Habuba Kabire-South, Qalat Seman, Mureybit, Ugarit, Ebla, Bouqras, Palmyra, Mari, Dura-Europos, Damascus.
13. Map of the Sea of Galilee and Bethsaida, BA, Dec. 1985, p. 208-215.
14. Map(s) of `The Valley of the Queens', KMT, Summer 2000, Vol. 11, p. 42-55; Includes some detailed map drawings of the Valley of the Queens locations of tombs.
15. Detail drawn map of the `Port of Dor' and its tiny isles, BA, Dec. 1991, p. 205;
16. Map of Hittite-Anatolia and its cities in BA, Jun/Sep 1989, p. 78. Featuring: Zalpa, Alaca Hyuk, Masat, Yazilikaya, Hattusa, Alisar, Gavur Kales1, Kanes (Kltepe), Kayseri, Firaktin, Eflatun Pinar, Acemhyk, Malatya, Konya, Izmir, Karabel, Katahyk, Ivriz, Karatepe, Fasilla, Catal Hyk, Samal, Waukanni.
17. Detail map of the tombs and temples of Abydos in Archaeology, May/June 2001, p. 43; Nat. Geogr., `Advent. of Arch', p. 172, Petrie at Abydos.
18. Detail (incl. satelite) maps of the Syrien side region where Syria, Tyrkey and Iraq meet and the two rivers which form the Habur River at their confluence. Archaeological sites include 1. Tell Hadidi (Lake Assad), Tell Chagar Bazar, Tell Leilan (`Shubat Enlil'?) and Tell Brak in BA, Vol. 48, Mar 1985; The suggested ancient name for Tel Brak is `Nilabshinu(?)'. Which cities these sites represent has not yet been determined. Just below the confluence of the two rivers is Tell Atij, see Michel Fortin, The View from Atij in Near Eastern Archaeology, Mar 1998, p. 15-24.
19. The most ancient to scale city map showing walls, canals, and temples of Nippur can be seen in BAR, Vol. IX, Nov/Dec, 1983, p. 35. Locations are labeled in Sumerian and Akkadian cuneiform. The same magazine shows numerous small but detailed maps of Israel including a topographical map of Jerusalem/ Jebus (Judges 19:10-11), p. 46.; For images of the 1895 excavation of the Temple of Enlil in Nippur see `The Adventure of Archaeology', Nat. Geogr. Book, p. 164-169. For information on the meaning of gods see here. For an additional full page B&W image of the excavation of Nippur by Layard see J.J. Thorndike, `Discovery of Lost Worlds', American Heritage 1979, p. 128. For a photo of a `weir' brick built dam at Girsu see Splendors of the Past, p. 56.;
Nippur was also the hometown of a family of Jewish businessmen in the 5th century BC, who left behind some 700 clay tablets which became known as the Marashu Documents, recording their commercial and real estate transactions. They contain: business contracts, land leases, loan contracts, and receipts.
20. A map of the greater Herodium as well as drawings on how Herod built a harbor are found in BAR, Vol. IX, May/June 1983 on several pages.
21. Detail information, images and maps of Shiloh can be seen in BAR, Vol. XII, Jan/Feb 1986, p. 22ff. (1.Sam. 3:21)
22. Detail map of the streets and blocks of Jerusalem. (Streets: David Str., Street of the chain, Habad, Jewish Quarter, Shonei Halakhot, Misgav Ladakh, Tiferet Israel, Mavo Haye Olam, Plugat HaKotel Street(s).); BAR, May 1992, p. 25.
23. Some detail maps from the nearer region at the southern tip of the Dead Sea (ca. 100 km spread) and Iron Age Negev sites can be seen in BAR, Vol. XI, May/Jun 1985, Vol. XII, Jul/Aug 1986 and in Vol. XV, May/Jun 1988, p. 41 showing the circle of four-room houses found at Beer Sheva as well as the famous house of Ahiel/Hiel on page 42. For a view of Ahiel's house see also Jane M. Cahill, Royal Rosettes in BAR, Vol. 23, Sep. 1997, p. 49-(50)-51. A detail map on page 67 shows the locations of Hebron, Beer Sheba (apparently not inhabited in time of Moses, but see Gen. 21:14,31f; 22:19; 26:33; 28:10; 46:1,5;), Horvad Uza/Arad, Horvat Raba, Dimona, Mesad Refed, Mesad Hatira, Rehovot, Yerobam, Horvat Ramat Boqer, H. Mesora, H. Ritma, H. Nahal Raviv, H. Ketef Shivta, H. Halluqim, H. Har-Boqer, Mesudat Nahal Resisim, M.N. Horsha, M.N. Nafha, M.N. Sirpad, M.N. Aqrav, Mesad Bar Sa'ad, Mizpe Ramon, Kadesh Barnea, Mesudat Ela, Mesad Mishor Haruah, Ein Qedes. For a two page B&W image of the Judean wilderness west of the Dead Sea see a) J.J. Thorndike, `Discovery of Lost Worlds', American Heritage 1979, p. 96, 97.;
b) For Ahiel's house see also Horvat Uza in , Vl. 54, Sep 1991, p. 137. This article also shows B&W images of Tel Ira and Tel Masos (Khirbet el-Meshash/ it is Maon), {Aroer and Beth Zur?}. Right next to Tel Masos, a little due south-east, was Qitmit. [See BAR, Jan. 2007, p. 67.]
