Notes & References|
01) For the Jehoash Inscription see BAR, Mar/Apr 2003, p. 22-23.
02) For an explanation on the long overlapp between Amaziah and Azariah/Ussaiah, read on: "Jehoash in Israel and Amaziah in Judah began their reigns at a time of friendly relations with each other. Jehoash (Joash) of Israel had the same name as Amaziah's father, Joash (Jehoash), in Judah. Amaziah of Judah, on a visit to Jehoash had evidently proposed a formal treaty be sealed by a marriage alliance involving his son and the daughter of Jehoash. This is indicated in the taunt expressed by Jehoash after their relationship had soured, namely, `A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, - Give your daughter to my son in marriage-.' (2.Kings 14:8)
Amaziah of Judah was in a campaign against Edom and had hired a large contingent of Israelite troops to accompany him (2.Chr. 25:6-13). But in response to counsel from `a man of God' (v.7), Amaziah dismissed the Israelite troops who were with him on his way to Edom. Taking this as an insult, the Israelites vented their rage by attacks on various towns of Judah as they proceeded on their way home. When Amaziah returned from his triumphal campaign in Edom, he sent a challenge of war to Jehoash. This Jehoash declined with a warning that Amaziah and Judah would be defeated. When Amaziah insisted on war, Jehoash invaded Judah. He took Amaziah prisoner, broke into Jerusalem, took hostages, and pillaged the palace and temple (2.Chr. 25:17-13).
The bizarre events of this episode explain the coregency of Jeroboam II with Jehoash and the overlapp of Azariah with Amaziah. Before starting out against the exultant Amaziah, who was fresh from his triumph in Edom, Jehoash with thought for the future placed his son Jeroboam on the throne as regent. In Judah, with Amaziah having been taken to Israel as a prisoner of war, the people placed the young Azariah on the vacant throne. The fact that Azariah was raised to the throne at the age of 16 is recorded as a postscript to the account of Amaziah. Chronologically this item does not belong at 2.Kings 14:21. Instead, it belongs after the events of verses 12-14, for it was 24 years before the death of Azariah - only 5 years after Amaziah had begun to reign - that the people made Azariah king. In all probability Amaziah was given his freedom at the death of Jehoash to return to Judah to live out his remaining 15 years (2.Kings 14:17; 2.Chr. 25:25), but not to sit on the throne as king." [Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, p. 109-110.]