24. Detail map of Mayan Temple sites in Archaeology, Sep/Oct 2001, p. 52.
25. So-called Chalcolithic site maps, including sites of burial caves from region west of the southern tip of the Dead Sea (ca. 100 km spread) can be seen in BA, Vol. 49, June 1986, p. 85, 99. See also Mordechai Haiman, Cairn Burials and Cairn Fields in the Negev in ASOR, Aug 1992, p. 25-45.; Showing sites at Har Sagi, Ein el-Gudeirat, Nahal Mitnan, Har Hame'ara, Nahal Aqrab and Nahal Horesha.
26. A site map of the southern coast of Turkey showing (west to east) the sites of Marmaris, Caunus, Pinara, Tlos, Xanthus, Letoum, Patara, Kalkan, Aperiae, Myra, Finike, Olympus, Phaselis, Kemer, Antalya and Termessus can be seen in Archaeology, Jul/Aug 1995, p. 57. Caunus, for example, is the site of the remains of the Caunus theater. From the slopes of the acropolis one looks out over a marshy harbor, now cut off from the sea.
27. A deteil map of the Dead Sea Area, the `Judean Wilderness Wadis Where Caves Were Found' can be seen in BAR, Vol. XV, Sep/Oct 1989, p. 36.
28. A detail map of the Tels and Wadis west of the lower Dead Sea from Tel Arad, (The fortress of Arad?) to Tel Beer-Sheba featuring the Tels Masos, Ira, Malhata and Esdar. Also shows location of Horvat Aro'er and Horvat Uza as well as the Nahals of Beer-Sheva, Hebron, Malhata and Aro'er in BAR, Vol. XIII, Mar/Apr 1987, p. 19, and BAR Sept. 1984, p. 6, saying the well went out of use in 586 BC. Features articles on the archaeology of Arad including the water well and the image of the 8 foot thick city wall of Arad. In addition the article also features three seals of `Eliashib', commander of the fort at Arad, and an ostracon with a military order. [See also Herzog at al., The Israelite Fortress at Arad in BASOR, Spring 1984, p. 1-34.] For a large aerial image of Wadi Qilt click Here! For wadis in Jordan check this list: Wadi Araba, Aheimir, Gharandal, Nukheila. [Survey of Prehistoric Sites in BASOR, Aug 2001, p. 1-19.]
An image of the famous `Arad Sherd Inscription 88' reading, "I reign in [or `over'] .../ Take strength [literally `arm'] and .../ King of Egypt to ..." can be seen in A. Malamat, `Caught Between the Great Powers' in BAR, Vol. 25, Jul/Aug 1999, p. 34-(38)-41.
29. A map of Cyprus is found 1) in BA, Vol. X, Mar/Apr 1984, p. 18; Featured images and sites include: Maa-Palaeokastro, Palaepaphos, Kalavassos, Maroni, Hala Sultan Tekke, Larnaca (Kition), Pyla-Kokkinokremos, Sinda, Enkomi; 2) Vol. 52, Dec 1989, p. 158. All of this ca. 80 page issue is dedicated to Cyprus.
30. Mesopotamien/Assyrian/Babylonian Detail Maps featuring: a. Region of Mosul: Nemrik, Der Hall, Ginning, Eski Mosul, Tell Maghzaliyeh, Qermez Dere, Tel Afar, Mosul;
b. Additional Sites: Bingol, Girikihaciyan, Nemrut Dag, Tilki Tepe, Cavi Tarlesi, Sakce Gozu, Sabi Abyad, Tell Aqab, Banahilk, Umm Qseir, Shams ed-Din, Ras Shamra, Tell Hassan.
c. Detail Sites: NJP 72, Khirbet Garsour, Kharabeh Shattani, Tepe Gawra, Eski Mosul, Arpachiyah, Mosul, Niniveh, Jebel Sinjar, Yarim Tepe;
d. Jemdet Nasr Sites between the Euphrates and Tigris: Baghdad, Khafajah, Urum, Jemdet Nasr, Kish, Kesh, Nippur, Zabala, Uruk, Larsa, Ur, Borsippa, Dilbat, Uruk, Muskhattat, Duwayr, Deylam (Dilbat), Rishad; Plus city gate plans and names of Niniveh. [All in BA, Vol. 55, Dec 1992, p. 176-225.] See also Roger J. Matthews, `Jemdet Nasr: the Site and the Period' in BA, Dec 1992, p. 196-203.
31. a) For detailed maps of the constructions on top of the rock of Masada see: Eben Scheffler, Fascinating Discoveries from the Biblical World, Pretoria 2000, p. 63. b) For the account of the destruction of Masada see Ehud Netzer, `The Last Days and Hours at Masada' in BAR, Vol. XVII, Nov/Dec 1991, p.20-32; Included are maps, color photos of the mount, a reconstructed battering ram and how the defenders reinforced their wall, ballista stones, stone and wood remains of the buildings.
For images of inscribed pottery ostraca and amphora ostraca inscribed in latin as to contents of the jars see BAR, Vol. 29, Ju/Aug 2003, p. 44. For an image of a Herodian period Latin(?) inscription on a jar fragment reading as best we can tell `..nia ... ..Am(c?).. I... EC MA...' see BAR, Nov. 1996, p. 27.
See also the detailed article on Masada in Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 15, 1965, p. 10-120, Plates 1-24.
For a relief map of the most important monuments of Petra see the same source p. 69. Monuments included are: the Al Deir monastery, Lion Triclinium, Byzantine Church, Winged Lions Temple, Sextius Florentinus Tomb, Crusader Castle, Qasr al Bint, Palace Tomb, Corinthian Tomb, Silk Tomb, Urn Tomb, Theater, Al Khazneh (Treasury), High Place of Sacrifice and the Obelisks Tomb.
32. A magnificent color photo of the up to 2300 feet deep Arnon River Gorge cutting through the mountains of Moab, that in ancient times separated the Biblical land of Moab from the tribal territory of Gad, can be seen in BAR, Vol. XII, May/Jun 1986, p. 55. Page 56 shows another great color photo of the 12th Centurey A.D. Crusader castle, occupying the site of the ancient capital of Moab, `Kir-hareseth', today's modern Kerak on the ridge of a 2500 foot long plateau. The site is isolated by a 300 foot deep valley. For the story of this site see also 2.Kings 3:26-27. See also in the same copy of BAR, p. 60, the detail map of the lands of Judah, Edom, Moab and Ammon as they border around the Dead Sea.
On the subject of Moab see also P.M. Michele Daviau & Paul-Eugene Dion, `Moab Comes to Life' in BAR, Jan/Feb 2002, p. 38-63. Includes info on `Khirbat al-Mudayna', Kemosh (shows 2 stela) female figures holding sic/circular objects.
33. An isometric drawing of Tomb KV39 is shown in G.B. Johonson's, `Where was Amenhotep I Buried - A Look at Three Candidates for His Tomb' in KMT, Vol. 14, Winter 2003-04, p. 54-(58)-ff. - We believe he was buried here.
34. For a map featuring this list of archaeological sites: Tel Fukhar (Akko), Tel Yoqne'am, Tel Dor, Caesarea, Tel-el-Efshar, Michmoret, Tell Qasile, Tell Gerisa, Aphek/Antipatris, Shiloh, Timnah, Ein Yael, Tell Jalul, Lachish, Tell el-Hesi, Tell Halif and Shiqmim - see BAR, Vol. IX, Jan/Feb 1983, p. 60.
35. A drawing what Jerusalem/Aelia Capitolina may have looked like in ca. 130 AD, 60 years after the destruction of the Temple and much of the city, can be seen in BAR, Vol. 23, Nov/Dec 1997, p. 42. Shown is the First Wall destroyed by the Romans, the 10th Legion Encampment, the headquarters of Phasael, Hippicus & Mariamme, the Civilian Quarter, some later Temple, the Cardo Maximus, Damascus Gate, Temple of Jupiter, and the Temple Mount.
36. A map for the approximate area where Tirzah and Gibbethon may have been located, and also Philistia.
First Candidate: David Sharp explains how to get to the Egyptian Tomb AN-B located behind the hill of `Dra Abu el Naga' and shown with color images in KMT, Vol. 14, Winter 2003-04, p. 62-65; The author mentions remains of costly stone vessels made of calcite, yellow limestone, red conglomerate, serpentine, basalt and green feldspar. ApepiThe names of `Aa-user-ra Apepi' (Hyksos king) and his daughter Herath (Herti), king `Neb-pehti-ra Aahmes', Queen Aahmes-nefer-ari'and king Zeser-ka-ra Amenhetep (I.)' occur.
Second Candidate: In the following pages 66-70 one can see and learn about the `Tomb of Merytamen', daughter of Thutmose III and wife of Amenhotep II, at Deir el Bahari.
Third Candidate: Also shown is Tomb 93.11 near the summit of Dra Abu el Naga as well as the Pyramid-tomb of Nebkheperre Intef (17th Dynasty) at the same location.
36. For an article on Israelite ostracons see H. Shanks, `Three Shekels for the Lord' in BAR, Nov/Dec 1997, p. 28-32. Featured are: a) A Temple receipt ostracon and b) The Widow's Plea Ostracon.
37. The discovery of a cache of clay loom weights at Khirbat al-Mudaybi in Central Jordan is shedding new light on ancient textile crafts and industries. While archaeologists have long assumed weaving was both an important industry in ancient Moab, physical evidence for such manufacturing has not always been forthcoming. Khirbat al-Mudaybi is a mid-size Iron Age fort constructed around 700 BC on the eastern Karak Plateau of Central Jordan, between the king's and desert highways. During antiquity, Mudaybi was located on the edge of the eastern frontier of Moab, an Iron Age state located east of the Dead Sea. Excavations have revealed that sturdy basalt and limestone walls, towers and gates enclosed the settlement. Most notable is the four-chambered monumental eastern gate where volute capitals rest on top of each pier wall, supporting stone lintels, wood beams, and a roof of mud and reeds. The gate faces the Fajj al-Usaykir, an important commercial route connecting the Arabian Desert with the interior of the Karak Plateau. Given the fort's strategic position, it is likely Mudaybi protected ancient Moab's eastern frontier and provided security for passing caravans. In the fort's domestic quarter at least 68 small, perforated clay loom weights were concentrated in the northwest corner of one of the rooms. Each weight was hand-molded from local clay into a round or cylindrical shape, ranging from 32 millimeters to 61 millimeters in height, 48mm to 86mm in width, and weighed from 70 to 437 grams. Multiple threads could be strung through a perforation in each weight, and multiple weights may have been needed for each group of warp - or vertical - threads to provide the necessary tension for weaving. This tension allowed the weaver to integrate weft - the horizontal thread - and warp. The Mudaybi loom weights were used on a vertical warp-weighted loom that was suspended from a wood stand or hung from the ceiling. Wool fibers spun into long threads were tied to a beam at the top of the loom. Since the excess could be tied off at the bottom of the loom, threads could be of any length. Textile woven on a vertical loom could be almost any length, since more thread could be tied on at the end of each run. The only limit was the amount of textile that could be rolled onto the beam at the top of the loom. The Mudaybi team suspects these looms were portable and could be easily moved from place to place. Unfortunately, neither evidence of a loom nor any weaving tools have been excavated in the fort. A senior researcher from the Institute of Archaeology, Andrews University, observed, "the discovery of so many loom weights makes me wonder if perhaps carpets or tents were being produced in this location by a family or specialized craftsman." [From: http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=10&categ_id=4&Article_id=3968]
38. Mediterranean maps, maps of Cyprus and Crete (Caphtor, therefore `Cherethites were Cretans) and the floor plans of the palaces at Phaistos and Mallia on Crete and Mari in Syria can be seen in A.B. Knapp's, `Bronze Age Mediterranean Island Cultures and the Ancient Near East, Part 1' in BA, Vol. 55, June 1992, p. 52-72.; Eliot Porter, `The Greek World', N.Y., 1967.; Nat. Geogr., `Mysteries of the Ancient World', 1979, p. 138.
39. A map of the Levant featuring Ugarit, Idalion, Hazor, Tel Shikmona, Megiddo, Tel Dothan, Tell al-Farah, Beth Shean, Beth El, Ashdod, Beth Shemesh, Maresha, Tell Beit Mirsim and Kuntillet Ajrud can be seen in BAR, Vol. VIII, Jan/Feb 1982, p. 23.
40A Map of the Campaigns of Alexander the Great can be seen in `Who was Who in the Greek World', N.Y. 1982, p. 34.
41 A map of the `Rivers in the Desert' shows the locations of settlements, Gerar Hay, Abu Hof, Gilat, Shiqmim, Beer Shiva, Arad, Bir es-Safedi, Nahal Besor, Nahal Beersheva, Jericho, Adeimeh, Jerusalem, Ein-Gedi, Cave of the Treasure, Wadi Feinan in BAR, Nov. 1990, p. 22.
42. A map showing the relative locations of Bethel, Gezer, Gibeon, Mizpah, Aijalon, Jerusalem, Ekron, Timnah, Beth Shemesh, Ramat Rahel, Soco, Ashkelon, Lachish, Tell Beit Mirsim, Halif, Beersheba is found in BAR, Jan. 1997, p. 44.
43. A relative detail map of the environs of Dothan showing the `Cultic Site', Dothan, Khirbet Abu Ghamam, Kh. Tanin, Anahum and the Wadis is found in BAR, Sept. 1983, p. 36.
44. A beautiful image of `Chimney Rock', Colorado, can be seen in BAR, May/Jun 2004, p. 45. The same magazine also shows images from Iran: Persepolis, tomb of Cyrus, the city of Bam before and after the Dec 2003 earthquake.

Cambyses Long Lost Army Found - Kambyses Lang Verlorene Armee Gefunden

Discovery.com News: Here is the original report: "Novemer 9, 2009 - The remains of a mighty Persian army said to have drowned in the sands of the western Egyptian desert 2,500 years ago might have been finally located, solving one of archaeology's biggest outstanding mysteries, according to Italian researchers, but also the idea that this army was destroyed by another army is being considered today, or else the army was divided and all their usable remains taken over the centuries by caravans.
Bronze weapons, a silver bracelet, an earring and hundreds of human bones The Bonesfound in the vast desolate wilderness of the Sahara desert have raised hopes of finally finding the lost army of Persian King Cambyses II. The 50,000 warriors were said to be buried by a cataclysmic sandstorm in 525 B.C.
"We have found the first archaeological evidence of a story reported by the Greek historian Herodotus," Dario Del Bufalo, a member of the expedition from the University of Lecce, told Discovery News.
According to Herodotus (484-425 B.C.), Cambyses, the son of Cyrus the Great, sent 50,000 soldiers from Thebes to attack the Oasis of Siwa and destroy the oracle at the Temple of Amun after the priests there refused to legitimize his claim to Egypt.
After walking for seven days in the desert, the army got to an "oasis," which historians believe was El-Kharga. After they left, they were never seen again.
"A wind arose from the south, strong and deadly, bringing with it vast columns of whirling sand, which entirely covered up the troops and caused them wholly to disappear," wrote Herodotus [Herodotus, Bk. III, Sec. 25, p. 163.].
A century after Herodotus wrote his account, Alexander the Great made his own pilgrimage to the oracle of Amun, and in 332 B.C. he won the oracle's confirmation that he was the divine son of Zeus, the Greek god equated with Amun.
The tale of Cambyses' lost army, however, faded into antiquity. As no trace of the hapless warriors was ever found, scholars began to dismiss the story as a fanciful tale.
Now, two top Italian archaeologists claim to have found striking evidence that the Persian army was indeed swallowed in a sandstorm. Twin brothers Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni are already famous for their discovery 20 years ago of the ancient Egyptian "city of gold" Berenike Panchrysos.
Presented recently at the archaeological film festival of Rovereto, the discovery is the result of 13 years of research and five expeditions to the desert.
"It all started in 1996, during an expedition aimed at investigating the presence of iron meteorites near Bahrin, one small oasis not far from Siwa," Alfredo Castiglioni, director of the Eastern Desert Research Center (CeRDO)in Varese, told Discovery News.
While working in the area, the researchers noticed a half-buried pot and some human remains. Then the brothers spotted something really intriguing -- what could have been a natural shelter.
It was a rock about 35 meters (114.8 feet) long, 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) in height and 3 meters (9.8 feet) deep. Such natural formations occur in the desert, but this large rock was the only one in a large area.
"Its size and shape made it the perfect refuge in a sandstorm," Castiglioni said.
Right there, the metal detector of Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat of Cairo University located relics of ancient warfare: a bronze dagger and several arrow tips.
"We are talking of small items, but they are extremely important as they are the first Achaemenid objects, thus dating to Cambyses' time, which have emerged from the desert sands in a location quite close (ca. 130 km) to Siwa," Castiglioni said."

Old Kingdom Egyptian Iron

Just a reminder that traces of non-meteoric iron (no nickel content) were analyzed from a site at the `Third Pyramid' judged to be of 4th Dynasty date. [D. Dunham & W. Young, `An Occurrence of Iron in the Fourth Dynasty' in JEA, Vol. 28, 1942, p. 57f]

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